History of Iro Str - History

History of Iro Str - History


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Iro

(Str: t. 1,271; 1. 256'; b. 37'7"; dr. 9'; s. 10 k )

Iro, a wooden steamer was launched in 1889 by the Path Iron Works, Bath, Maine. The Navy acquired her 8 August 1918 from the Hudson Navigation Co., New York Oity. Iro served as a patrol and freight boat in the 5th Naval District, operating out of Norfolk, until she was returned to her owner 30 April 191


Azovstal today

"AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS" incorporates Coke-Oven and By-Products Plant, Blast Furnace Shop, Basic Oxygen Furnace Shop, Rolling Complex including Blooming Mill, Plate Mill, Rail and Structural Mill, Heavy Section Mill and Rail Fasteners Shop.

Production facilities of the enterprise allow producing 5.7 million tons of iron per year, 6.2 million tons of steel and 4.7 million tons of finished rolled products per year.

The enterprise is the only Ukrainian manufacturer of high-quality rolled products with the thickness of 6-200 mm and width of 1500-3200 mm for shipbuilding, power engineering and special machine building, bridge construction, large diameter pipe manufacturing for arctic main gas and oil pipelines, off-shore structures. The rolled products are subject to 100% non-destructive ultrasonic testing. "AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS" is the very enterprise where continuous production of ultra-high-strength steel Х70 and Х80 has been improved.

"AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS", being the leading company in Ukraine, manufactures railroad rails and rail fasteners.

Quality Management System complying with the requirements set out in ISO 9001:2008, DSTU ISO 9001:2009, GOST R ISO 9001:2008 and API Specification Q1 (9 th edition) and certified by TÜV Nord CERT GmbH (Germany) is being functioning.

Quality of the enterprise products is confirmed by 27 documents (certificates and attestation certificates), which cover almost all manufactured products.


Iron Blockade

Conflict

Begin

Place

Outcome

Battles

    Η]
    • Resistance fighters aligned with the Alliance to Restore the Republic/New RepublicΕ]Ε]Ε]Ε]Ε]
    • Governor Ubrik Adelhard Η]Bragh&dagger Η]Skokare&dagger Η]Zaul&dagger Η]
      Γ]Γ]Η] the HuttΗ]
    • Sir Corto BelrakeΗ]Η]Η]Η]Η]
    • Many stormtroopersΗ]
        Η]
      • Resistance fighters, including smugglers, bounty hunters, and gangstersΕ]
      • Noble Court Throneships Η]
      "Today, the Empire is victorious. The Rebellion, no longer a threat. The Rebels' desperate attack on the Emperor's Death Star has failed. Rumors of the Emperor's death? Treasonous fabrications. Those of you who listen to these lies, who wish to test the Empire's strength, you will answer to me." ―Governor Adelhard, to the citizens of the Anoat sector  — Listen (file info) [src]

      The Iron Blockade was a conflict that took place throughout the Anoat sector during the Galactic Civil War. It began in the aftermath of the Battle of Endor, which saw the death of the Emperor Palpatine and the destruction of the DS-2 Death Star II Mobile Battle Station at the hands of the Alliance to Restore the Republic. In the midst of the Empire's defeat at Endor and the government's insistence that news of the Emperor's death was Rebel propaganda, Imperial Governor Ubrik Adelhard locked down the entire Anoat sector, isolating his citizens from any reports from the ongoing war and knowledge of the Emperor's death. The lockdown led to resistance fighters sympathetic to the Rebel Alliance leading an uprising against the Empire in the sector.


      The history of American-made heirloom cast iron skillets

      Whether you've snagged a brand-new Smithey or dug up an heirloom Griswold at a garage sale, acquiring a cast iron skillet (or three) is a time-honored tradition of American cooks. But while so much of today's quality cast iron comes from the U.S. of A, this cookware material had a long history before it even reached our shores.

      Here's how it became such an indelible part of the American culinary story.

      Early use: China, cannons and kettles
      The oldest cast iron artifacts date from early 5th century B.C. China, in the Jiangsu province, and such tools were widely used in the region by the 3rd century B.C. Cast iron slowly made its way to Western Europe, likely via the Silk Road, and wasn't an important material until the 14th century A.D.
      In Europe, it was mainly used for artillery until the 1700s, when it started to be used for bridges and building construction, as well as for cooking pots. Englishman Abraham Darby is credited with revolutionizing cast iron cookware in 1707, he patented a method for casting iron into relatively thin pots and kettles, a process that made them cheaper to produce. With three feet on the base and a heavy, handled lid, these early pots were used for cooking over live fire and were most akin to the types of Dutch ovens used today for outdoor cooking.

      As indoor kitchen stoves became more and more widespread throughout the late 18th and mid-19th centuries, cookware began to evolve as well, and flat-bottomed cast iron skillets became essential pieces of cookware in both Europe and America. Industrialized manufacturing also helped the spread of cast iron cookware, as these skillets and pots became cheaper and cheaper to produce. Towards the end of the 19th century, three iconic American cast iron cookware brands were founded, cementing the pan's popularity acrosss the country.

      Griswold and Wagners: American orginials
      Founded in Erie, Pennsylvania in 1865, the Griswold Manufacturing company was, for almost a century, the leading American manufacturer of cast iron cookware. Even today, over 60 years after its sale to competitor Wagner Manufacturing, Griswold skillets are the epitome of quality heirloom cast iron and are considered collectors items. (My mother inherited a Griswold pot from her mother, and I am not-so-secretly coveting it for my own use.)

      When the company started, it manufactured separable butt hinges and other light hardware products before moving into cast iron cookware in the 1870s and eventually expanding their line to include skillets, pots, grinding mills and waffle irons. Co-founder Matthew Griswold was involved in politics, and was twice elected to Congress as a Republican. His son, Matthew Junior, helped to develop the city of Erie by building its railway station and post office. Griswold Manufacturing continued to flourish, dipping its toes in aluminum and electric cookware, until the mid-20th century, when more modern products, such as Teflon skillets, began to take over the market. The family sold its stake in the company in 1946 and, in 1957, Wagner fully acquired the company and closed the Erie plant.

      While it was founded in Sidney, Ohio in 1891 as a cast iron cookware company, and is best known for its quality cast iron, Wagner Manufacturing quickly moved into more diversified stock. It was one of the first companies to manufacture aluminum cookware and, by the early 20th century, was distributing its wares globally. Its successful manufacturing of this lighter style of cookware is likely how it remained in business far longer than Griswold.

      Lodge Manufacturing: A Southern competitor
      Lodge Manufacturing was the South's answer to Griswold and Wagner. Still located South Pittsburg, Tennessee, Lodge is one of the oldest continuously running cookware manufacturers in the country. It was founded in 1896 by Joseph Lodge and is still run by family members today. If you've purchased a new, affordable cast iron skillet in the last few decades, it was most likely made by Lodge.

      According to the company website, Lodge was able to survive the Depression and, later, the floundering interest in cast iron mid-century, by innovating its product line with items such as garden gnomes and transitioning to an automated molding process for its skillets. In 2002, the company introduced its first pre-seasoned cookware, and in 2005 began producing enameled cast iron products.

      The changing (sur)face of cast iron
      Lodge's newer products appealed to the dueling, and at times, counterproductive, American desire for both authentic and easy-to-use products. Pre-seasoned skillets allowed home cooks the ability to get cooking in cast iron without much thought, but they couldn't replace a long-coveted heirloom. These pans, while still great pieces of cookware, simply function differently than, say, an old, well-loved Griswold.

      As was the practice in 19th and early- to mid-20th century cast iron cookware manufacturing, all of Griswold and Wagner's cast iron skillets were polished smooth after casting this extra step made it easier for the skillets to acquire a smooth, nonstick surface after seasoning. Today, you can find smooth cast iron from premium producers, such as Smithey, FINEX and Nest Homeware, or, if you really want to put some elbow grease into it, you can turn a pebbly skillet into a smooth one with sandpaper (at least according to Dave Arnold).

      But whichever style you choose, cooking with cast iron is an important link to American history.

      Kate Williams is the former editor-in-chief of Southern Kitchen. She was also the on-air personality on our podcast, Sunday Supper. She's worked in food since 2009, including a two-year stint at America&rsquos Test Kitchen. Kate has been a personal chef, recipe developer, the food editor at a hyperlocal news site in Berkeley and a freelance writer for publications such as Serious Eats, Anova Culinary, The Cook&rsquos Cook and Berkeleyside. Kate is also an avid rock climber and occasionally dabbles in long-distance running. She makes a mean peach pie and likes her bourbon neat.


      History of ironing

      No-one can say exactly when people started trying to press cloth smooth, but we know that the Chinese were using hot metal for ironing before anyone else. Pans filled with hot coals were pressed over stretched cloth as illustrated in the drawing to the right. A thousand years ago this method was already well-established.

      Meanwhile people in Northern Europe were using stones, glass and wood for smoothing. These continued in use for "ironing" in some places into the mid-19th century, long after Western blacksmiths started to forge smoothing irons in the late Middle Ages.

      Linen smoothers: stones, glass, presses

      Flattish hand-size stones could be rubbed over woven cloth to smooth it, polish it, or to press in pleated folds. Simple round linen smoothers made of dark glass have been found in many Viking women's graves, and are believed to have been used with smoothing boards. Archaeologists know there were plenty of these across medieval Europe, but they aren't completely sure how they were used. Water may have been used to dampen linen, but it is unlikely the smoothers were heated.

      More recent glass smoothers often had handles, like these from Wales, or the English one in the picture (left). They were also called slickers, slickstones, sleekstones, or slickenstones. Decorative 18th and 19th century glass smoothers in "inverted mushroom" shape may turn up at antiques auctions. Occasionally they are made of marble or hard wood.

      Slickstones were standard pieces of laundering equipment in the late Middle Ages, in England and elsewhere, and went on being used up to the 19th century, long after the introduction of metal irons. They were convenient for small jobs when you didn't want to heat up irons, lay out ironing blankets on boards, and so on.

      Other methods were available to the rich. Medieval launderers preparing big sheets, tablecloths etc. for a large household may have used frames to stretch damp cloth smooth, or passed it between "calenders" (rollers). They could also flatten and smooth linen in screw-presses of the kind known in Europe since the Romans had used them for smoothing cloth. Later presses (see right) sometimes doubled as storage furniture, with linen left folded flat under the board after pressing even when there were no drawers.

      Mangle boards, box mangles

      Even in modest homes with no presses, large items needed to be tackled with something bigger than a slickstone. They could be smoothed with a mangle board and rolling pin combination many wonderfully carved antique Scandinavian or Dutch mangle boards have been preserved by collectors. The board, often carved by a young man for his bride-to-be, was pressed back and forth across cloth wound on the roller.

      In England boards, paddles or bats like these were called battledores, battels, beatels, beetles, or other "beating" names. In Yorkshire a bittle and pin was used in the same way as the Scandinavian mangle board and roller. The earlier mechanical mangles copied this method of pressing a flat surface across rollers. The box mangle was a heavy box weighted with stones functioning as the "mangle board", with linen wound on cylinders underneath, or spread under the rollers. The boards/bats used for smoothing were similar to wooden implements used in washing: washing beetles used to beat clothes clean, perhaps in a stream. Sometimes they were cylindrical like the mangle rollers, sometimes flat. Instead of pressing you could simply whack your household linen with a bat/paddle against a flat surface, as witnessed in the Scottish Borders in 1803 by Dorothy Wordsworth.

      Early box mangles (see left-hand column), like Baker's Patent Mangle, were devised for pressing and smoothing. Mangles with two rollers (above left) could also be used for wringing water out of fabric. Many Victorian households would complete the "ironing" of sheets and table-linen with a mangle, using hot irons just for clothing. In the UK laundry could be sent for smoothing to a mangle-woman, working at home, often a widow earning pennies with a mangle bought by well-wishers after her husband's death. In the late 19th/early 20th century US commercial laundries described the mangling or pressing of large items as "flatwork" to distinguish it from the detailed ironing given to shaped clothing.

      Flat irons, sad irons

      Blacksmiths started forging simple flat irons in the late Middle Ages. Plain metal irons were heated by a fire or on a stove. Some were made of stone, like these soapstone irons from Italy. Earthenware and terracotta were also used, from the Middle East to France and the Netherlands.

      Flat irons were also called sad irons or smoothing irons. Metal handles had to be gripped in a pad or thick rag. Some irons had cool wooden handles and in 1870 a detachable handle was patented in the US. This stayed cool while the metal bases were heated and the idea was widely imitated. (See these irons from Central Europe.) Cool handles stayed even cooler in "asbestos sad irons". The sad in sad iron (or sadiron) is an old word for solid, and in some contexts this name suggests something bigger and heavier than a flat iron. Goose or tailor's goose was another iron name, and this came from the goose-neck curve in some handles. In Scotland people spoke of gusing (goosing) irons.

      You'd need at least two irons on the go together for an effective system: one in use, and one re-heating. Large households with servants had a special ironing-stove for this purpose. Some were fitted with slots for several irons, and a water-jug on top.

      At home, ironing traditional fabrics without the benefit of electricity was a hot, arduous job. Irons had to be kept immaculately clean, sand-papered and polished. They must be kept away from burning fuel, and be regularly but lightly greased to avoid rusting. Beeswax prevented irons sticking to starched cloth. Constant care was needed over temperature. Experience would help decide when the iron was hot enough, but not so hot that it would scorch the cloth. A well-known test was spitting on the hot metal, but Charles Dickens describes someone with a more genteel technique in The Old Curiosity Shop. She held "the iron at an alarmingly short distance from her cheek, to test its temperature. "

      The same straightforward "press with hot metal" technique can be seen in Egypt where a few traditional "ironing men" (makwagi) still use long, heavy pieces of iron, pressed across the cloth with their feet. Berber people in Algeria traditionally use heated metal ovals on long handles, called fers kabyles (Kabyle irons) in France, where they were adopted for intricate ironing tasks.

      Box irons, charcoal irons

      If you make the base of your iron into a container you can put glowing coals inside it and keep it hot a bit longer. This is a charcoal iron, and the photograph (right) shows one being used in India, where it's not unusual to have your ironing done by a "press wallah" at a stall with a brazier nearby. Notice the hinged lid and the air holes to allow the charcoal to keep smouldering. These are sometimes called ironing boxes, or charcoal box irons, and may come with their own stand.

      For centuries charcoal irons have been used in many different countries. When they have a funnel to keep smokey smells away from the cloth, they may be called chimney irons. Antique charcoal irons are attractive to many collectors, while modern charcoal irons are manufactured in Asia and also used in much of Africa. Some of these are sold to Westerners as reproductions or replica "antiques".

      Some irons were shallower boxes and had fitted "slugs" or "heaters" - slabs of metal - which were heated in the fire and inserted into the base instead of charcoal. It was easier to keep the ironing surface spotlessly clean, away from the fuel, than with flatirons or charcoal irons. Brick inserts could be used for a longer-lasting, less intense heat. These are box or slug irons, once known as ironing boxes too. In some countries they are called ox-tongue irons after a particular shape of insert.

      Late 19th century iron designs experimented with heat-retaining fillings. Designs of this period became more and more ingenious and complicated, with reversible bases, gas jets and other innovations. See some inventive US models here. By 1900 there were electric irons in use on both sides of the Atlantic.

      Ironing in Asia

      Ironing continued to be done with hot coals in open metal pans in China, the basic principles no different from an enclosed charcoal iron. Pan irons could be simple or highly decorative. Further west, clay smoothers were sometimes used. Solid ones could be heated for pressing. Others were designed to hold hot embers like the North African terracotta iron on this page. The ladies preparing newly-woven silk in a 12th century Chinese painting are using a pan iron, in the same way as the ironers in the 19th century drawing at the top of this page. Although that drawing comes from Korea, Koreans were traditionally known for smoothing their clothes with pairs of ironing sticks, beating cloth rhythmically on a stone support. A single club for beating clothes smooth was used in Japan, on a stand called a kinuta. In many parts of the world similar techniques were used in both cloth manufacturing and laundering: in Senegal, for example.


      History of ironing

      No-one can say exactly when people started trying to press cloth smooth, but we know that the Chinese were using hot metal for ironing before anyone else. Pans filled with hot coals were pressed over stretched cloth as illustrated in the drawing to the right. A thousand years ago this method was already well-established.

      Meanwhile people in Northern Europe were using stones, glass and wood for smoothing. These continued in use for "ironing" in some places into the mid-19th century, long after Western blacksmiths started to forge smoothing irons in the late Middle Ages.

      Linen smoothers: stones, glass, presses

      Flattish hand-size stones could be rubbed over woven cloth to smooth it, polish it, or to press in pleated folds. Simple round linen smoothers made of dark glass have been found in many Viking women's graves, and are believed to have been used with smoothing boards. Archaeologists know there were plenty of these across medieval Europe, but they aren't completely sure how they were used. Water may have been used to dampen linen, but it is unlikely the smoothers were heated.

      More recent glass smoothers often had handles, like these from Wales, or the English one in the picture (left). They were also called slickers, slickstones, sleekstones, or slickenstones. Decorative 18th and 19th century glass smoothers in "inverted mushroom" shape may turn up at antiques auctions. Occasionally they are made of marble or hard wood.

      Slickstones were standard pieces of laundering equipment in the late Middle Ages, in England and elsewhere, and went on being used up to the 19th century, long after the introduction of metal irons. They were convenient for small jobs when you didn't want to heat up irons, lay out ironing blankets on boards, and so on.

      Other methods were available to the rich. Medieval launderers preparing big sheets, tablecloths etc. for a large household may have used frames to stretch damp cloth smooth, or passed it between "calenders" (rollers). They could also flatten and smooth linen in screw-presses of the kind known in Europe since the Romans had used them for smoothing cloth. Later presses (see right) sometimes doubled as storage furniture, with linen left folded flat under the board after pressing even when there were no drawers.

      Mangle boards, box mangles

      Even in modest homes with no presses, large items needed to be tackled with something bigger than a slickstone. They could be smoothed with a mangle board and rolling pin combination many wonderfully carved antique Scandinavian or Dutch mangle boards have been preserved by collectors. The board, often carved by a young man for his bride-to-be, was pressed back and forth across cloth wound on the roller.

      In England boards, paddles or bats like these were called battledores, battels, beatels, beetles, or other "beating" names. In Yorkshire a bittle and pin was used in the same way as the Scandinavian mangle board and roller. The earlier mechanical mangles copied this method of pressing a flat surface across rollers. The box mangle was a heavy box weighted with stones functioning as the "mangle board", with linen wound on cylinders underneath, or spread under the rollers. The boards/bats used for smoothing were similar to wooden implements used in washing: washing beetles used to beat clothes clean, perhaps in a stream. Sometimes they were cylindrical like the mangle rollers, sometimes flat. Instead of pressing you could simply whack your household linen with a bat/paddle against a flat surface, as witnessed in the Scottish Borders in 1803 by Dorothy Wordsworth.

      Early box mangles (see left-hand column), like Baker's Patent Mangle, were devised for pressing and smoothing. Mangles with two rollers (above left) could also be used for wringing water out of fabric. Many Victorian households would complete the "ironing" of sheets and table-linen with a mangle, using hot irons just for clothing. In the UK laundry could be sent for smoothing to a mangle-woman, working at home, often a widow earning pennies with a mangle bought by well-wishers after her husband's death. In the late 19th/early 20th century US commercial laundries described the mangling or pressing of large items as "flatwork" to distinguish it from the detailed ironing given to shaped clothing.

      Flat irons, sad irons

      Blacksmiths started forging simple flat irons in the late Middle Ages. Plain metal irons were heated by a fire or on a stove. Some were made of stone, like these soapstone irons from Italy. Earthenware and terracotta were also used, from the Middle East to France and the Netherlands.

      Flat irons were also called sad irons or smoothing irons. Metal handles had to be gripped in a pad or thick rag. Some irons had cool wooden handles and in 1870 a detachable handle was patented in the US. This stayed cool while the metal bases were heated and the idea was widely imitated. (See these irons from Central Europe.) Cool handles stayed even cooler in "asbestos sad irons". The sad in sad iron (or sadiron) is an old word for solid, and in some contexts this name suggests something bigger and heavier than a flat iron. Goose or tailor's goose was another iron name, and this came from the goose-neck curve in some handles. In Scotland people spoke of gusing (goosing) irons.

      You'd need at least two irons on the go together for an effective system: one in use, and one re-heating. Large households with servants had a special ironing-stove for this purpose. Some were fitted with slots for several irons, and a water-jug on top.

      At home, ironing traditional fabrics without the benefit of electricity was a hot, arduous job. Irons had to be kept immaculately clean, sand-papered and polished. They must be kept away from burning fuel, and be regularly but lightly greased to avoid rusting. Beeswax prevented irons sticking to starched cloth. Constant care was needed over temperature. Experience would help decide when the iron was hot enough, but not so hot that it would scorch the cloth. A well-known test was spitting on the hot metal, but Charles Dickens describes someone with a more genteel technique in The Old Curiosity Shop. She held "the iron at an alarmingly short distance from her cheek, to test its temperature. "

      The same straightforward "press with hot metal" technique can be seen in Egypt where a few traditional "ironing men" (makwagi) still use long, heavy pieces of iron, pressed across the cloth with their feet. Berber people in Algeria traditionally use heated metal ovals on long handles, called fers kabyles (Kabyle irons) in France, where they were adopted for intricate ironing tasks.

      Box irons, charcoal irons

      If you make the base of your iron into a container you can put glowing coals inside it and keep it hot a bit longer. This is a charcoal iron, and the photograph (right) shows one being used in India, where it's not unusual to have your ironing done by a "press wallah" at a stall with a brazier nearby. Notice the hinged lid and the air holes to allow the charcoal to keep smouldering. These are sometimes called ironing boxes, or charcoal box irons, and may come with their own stand.

      For centuries charcoal irons have been used in many different countries. When they have a funnel to keep smokey smells away from the cloth, they may be called chimney irons. Antique charcoal irons are attractive to many collectors, while modern charcoal irons are manufactured in Asia and also used in much of Africa. Some of these are sold to Westerners as reproductions or replica "antiques".

      Some irons were shallower boxes and had fitted "slugs" or "heaters" - slabs of metal - which were heated in the fire and inserted into the base instead of charcoal. It was easier to keep the ironing surface spotlessly clean, away from the fuel, than with flatirons or charcoal irons. Brick inserts could be used for a longer-lasting, less intense heat. These are box or slug irons, once known as ironing boxes too. In some countries they are called ox-tongue irons after a particular shape of insert.

      Late 19th century iron designs experimented with heat-retaining fillings. Designs of this period became more and more ingenious and complicated, with reversible bases, gas jets and other innovations. See some inventive US models here. By 1900 there were electric irons in use on both sides of the Atlantic.

      Ironing in Asia

      Ironing continued to be done with hot coals in open metal pans in China, the basic principles no different from an enclosed charcoal iron. Pan irons could be simple or highly decorative. Further west, clay smoothers were sometimes used. Solid ones could be heated for pressing. Others were designed to hold hot embers like the North African terracotta iron on this page. The ladies preparing newly-woven silk in a 12th century Chinese painting are using a pan iron, in the same way as the ironers in the 19th century drawing at the top of this page. Although that drawing comes from Korea, Koreans were traditionally known for smoothing their clothes with pairs of ironing sticks, beating cloth rhythmically on a stone support. A single club for beating clothes smooth was used in Japan, on a stand called a kinuta. In many parts of the world similar techniques were used in both cloth manufacturing and laundering: in Senegal, for example.


      Balclutha History

      On January 15, 1887, with a twenty-six-man crew, Balclutha sailed under British registry from Cardiff, Wales, on her maiden voyage. She was bound for San Francisco. The ship entered the Golden Gate after 140 days at sea, unloaded her cargo of 2,650 tons of coal, and took on sacks of California wheat. This photo, ringed by portraits of Captain Constable and his crew, was taken on San Francisco Bay in June, 1887.

      Because of the months-long ocean voyage, Balclutha made only one round-trip per year while engaged in the Europe-to-San Francisco grain trade. She arrived with a cargo three times, but also brought pottery, cutlery, Scotch whisky (from Glasgow and Liverpool) and "Swansea general" (tinplate, coke and pig iron) to San Francisco.

      During the mid-1890s the ship called at other ports around the world in New Zealand, for example, she loaded wool and tallow for London, England.

      In 1899 Balclutha was transferred to Hawaiian registry, and she joined the bustling Pacific Coast lumber trade. For three years the ship sailed north to Puget Sound, Washington, and then across to Australia. Much of the 1.5 million board feet she could carry ended up underground, used for mining timbers in the Broken Hill Mine. Balclutha docked at Port Pirie, South Australia, where the timbers were unloaded and transported 250 miles inland to Broken Hill.

      Balclutha was the last vessel to fly the flag of the Hawaiian Kingdom. In 1901 a special act of the United States Congress admitted the ship to American registry so that she could engage in "coastwise" trade (i.e. between American ports). Soon thereafter, the Alaska Packers Association, a San Francisco firm which harvested and canned salmon, chartered her to carry men and supplies north – to Alaska.

      Salmon Packet

      When Balclutha went aground in 1904, the Alaska Packers Association purchased her where she lay for the non-princely sum of $500. After extensive repairs, they renamed her Star of Alaska.

      (All Packer iron and steel sailing vessels had a "Star" prefix to their names.).

      During this career, the ship sailed up the West Coast from Alameda, California, carrying supplies and cannery workers. Star of Alaska anchored out in Chignik Bay, Alaska, during April. After the supplies were unloaded and the cannery workers had settled into the company’s camp ashore, only a shipkeeper or two remained on board. In early September, her hold packed with cases of canned salmon, Star of Alaska started the 2,400-mile voyage back to San FranciscoBay. She was considered a fast sailer, averaging better than twenty-two days for the trip north and fifteen days when homeward bound. This photo, taken in 1919, shows a bit of heavy weather aboard Star of Alaska.

      During the winter the ship was laid up with the rest of the Packer’s fleet of thirty-odd vessels in Alameda, where shipwrights performed maintenance and renovation. In 1911, the poop deck was extended to house Italian and Scandinavian fishermen. Later, additional bunks were added in the ‘tween deck for Chinese cannery workers. As Balclutha, the ship carried a crew of twenty-six men on Star of Alaska, over 200 men made the trip north.

      Star of Alaska was the only sailing ship the Packers sent north in 1930, and when she returned that September she, too, was retired.

      Frank Kissinger purchased Star of Alaska in 1933 (for $5,000) and renamed her Pacific Queen. Kissinger took the ship south and, while anchored off Catalina Island, she appeared in the film Mutiny on the Bounty (Clark Gable and Charles Laughton also appeared in supporting roles). For a time thereafter, Kissinger towed her up and down the West Coast, usually exhibiting her as a "pirate ship." Pacific Queen slowly deteriorated, and she barely escaped World War II scrap metal drives.

      Restoration

      In 1954 the San Francisco Maritime Museum purchased Pacific Queen for $25,000. Assisted by donations of cash, materials and labor from the local community, the Museum restored the vessel and returned her original name. The ship was transferred to the National Park Service in 1978, and Balclutha was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985.

      The ‘49ers panned for fortunes in mountain streams, but less then twenty years later farmers discovered California’s real wealth: its hot, fertile valley floor. Soon horse-drawn wagons laden with sacks of wheat rolled from the fields to landings on the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Steam-driven sternwheel boats and railroad boxcars hauled the 100-pound bags along the Carquinez Straits to Port Costa, where deepwatermen (large, ocean-going vessels like Balclutha) loaded.

      California’s grain crop drew hundreds of British vessels through the Golden Gate each year. The hard dry California wheat traveled the 14,000 nautical miles to Liverpool unusually well, and the amber grain always brought a high price. The many ships coming to load grain resulted in low shipping rates for imported coal and other incoming goods and materials.

      Like the Gold Rush, the grain trade shaped California’s future. The lowered cost of high-quality coal spurred the growth of manufacturing and transportation. The easy access to international markets won California a measure of independence from the East Coast, and the railroads. In banking, in shipping, and in agriculture the grain trade attracted investment and created jobs. The demand for grain sacks alone pumped $2 million per year into the local economy (growers paid 10-15 cents apiece for the bags that Chinese workers wove from Calcutta jute).

      The long months at sea made for a hard and lonely existence. Crewmen, hired by the voyage and not paid until the voyage ended, were often "encouraged" to jump ship (without pay, of course). Only the captain, who commonly stayed with a ship for many voyages, had any measure of job security.

      And only the captain, whose wife sometimes accompanied him, had any opportunity for family life. On Balclutha's last voyage under the British flag, Captain Durkee’s wife, Alice, gave birth to a daughter. They named the little girl Inda Frances because she was born on the Indian Ocean while the ship was bound for San Francisco.

      "A friend of my father was a ship broker at Cardiff, so being there at the time, I asked him what chance I had of getting such a trip. His answer was, ‘We are brokers for a new ship loading coal at Penarth for San Francisco, and she will sail this week. She is a ship called Balclutha and we can get you a berth …’"

      "… we were towed away from the dock soon after we joined her … we headed down the Bristol Channel and Irish Sea under full sail. You may guess how I felt up aloft on a topsail furling sail. I don’t know that I had ever been on a yardarm before, but I had to … ."


      Mandalorians in the galaxy [ edit | edit source ]

      Din Djarin and Grogu were members of their own Mandalorian clan in the years after the Great Purge.

      Mandalorian armor struck fear in the hearts of many across the galaxy. ⎨] The Trandoshan hunter Garnac kept a Mandalorian Neo-Crusader helmet as a trophy. ⏈] Boba Fett, a human male bounty hunter of Mandalorian heritage, wore armor inherited from his father Jango Fett, a bounty hunter raised as a Mandalorian foundling, ⏉] keeping the memory of the Mandalorians alive well into the Galactic Civil War. ⏊] Jango's armor inspired those of the soldiers cloned from him, starting a design lineage that continued down to the stormtroopers of the First Order. Ώ]

      Following the Great Purge, the majority of the Mandalorians had been killed, ⏅] making them a rare sight in the galaxy. One group known as "the Tribe" survived and hid on Nevarro, ⎪] though later they were mostly exterminated by an Imperial remnant. Afterward, Din Djarin was tasked with searching the galaxy for Grogu's species as their own clan. Β] Several Mandalorian war banners decorated the entrance of Maz Kanata's castle on the planet Takodana. ⏋]


      GALACTIC CIVIL WAR

      As the Galactic Civil War began to coalesce at the end of the dark times (as documented on the animated series Star Wars Rebels), many Mandalorians were growing ready to fight back against the Empire’s oppression alongside the rest of the galaxy. Sabine Wren was able to recover the Darksaber from Maul on Dathomir and used it to unite some of the more disaffected clans of Mandalore, including her own Clan Wren.

      It began with the rebel Sabine Wren traveling to the ancestral home of Clan Wren, the Mandalorian-controlled planet of Krownest. There, Sabine sought to reconcile with her family, but Gar Saxon and his Imperial Super Commandos arrived to attack. In the conflict, Gar Saxon was killed, tossing Mandalore into a new fight for power. Because the political situation was so fraught, Mandalore was unable to offer the Rebellion any assistance at that time.

      It wasn’t until the Battle of Atollan, where Grand Admiral Thrawn engaged the Rebels of Phoenix Squadron (as seen during Star Wars Rebels Season 3), that the young Jedi rebel Ezra Bridger was able to escape the blockade and convince the Mandalorians to enter the conflict. Mandalorians led by the Wren’s helped the Rebels survive that conflict so they could regroup on Yavin IV.

      The Rebels, in turn, would offer their help to Clan Wren as they infiltrated their still-Imperial occupied homeworld and free it from the reign of the Saxons. With the death of Gar Saxon, rule of Mandalore was left to his brother, Tiber. Tiber Saxon was as much or more a tyrant as his brother and set to work rebuilding the weapon of mass destruction designed originally by Sabine Wren. The rebels led by Sabine Wren, and a group of Mandos led by Bo-Katan Kryze destroyed the weapon and liberated the planet.

      It was at this point that Sabine Wren gave Bo-Katan the Darksaber, installing her as the rightful leader of a newly-free Mandalore.


      Evidence From the Past: Text, Linguistics, and Archeology

      There are three types of evidence from the Iron Age through the Roman period available to archeologists and scholars of Celtic history. The first of these is documentary sources, or texts. Because concepts like language and cultural identity have no physical manifestation, written records are our only source for reconstructing them. The second source is linguistics, in the form of Celtic names and words referred to in Classical records, or place-names. These give philologists clues as to where the Celtic branch of languages may be placed in relation to other languages of the world. Celtic languages are now identified as one branch of the large Indo-European family.

      Ogham is the first Irish method of writing, dating from the fourth century, CE. Supposed by some historians to have resulted from contact with Latin Roman numerals, the resulting ogham alphabet is unique to Ireland. Its beauty and usefulness lie in its absolute simplicity - ogham can be easily cut into wood or carved into stone. The central line on which the characters sit is usually the edge of the writing surface, such as along the edge of a stone monument.

      Although we know that the majority of the ogham writings were made on wood for everyday use, (as chronicled in the Táin ) the only texts to have survived to the present day are tombstones and other stone markers, the majority of which were made between the fifth and seventh centuries CE. These stone markers were found in Southern Ireland and the West coast of Britain, among the ancient Irish settlements there.

      Each of the letters of the ogham alphabet represents the common name of a species of tree. The ogham chart to the left of the table depicts each letter or sound in the ogham alphabet, including the combination vowel sounds. In the table, each letter is matched with the tree-name it represents, in Irish, Welsh, and English.


      Watch the video: HOI 4 - 9 Historical Infantry Division Layouts - Early War #Hearts of Iron


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