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17 May 1940
BEF is reported to have pulled back west of Brussels
Germans enter Brussels, Louvain and Malines
Massive German attack devlopes between the Sambre and the Meuse, with heavy fighting on the front from Sedan to Rethel
The Dutch islands of Walcheren and Beveland are evacuated
War in the Air
RAF Bomber Command attacks targets in western Germany
War at Sea
Belgian liner Ville de Bruges is sunk by bombing
The First Derby Day
Popular rider Oliver Lewis rode H. P. McGrath’s thoroughbred Aristides to victory in the first Kentucky Derby on May 17, 1875, at the Louisville Jockey Club. Fourteen of the fifteen jockeys in the derby, including Lewis, were African Americans.
1921 Derby, Churchill Downs, Louisville, Ky. Caufield & Shook, photographer, 1921. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division
The Kentucky Derby was begun by Meriwether Lewis Clark, a prominent Louisville citizen who developed the Louisville Jockey Club. Clark began construction on the race course in 1874 on land leased from two relatives, John and Henry Churchill. He patterned the Kentucky Derby after the English Classic, the Epsom Derby. The Derby, now run annually the first Saturday in May at Churchill Downs, is the oldest consecutively held thoroughbred horse race in the United States. The Kentucky Derby, the Preakness, and the Belmont Stakes comprise the coveted Triple Crown of U.S. horse racing.
Churchill Downs, Louisville, Ky., Derby day. Apr. 29, 1901. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division
In 1773, the College of William and Mary sponsored a survey of the area that eventually became Louisville, site of the Kentucky Derby. George Rogers Clark settled there in 1778, and the town, named for Louis XVI of France, was organized in 1779. By the early 1800s, Louisville became a major port serving both the Midwest and the South. During the Civil War, it was a key supply depot for Union troops.
Every May, Louisville hosts the Kentucky Derby and the acclaimed horse show at the Kentucky State Fair. Another part of the Kentucky Derby Festival is a steamboat race on the Ohio River between Louisville and Jeffersonville, Indiana.
“That Kentucky Rag External ,” Hampton Durand, music Boyle Woolfolk, words Chicago, IL: Forster Music Publisher, 1912. Historic American Sheet Music External . Duke University Libraries
On This Day In History: May 17, 1540 – Afghan Emperor Sher Shah Suri defeats Mughal Emperor Humayun, forcing him to live in exile
On this day, May 17, in the year 1540, the Mughal Emperor Humayun was defeated by the Afghan ruler Sher Shah Suri (also known as Sher Khan) in the battle of Kanauj. Sher Shah Suri is a famous ruler in the history of our country as he was able to take the throne of Delhi (India) from the Mughal Kingdom. He defeated Mughal emperor Babur’s son Humayun in various battles and forced him to live in exile.
Sher Shah Suri started his service under the Mughal Emperor of Bihar, Bahar Khan Lohani. He was given the title of Sher Khan by Bahar Khan due to his valour and courage. After the death of Bahar Khan, Suri became the regent ruler of Bihar under minor Sultan, Jalal Khan. Fearing the growing power of Suri in Bihar, Jalal intended to overthrow Suri with the help of Bengal’s ruler Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah. But Suri defeated the army sent by Shah in the battle of Surajgarh in 1534 with the help of an alliance with Ujjainiya Rajputs and claimed full control over Bihar.
Later in 1538, Suri attacked Bengal and defeated Ghiyashuddin Shah but he could not take over the control of Bengal due to sudden expedition of Humayun. On June 26, 1539, Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun in the battle of Chausa near Buxar. He again defeated Humayun on May 17, 1540 in the battle of Kannauj and forced Humayun to go out of India and live in exile. Humayun became a fugitive living the life of a wanderer for 15 years. Later, Suri also conquered Punjab, Multan and Sind. In a battle against the Marwar in 1545, Suri was killed in an accidental explosion. Later, his son, Islam Shah became his successor.
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Boulogne-sur-Mer, Calais, Dunkirk and Dieppe, are Channel Ports on the French side at the narrowest part of the English Channel. Boulogne is at the mouth of the fast-flowing River Liane, which meanders through a valley. The harbour is on a level area of ground on either side of the river well built-up and with steep roads uphill to the old town (Haute Ville or the Citadel). The rolling hills make for hidden approaches to the port and offer commanding high ground to an attacker, particularly the Mont St. Lambert ridge.  During the Phoney War (September 1939 – 10 May 1940) , the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had been supplied through ports further to the west, such as Le Havre and Cherbourg but the Channel Ports came into use once mine barrages had been laid in the English Channel in late 1939, to reduce the demand for ships and escorts. When leave for BEF troops began in December, Boulogne came into use for communication and for troop movements. 
Battle of France Edit
On 10 May 1940, the Germans began Fall Gelb (Case Yellow) the offensive against France, Belgium and the Netherlands. Within a few days, the Germans achieved a breakthrough against the centre of the French front near Sedan and drove westwards down the valley of the River Somme. As the BEF withdrew through Belgium into northern France, fewer supply troops were needed as the lines of communication shortened. The British began to withdraw surplus manpower through Boulogne and Calais and on 17 May, Lieutenant-General Douglas Brownrigg, the Adjutant-General of the BEF, moved the Rear General Headquarters (GHQ) from Arras to Boulogne, without informing his French liaison officers.  [a] The Germans captured Abbeville at the mouth of the Somme on 21 May, cutting off the Allied troops in Northern France and Belgium from their bases further south. 
The defence of Boulogne was the responsibility of the French Navy (Marine Nationale), which had a garrison of 1,100 men in the 19th-century forts of the port, commanded by Capitaine de Vaisseau Dutfoy de Mont de Benque.  Eight British 3.7-inch anti-aircraft guns of the 2nd Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, eight machine-guns of the 58th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment and a battery of the 2nd Searchlight Regiment had arrived from England on 20 May the French had two 75 mm field guns, two 25 mm anti-tank guns and two tanks, one of which was unserviceable.  On 20 May, the foremost elements of the German XIX Corps (General der Panzertruppe Heinz Guderian), reached Abbeville. The Channel Ports became the only means of supply and if necessary, evacuation, for the Allies.  In the early hours of 21 May, Dutfoy ordered the naval garrison of 1,100 men to retire behind the thick medieval walls of the Haute Ville (Old Town or Citadel), east of the River Liane. 
Dutfoy heard alarmist reports of the approach of a large German force, apparently from General Jean Pelissier de Féligonde, commander of the 137th Infantry Regiment, which had been attacked by German tanks at Hesdin, 30 mi (48 km) to the south-east of the port. Dutfoy ordered his men to disable the coastal artillery in the forts and to head for the harbour for evacuation the orders were amplified by other officers. Dutfoy left for Dunkirk in the early hours and discipline broke down, a naval store was broken into and the looters drank the contents.  [b] Civilians still waiting for places on evacuation ships began to panic, until Capitaine de frégatte Poher, in charge of the sea front, threatened the crowd with a gun. Poher decamped at 10:00 a.m. and the spiking of the naval guns continued. Some of Dutfoy's men contacted Vice-Admiral Marcel Leclerc, the deputy commander of Dunkirk, who ordered the remaining guns to be preserved for the defence of the town. On a visit to Boulogne early on 22 May, Leclerc ordered the sailors to fight it out and wait for relief by the French and British armies.  Admiral Jean Abrial the French commander at Dunkirk issued an order, "You are to die at your posts one by one rather than give in. " 
Allied defensive preparations Edit
A detachment of Royal Marines arrived in Boulogne in the early morning of 21 May.  The 20th Guards Brigade (Brigadier William Fox-Pitt), consisting of the 2nd Battalion, Welsh Guards and 2nd Battalion, Irish Guards, was training at Camberley on 21 May, when ordered to embark for France.  With the brigade anti-tank company and a battery of the 69th Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery, the Guards arrived in Boulogne on the morning of 22 May on three merchant ships and the destroyer HMS Vimy, escorted by the destroyers Whitshed and Vimiera.  The French 21st Infantry Division (Général de brigade [Brigadier-General] Pierre Louis Félix Lanquetot) was to hold a line between Samer and Desvres, about 10 mi (16 km) south of the town, where three battalions had already arrived. Further British reinforcements, including a regiment of cruiser tanks, were expected from Calais on the following day. 
Fox-Pitt deployed his men on the high ground outside the town, liaising with Lanquetot who organised the French troops in the town. The Irish Guards held the right flank to the south-west from the river at St. Léonard to the sea at Le Portel and the Welsh Guards the left flank north-east of the river on the west slopes of Mont Lambert ridge and high ground through St. Martin Boulogne, which made a defensive perimeter of 6 mi (9.7 km).  Road blocks had been established by a party of about fifty men of the 7th Royal West Kents from Albert, about 100 men of the 262nd Field Company Royal Engineers and anti-aircraft crew held the right flank of the Welsh Guards, along the roads approaching from the south.  Fox-Pitt had left a gap in the perimeter between the Welsh left flank and the coast for the reinforcements expected from Calais.  There were 1,500 men of No 5 Group Auxiliary Military Pioneer Corps (AMPC), a mixture of recalled reservists and part-trained troops working as labourers, in the town awaiting evacuation, under Lieutenant Colonel Donald Dean VC.  Under French command were the fort garrisons and some French and Belgian training units of limited military value.  Lanquetot had told Fox-Pitt that the French forces in Boulogne were "folded up" which Fox-Pitt inferred meant that they were ready to give up. 
German offensive preparations Edit
The Franco-British counter-attack at Arras led the Germans to continue to attack north towards the Channel Ports, rather than south over the Somme and late on 21 May, Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) ordered Panzergruppe Kleist to advance about 50 mi (80 km) north, to capture Boulogne and Calais.  Apprehension about another counter-attack led to the XV Corps being held back, a division of the XLI Corps being moved eastwards and the 10th Panzer Division of XIX Corps was detached to guard against a counter-attack from the south. Parts of the 1st Panzer Division (Lieutenant-General Friedrich Kirchner) and 2nd Panzer Division (Lieutenant-General Rudolf Veiel), both formations of XIX Corps, were also held back to defend bridgeheads over the Somme.  The 2nd Panzer Division was ordered to advance to Boulogne on a line from Baincthun to Samer, with the 1st Panzer Division as a flank guard on the right, advancing to Desvres and Marquise in case of a counter-attack from Calais. 
22 May Edit
The 2nd Panzer Division formed two columns, one to circle round the town and attack from the north. The southern column made contact first in the early afternoon of 22 May, against the headquarters company of the French 48th Infantry Regiment, the only troops of the 21st Division who were between the Germans and Boulogne. The French clerks, drivers and signallers set up two 75 mm field guns and two 25 mm anti-tank guns to cover the cross-roads at Nesles, where they delayed the Germans for almost two hours, until they were outflanked.  The column arrived at the outskirts of Boulogne in the evening and began shelling and probing the Irish Guards positions south of the town. The Irish knocked out the leading German tank and repulsed later attacks despite the Germans overrunning one of their forward platoons. In the early hours, the Germans attacked the Welsh Guards positions along the coast from the north-east as they began to envelop the town but were forced back each time.  Brownrigg, with Fox-Pitt's only communication link with England, departed with his staff at 3:00 a.m. on the destroyer HMS Verity, without informing the Guards. Only a few troops of the 21st Infantry Division were able take up its blocking positions near Desvres before the German advance reached them. The French managed to delay the 1st Panzer Division here for much of 22 May before Fox-Pitt was told at 4:00 a.m. that the French had been forced back to Boulogne by German tanks.  Most of the 21st Infantry Division, en route to Boulogne by train, was ambushed by German tanks and dispersed. 
23 May Edit
An hour after dawn, Fort de la Crèche near Wimereux, north of Boulogne, was captured by German troops. The possibility of reinforcement from Calais was thwarted by the appearance of German armour at the northern perimeter. Fox-Pitt realised that he would have to defend the port with only the two Guards battalions and the assorted French and British troops already there.  The AMPC was hastily combed for men with military experience and armed with rifles taken from the others. The 800 men of the AMPC force were rushed into the gap between the two Guards battalions and another 150 were sent to reinforce the Welsh Guards. The anti-aircraft gunners guarding the southern roads destroyed two German tanks with their 3.7-inch anti-aircraft guns and then retired. 
The Germans began a pincer attack on the positions of the Welsh and Irish Guards and by 10:00 a.m., the southern pincer, backed up by artillery and air support, had made the open slopes around the town untenable the Guards were forced back into the town.  Fliegerkorps VIII (Generalmajor Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen) sent Stukas to destroy the fortifications at Boulogne which was of great help to the attacking forces.  Vimy arrived at noon with a naval demolition party and Force Buttercup, a Royal Marine shore party, beginning the embarkation of casualties and the AMPC. Fox-Pitt received orders from Vimy to hold Boulogne at all costs, as his radio contact with England had been lost earlier in the day.  The Royal Navy and a flotilla of French destroyers led by Capitaine Yves Urvoy de Portzamparc [fr] , comprising the large destroyers Chacal and Jaguar with the smaller destroyers Fougueux, Frondeur, Bourrasque, Orage, Foudroyant, Cyclone, Siroco and Mistral, gave fire support to the troops on the outskirts of the town.  
The commander of the 2nd Panzer Division found that the British and French in Boulogne were "fighting tenaciously for every inch of ground" and could not tell if the British were evacuating or reinforcing the port.  During a lull that afternoon, the destroyer HMS Keith berthed and began embarking AMPC troops. A Luftwaffe raid was intercepted by Royal Air Force (RAF) Spitfires from 92 Squadron but the commanders of both British destroyers were killed by bomb splinters. Frondeur was hit and disabled by Stuka dive bombers of I./Sturzkampfgeschwader 77, Orage was scuttled and the British destroyer Whitshed was damaged by a near-miss.   Five pilots were lost by 92 Squadron two were killed, two captured and one wounded, one aircraft being shot down by Messerschmitt Bf 109s, the other four by Messerschmitt Bf 110s.  [c] By 3:00 p.m., Fox-Pitt had withdrawn the brigade to positions in the town and moved his headquarters nearer to the quay, the better to contact the destroyers, his only link with London. With German artillery having the advantage of observed fire to sweep the docks, he sent a message to London saying "situation grave".  Shortly before 6:00 p.m., Keith received orders for an immediate evacuation of the British and notification that five destroyers were either standing off Boulogne giving fire support or were en route. Fox-Pitt decided to continue with the AMPC evacuation while the Guards conducted a fighting withdrawal to the harbour but communication with the British troops on the perimeter was only possible by dispatch rider. The bridges held by the Guards were demolished by the Royal Engineers before the Irish Guards barricaded the streets with vehicles and withdrew to the harbour.  The 800 pioneers commanded by Dean were the last to fall back from the perimeter, as Dean was away from his headquarters when the withdrawal orders arrived. Armed only with rifles, the pioneers had hoped to obstruct the Germans with makeshift roadblock barricades and claimed to have destroyed one tank by igniting petrol under it. Dean used his reserves to relieve two forward posts which had become isolated, resulting in fierce hand-to-hand fighting. 
Vimiera and Whitshed replaced Vimy and Keith, embarking many of the Marines and Guards.  The harbour was full of ships but two gruppen (group, about 30 aircraft, similar to a RAF wing) of Stukas failed to hit the ships but bombs hitting the quayside near Vimy and Keith caused some casualties.  The destroyers HMS Venomous and Wild Swan arrived and began embarking Force Buttercup and the remainder of the Irish Guards. With Germans in positions overlooking the harbour the Guards and the ships engaged in a duel with the German artillery. German tanks advancing towards the quayside were knocked out by the 4.7 inch guns of Venomous, one tank turning "over and over, like a child doing a cart-wheel".  German field guns bombarded the harbour as the destroyer Venetia moved through the narrow entrance channel, and hit Venetia several times. Fires broke out on the ship but it was reversed out and made way for Venomous and Wild Swan which also departed in reverse, Venomous steering with its engines as the rudder had jammed. 
24–25 May Edit
The destroyer HMS Windsor arrived after dark and was able to continue the embarkation. On clearing the harbour, the captain signalled that there were still British troops requiring evacuation and Vimiera was sent back, arriving in Boulogne at 1:30 a.m. The quayside was deserted but when the captain called out by loud hailer many men appeared from hiding the crew managed to squeeze them aboard. When Vimiera arrived at Dover at 4:00 a.m., 1,400 men disembarked (including Arnold Ridley).  Most of the British troops had gone but about 300 Welsh Guards remained.  Lack of wireless sets left three of the Welsh Guards forward companies out of touch and by the time they had found out about the evacuation, two companies were cut off from the docks. The companies split into smaller groups and tried a break-out to the north-east.  Lanquetot was based in the Haute Ville, awaiting the arrival of elements of the 21st Division. When he discovered the disaster that had befallen his division, he organised the defence of the town as best he could. 
German attacks on the town at 6:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m. were repulsed and some German tanks were reported to have been destroyed. The French Navy continued its fire support but Fougueux and Chacal were damaged by the Luftwaffe Chacal was sunk the next day by German artillery. During the night, about 100 French soldiers tried to break out towards Dunkirk but failed. At dawn on 25 May, the Germans attempted an escalade using grenades and flamethrowers, supported by 88 mm guns and at 8:30 a.m., Lanquetot surrendered.  The German troops were supported by attacks from the Stukas of Sturzkampfgeschwader 2 (StG 2). The Stukas demolished the town and had their first encounter with RAF Fighter Command and lost four aircraft over Boulogne and Calais. 
The last British unit in Boulogne was 3 Company, Welsh Guards (Major Windsor Lewis) 3 Company did not reach the docks until daybreak and Vimiera had left.  Lewis took over a large party of stragglers in the sheds at the quayside comprising guardsmen, 120 French infantry, 200 AMPC, 120 Royal Engineers and 150 civilian refugees most of the Pioneers were unarmed. When the sheds came under German fire, Lewis moved the group into the Gare Maritime (harbour railway station) and had sandbag barricades built. On the evening of 24 May, under fire from tanks and machine-guns, they repulsed a German party which approached the quay in a boat. Without food, short of ammunition and with no hope of evacuation, the force surrendered at 1:00 p.m. on 25 May.  The Germans captured 5,000 Allied troops in Boulogne, the majority of whom were French.  Many of the prisoners were put to work repairing the harbour fortifications to resist a British amphibious assault. 
In the British Official History Lionel Ellis wrote that the battle showed "how easily misunderstandings may arise between allies in such a confused situation".  The 20th Guards Brigade had retired towards the outskirts of Boulogne on the morning of 23 May, after resisting attacks from all sides from 7:30 a.m. Lanquetot signalled that the British were withdrawing precipitately, perhaps unaware of how fiercely the withdrawal was being contested.  Communication between Fox-Pitt and the French headquarters at the Citadel was cut by the German advance between the Citadel and the Guards positions in the lower town.  Fox-Pitt received orders to evacuate British troops but not the French. On the morning of 24 May, when Lanquetot discovered that the British had gone there were French complaints about British "desertion".  To the British, the Guards had been sent to Boulogne at short notice to hold a BEF trans-shipment port (entrepôt) and when it became redundant the two battalions, insufficient to hold the town, were withdrawn. 
Allegations that the British had deserted the French may have influenced Churchill to order the garrison at Calais to fight to the finish during the siege.  [d] The decision was controversial as the British at Calais could have been evacuated after they had slowed the German advance towards Dunkirk.  Ellis wrote that the five-hour delay of the XIX Corps attack on Boulogne on 22 May, ordered by Generaloberst (Colonel-General) Ewald von Kleist, had been criticised in the Corps war diary. Keeping the 10th Panzer Division in reserve during the attacks on Boulogne and Calais meant that the Aa Canal line, the western perimeter of the Dunkirk defences, could not be attacked simultaneously. Without the delay, the preparations of the 20th Guards Brigade in Boulogne might also have been interrupted. The long, exposed flank of Army Group A, the uncertain German hold on Amiens and Abbeville and Allied possession of Arras, meant that the advantageous situation enjoyed by the Germans on 22 May could have changed to the benefit of the Allies. The German delay was not excessive, since it was not known if the Allied counter-attack at Arras was over.  In 1954 the naval historian, Stephen Roskill, wrote that the advance of the XIX Corps towards Dunkirk was delayed and the defence of Boulogne "undoubtedly contributed to that end" and assisted the Allies in the Battle of Dunkirk (26 May–4 June).  The Welsh and Irish Guards received the battle honour "Boulogne 1940". 
XIX Corps Edit
Data from the British official volume The War in France and Flanders 1939–1940 (1954 [2004 ed.]) unless indicated. 
- Panzergruppe Kleist (General of Cavalry Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist, Chief of Staff Brigadier-General Kurt Zeitzler)
- (General of Cavalry Heinz Guderian)
- (Major-General Friedrich Kirchner) (Major-General Rudolf Veiel) (Major-General Ferdinand Schaal)
- (Brigadier-General Werner Kempf) (Colonel Erich Brandenberger)
Boulogne garrison Edit
Data from the British official volume The War in France and Flanders 1939–1940 (1954 [2004 ed.]) unless indicated. 
On This Day: May 17
On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court issued its landmark Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka ruling, which declared that racially segregated public schools were inherently unequal.
Go to article »
On May 17, 1911, Maureen O&aposSullivan, the American movie actress who played "Jane" in the Tarzan movies, was born. Following her death on June 22, 1998, her obituary appeared in The Times.
On This Date
|1792||The New York Stock Exchange was founded by brokers meeting under a tree on what is now Wall Street.|
|1829||John Jay, American statesman and the first chief justice of the Supreme Court, died at age 83.|
|1875||The first Kentucky Derby was run the winner was Aristides.|
|1940||The Nazis occupied Brussels, Belgium, during World War II.|
|1946||President Harry S. Truman seized control of the nation&aposs railroads, delaying a threatened strike by engineers and trainmen.|
|1971||The musical "Godspell" opened off-Broadway.|
|1973||The Senate began hearings into the Watergate scandal.|
|1980||Rioting that claimed 18 lives erupted in Miami&aposs Liberty City neighborhood after an all-white jury in Tampa acquitted four former Miami police officers of fatally beating a black man.|
|1987||An Iraqi warplane attacked the U.S. Navy frigate Stark in the Persian Gulf, killing 37 American sailors. Iraq and the United States called the attack a mistake.|
|1992||Orchestra leader Lawrence Welk died at age 89.|
|1996||President Bill Clinton signed "Megan&aposs Law," a measure requiring neighborhood notification when sex offenders move in.|
|1998||New York Yankees pitcher David Wells became the 13th player in modern major league baseball history to throw a perfect game in a 4-0 victory over the Minnesota Twins.|
|1999||Labor Party leader Ehud Barak unseated Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in Israeli elections.|
|2000||Two former Ku Klux Klansmen were arrested on murder charges in the 1963 church bombing in Birmingham, Ala., that killed four black girls.|
|2004||Massachusetts became the first state to allow legal same-sex marriages.|
|2011||Actor and former California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger issued a statement confirming a Los Angeles Times report that he had fathered a child with a woman on his household staff more than a decade earlier.|
Historic BirthdaysMaureen O&aposSullivan 5/17/1911 - 6/22/1998 American movie actress.Go to obituary »
Today in History: May 17
Afghan chief Sher Khan defeats Mongul Emperor Humayun at Kanauj.
Italian Jesuit Niccolo Zucchi sees the belts on Jupiter's surface.
Louis XIV sends an expedition to aid James II in Ireland. As a result, England declares war on France.
Merchants form the New York Stock Exchange at 70 Wall Street.
Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden.
Union General Ulysses Grant continues his push towards Vicksburg at the Battle of the Big Black River Bridge.
The first Kentucky Derby is run in Louisville.
Frederick Douglass is appointed recorder of deeds for Washington, D.C.
Germany occupies Brussels, Belgium and begins the invasion of France.
The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rules for school integration in Brown v. Board of Education.
The Senate Watergate Committee begins its hearings.
In the Persian Gulf the American guided missile frigate USS Stark is struck by 2 Exocet missiles fired by an Iraqi aircraft only one detonates, but 37 sailors are killed and 21 are wounded. Whether the launch was deliberate or a mistake is still debated.
May 17th – This Day in Stock Market History
May 17th, 1792 – The Buttonwood Agreement is signed by a group of 24 brokers, establishing what will become the New York Stock Exchange.
Signing of the Buttonwood agreement on May 17th, 1792. Source: Library of Congress
It established general rules and rates of commissions for the brokers. The rules for broker commissions established by the Buttonwood agreement (set at no lower than 0.25%) would remain in effect until “May day”, May 1st, 1975 when commissions would be lowered to a market rate.
Image of the official Buttonwood agreement. Source: American Museum of Finance
May 17th, 1961 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 700 for the first time. The milestone came 2 years after 600 was first reached (February 20th, 1959), and it would take nearly 3 years for the Dow Jones Industrial Average to reach 800 (February 28th, 1964).
Post by Bob_Mackenzie » 19 Dec 2006, 15:45
Post by Tim Smith » 22 Mar 2007, 16:05
Thanks to David and Bob for this superb thread on the Battle of Stonne.
Has proved to be very useful in a little project I'm doing - tweaking the Counterattack 1940 map in the BF1942 mod Forgotten Hope, to represent this battle as closely as possible.
Post by sgtstinky » 03 Jun 2007, 16:39
Just found this site and it is a great resource!! I'm interested in a topo map of the area around Flavion. I tried the Geoportail but I was unable to use this site since it is in French. Can anyone help?
I also found this link too:
Post by Andreas » 04 Jun 2007, 10:15
Geoportail does not cover Belgium, which is where Flavion is located, so you won't be able to find it there. I am not aware of a Belgian map service like that.
Post by sgtstinky » 04 Jun 2007, 11:49
Thanks, I have not found one either.
Re: Battle of Stonne 15-17 May 1940
Post by Brady » 21 Jun 2019, 17:48
Re: Battle of Stonne 15-17 May 1940
Post by Brady » 07 Jul 2019, 06:06
Re: Battle of Stonne 15-17 May 1940
Post by MarioL » 09 Jul 2019, 19:35
Re: Battle of Stonne 15-17 May 1940
Post by Brady » 09 Jul 2019, 19:43
Re: Battle of Stonne 15-17 May 1940
Post by MarioL » 10 Jul 2019, 14:16
Post by Mori » 05 Aug 2019, 22:48
The 14e DI did not keep any bridgehead north of the Aisne river. As a matter of fact, the Germans managed to get a bridgehead south by capturing a bridge in Rethel (there is both a river and a canal going parallel in Rethel: the Germans got one of the two bridges). It took about a week of fight for the 14e DI to clear this bridgehead and blow the bridge. The 14e DI actually live through quite a crisis during these days, at the end of May.
Re: Battle of Stonne 15-17 May 1940
Post by Brady » 21 Feb 2020, 18:14
There is some question as to weather or not these are not actually Pak 36 penetrations, the narrative above suggests Koch did not fire into the radiator grill, but it is somewhat vague, To me they look like they could be 7.5 cm Holes but. idk, its certainly worth asking about :
On This Day in History, 17 май
During his tenure, Barak attempted to revive the peace negotiations with the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). However, his efforts were unsuccessful.
1990 The WHO deletes homosexuality from its list of mental diseases
Precisely 14 years later, the first same-sex marriages in the United States were performed as Massachusetts became the first state to legalize them.
1972 Germany ratifies the Treaty of Warsaw
Chancellor Willy Brandt signed the treaty, by which Germany gives up any territorial claims and guarantees the Oder-Neisse line as the valid border to Poland.
1954 The U.S. Supreme Court declares racially segregated public schools unconstitutional
Despite this landmark decision, de facto racial segregation was upheld for years in some areas of the United States.
1943 The Royal Air Force dambusters wreck three German dams
The RAF squadron used revolutionary bouncing bombs to avoid the torpedo nets protecting the dams. The audacious air raid was depicted in a 1954 war film.
Ardennes May 1940
The Allies expected a German invasion through Belgium, and focused their forces in the Low Countries under the ‘Dyle Plan’. The Germans, however, also attacked further south through the Ardennes forest, a landscape assumed to be impassable. A huge mechanized force of panzer divisions, soldiers, motor vehicles, tanks and reconnaissance vehicles spearheaded the Blitzkrieg attack, meeting only light resistance. The Germans soon controlled the east bank of the Meuse from Sedan in the south to Dinant in the north and, heavily assisted by the Luftwaffe, then crossed the river at Dinant, Monthermé and, crucially, at Sedan. On the west side of the Meuse, they easily overcame the weak, overwhelmed and ill-equipped French. With the best Allied forces in Belgium and the French unprepared for such an attack, the risky German strategy was successful. While the German advance for the Channel began, the 10th Panzer Division moved south as a distraction, eventually taking Stonne from the French after it changed hands 17 times.