Furies Timeline

Furies Timeline

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The Fast and the Furious (2001): One quarter-mile at a time

In 2001's The Fast and the Furious, we're introduced to Brian O'Connor (Paul Walker doing his very best Keanu Reeves impression), an undercover cop tasked with infiltrating and taking down a gang of muscle-car-loving thieves who have been stealing "millions" of dollars of DVD players from big rig truck drivers in the Los Angeles area. Brian finds a possible lead in Dominic Toretto (Vin Diesel), the charismatic ringleader of a group of car heads who may or may not be the same gang that Brian's after. To make things even more complicated, Dom is also the brother of Mia (Jordana Brewster), the shop owner of Toretto's Market and the object of Brian's affection. Or Brian just likes the tuna sandwich at Toretto's — no one's quite clear.

Regardless, Brian impresses Dom with his driving, eventually ingratiating himself into Dom's team (which isn't quite a family yet). Unfortunately, Brian soon learns that he can only play both sides of the law for so long, and has to come clean to the Toretto family when it looks like Dom and his gang are going to end up on the wrong end of a trucker's shotgun. With Brian's cover blown and Dom forced to pack up his bags and leave town to escape the law, the two have one last quarter-mile race. Ultimately, rather than take his new friend into custody, Brian gives Dom the keys to his car and lets him race off into the distance.


Origins Edit

The Plymouth automobile was introduced at Madison Square Garden on July 7, 1928. [1] It was Chrysler Corporation's first entry in the low-priced field previously dominated by Chevrolet and Ford. [2] Plymouths were initially priced higher than the competition, but offered standard features such as internal expanding hydraulic brakes that Ford and Chevrolet did not provide. [3] Plymouths were originally sold exclusively through Chrysler dealerships, [3] offering a low-cost alternative to the upscale Chrysler-brand cars, listing the 4-door 5-passenger Touring sedan at US$695 ($10,475 in 2020 dollars [4] ). [5] The logo featured a rear view of the ship Mayflower which landed at Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts. However, the inspiration for the Plymouth brand name came from Plymouth binder twine, produced by the Plymouth Cordage Company, also of Plymouth. The name was chosen by Joe Frazer due to the popularity of the twine among farmers. [6]

The origins of Plymouth can be traced back to the Maxwell automobile. When Walter P. Chrysler took over control of the troubled Maxwell-Chalmers car company in the early 1920s, he inherited the Maxwell as part of the package. After he used the company's facilities to help create and launch the six-cylinder Chrysler automobile in 1924, he decided to create a lower-priced companion car, using lessons learned when he was running Buick under William Durant at GM. So for 1926, the Maxwell was reworked and rebadged as the low-end four-cylinder Chrysler "52" model. In 1928, the "52" was once again redesigned to create the Chrysler-Plymouth Model Q. [7] The "Chrysler" portion of the nameplate was dropped with the introduction of the Plymouth Model U in 1929.

Great Depression, 1930s–1940s Edit

While the original purpose of the Plymouth was to serve the lower end of a booming automobile market, during the Great Depression of the 1930s the division helped significantly in ensuring the survival of the Chrysler Corporation when many other car companies failed. Beginning in 1930, Plymouths were sold by all three Chrysler divisions (Chrysler, DeSoto, and Dodge). [8] Plymouth sales were a bright spot during this dismal automotive period, and by 1931 Plymouth rose to number three in sales among all cars. [5] In 1931 with the Model PA, the company introduced floating power and boasted, "The smoothness of an eight – the economy of a four." [9]

In 1933, Chrysler decided to catch up with Ford, Chevrolet and Pontiac in engine cylinder count. The 190 cu in (3.1 L) version of Chrysler's flathead-six engine was equipped with a downdraft carburetor and installed in the new 1933 Plymouth PC, introduced on November 17, 1932. However, Chrysler had reduced the PC's wheelbase from 112 to 107 in (284.5 to 271.8 cm), and the car sold poorly. By April 1933, the Dodge division's Model DP chassis, with a 112-inch (284.5 cm) wheelbase, was put under the PC body with DP front fenders, hood, and radiator shell. The model designation was advanced to 'PD'. The PC was redesigned to look similar to the PD and became the 'Standard Six' (PCXX). It had been the 'Plymouth Six' at the introduction and was sold through to the end of 1933, but in much lower numbers. In 1937, Plymouth (along with the other Chrysler makes) added safety features such as flat dash boards with recessed controls and the back of the front seat padded for the rear seat occupants [10]

The PC was shipped overseas to Sweden, Denmark, and the UK, as well as Australia. In the UK, it was sold as a 'Chrysler Kew', the town of Kew being the location of the Chrysler factory outside London. The flathead six which started with the 1933 Model PC stayed in the Plymouth until the 1959 models.

In 1939, Plymouth produced 417,528 vehicles, of which 5,967 were two-door convertible coupes [11] with rumble seats. The 1939 convertible coupe was prominently featured at Chrysler's exhibit at the 1939 New York World's Fair, advertised as the first mass-production convertible with a power folding top. It featured a 201 cu in (3.3 L), 82 hp (61 kW 83 PS) version of the flathead six engine.

For much of its life, Plymouth was one of the top-selling American automobile brands it, together with Chevrolet and Ford, was commonly referred to as the "low-priced three" marques in the American market. [12] Plymouth almost surpassed Ford in 1940 and 1941 as the second-most popular make of automobiles in the U.S.

1950s Edit

In 1957, Virgil Exner's new Forward Look design theme, advertised by Plymouth with the tagline "Suddenly, it's 1960", [13] produced cars with advanced styling compared to Chevrolet or Ford. The 1957 total production soared to 726,009, about 200,000 more than 1956, and the largest output yet for Plymouth. However, the 1957–1958 Forward Look models suffered from poor materials, spotty build quality, and inadequate corrosion protection they were rust-prone and greatly damaged Chrysler's reputation. [13] [14]

In 1954, Chrysler started its decade-long unsuccessful attempt to develop and market a viable car powered by a turbine engine when it installed an experimental turbine developed specifically for road vehicles in a Plymouth. [15]

1960s Edit

Although Plymouth sales suffered as a result of the quality control problems and excesses of the Exner-styled models in the early 1960s, people bought enough of the cars to keep the division profitable. Starting in 1961, the Valiant compact became a Plymouth, further boosting sales. Under the impression that Chevrolet was about to "downsize" its 1962 models, Chrysler introduced a significantly smaller standard Plymouth for 1962. As is known, Chevrolet's big cars were not downsized, catching Plymouth in a sales slump in a market where "bigger was better". The 1963 Fury, Belvedere, and Savoy were slightly larger, featuring a totally new body style, highlighted by prominent outboard front parking lights. For 1964, Plymouth got another major restyle, featuring a new "slantback" roofline for hardtop coupes that would prove popular.

For 1965, the Fury models were built on the new C-body platform. The Savoy line was discontinued and the Belvedere was classified as an intermediate, retaining the B-body platform used starting 1962. The low-end series was Fury I, the mid-level model was Fury II, and the higher-end models were Fury IIIs. The Sport Fury, which featured bucket seats and a console shifter, was a mix of luxury and sport. Ford and Chevrolet had introduced luxury editions of their big cars for 1965 and Plymouth responded with the 1966 Sport Fury with a 383 CID and the VIP was introduced as a more luxurious version of the Fury. Furys, Belvederes, and Valiants continued to sell well during the late-1960s and early-1970s. While Fury I and Fury II were only available in the U.S. as sedans, Fury II was available as a two-door hardtop in addition to the pillared sedans in Canada.

The performance car market segment expanded during the late 1960s and early 1970s. The 1964 Barracuda fastback is considered the first of Plymouth's sporty cars. Based on the Valiant, it was available with the Slant Six, or 273 cu in (4.5 L) small block V8. For 1967, Plymouth introduced the Belvedere GTX, a bucket-seat high-style hardtop coupe and convertible that could be ordered with either the "Super Commando" 440 cu in (7.2 L) or Hemi 426 cu in (7.0 L) V8 engines. Looking for an advantage at the drag races, 1968 had a stripped-down Belvedere coupe, the Road Runner, which featured a bench seat and minimal interior and exterior trim, but was available with Chrysler's big-block engines and a floor-mounted four-speed manual transmission. The Barracuda, originally a "compact sporty car", became available with the 426 Hemi and 440 big-block engines in 1968. The GTX, Barracuda, Road Runner, Sport Fury GT, and Valiant Duster 340, were marketed by Plymouth as the 'Rapid Transit System', which was similar to Dodge's 'Scat Pack' concept. During this time, the brand also competed in professional automobile racing. Examples include Richard Petty's career with Plymouth in NASCAR Dan Gurney, who raced a 'Cuda as part of the All American Racers in numerous Trans Am events and Sox and Martin, one of the most well-known drag-racing teams of the period, only raced Plymouths after 1964.

1970s Edit

By the 1970s, emissions and safety regulations, along with soaring gasoline prices and an economic downturn, meant demand dropped for all muscle-type models. As with other American vehicles of the time, [ citation needed ] there was a progressive decrease in the Barracuda's performance. To meet increasingly stringent safety and exhaust emission regulations, big-block engine options were discontinued. The remaining engines were detuned year by year to reduce exhaust emissions, which also reduced their power output. There was also an increase in weight as bumpers became larger and, starting in 1970, E-body doors were equipped with heavy steel side-impact protection beams. Higher fuel prices and performance-car insurance surcharges deterred many buyers as the interest in high-performance cars waned. Sales of pony cars were on the decline. [16] Sales had dropped dramatically after 1970, and while 1973 showed a sales uptick, Barracuda production ended 1 April 1974, ten years to the day after it had begun. The redesign for the 1970 Barracuda removed all its previous commonality with the Valiant. The original fastback design was deleted from the line and the Barracuda now consisted of coupe and convertible models. The all-new model, styled by John E. Herlitz, was built on a shorter, wider version of Chrysler's existing B platform, called the E-body. [17] Sharing this platform was the newly launched Dodge Challenger however no exterior sheet metal interchanged between the two cars, and the Challenger, at 110 inches (2,794 mm), had a wheelbase that was 2 inches (51 mm) longer than the Barracuda.

The E-body Barracuda was now "able to shake the stigma of 'economy car'." [18] Three versions were offered for 1970 and 1971: the base Barracuda (BH), the luxury oriented Gran Coupe (BP), and the sport model 'Cuda (BS). [19] Beginning mid-year 1970, and ending with the 1971 model, there also was the Barracuda Coupe (A93), a low-end model that included the 198 cu in (3.2 L) Slant Six as a base engine, lower-grade interior, and (like other Coupe series Chrysler Corp. offered that year) had fixed quarter glass instead of roll-down rear passenger windows. [20] The high-performance models were marketed as 'Cuda deriving from the 1969 option. The E-body's engine bay was larger than that of the previous A-body, facilitating the release of Chrysler's 426 cu in (7.0 L) Hemi for the regular retail market. [ citation needed ]

For 1970 and 1971, the Barracuda and Barracuda Gran Coupe had two six-cylinder engines available — a new 198 cu in (3.2 L) version of the slant-6, and the 225 — as well as three different V8s: a 318 cu in (5.2 L), as well as a 383 cu in (6.3 L) with two-barrel carburetor and single exhaust and with four-barrel carburetor and dual exhaust producing 330 hp (246 kW) SAE gross. The Cuda had the 383ci 335 hp (250 kW) SAE gross (same as Dodge's 383 Magnum) as the standard engine. Optional were the 440 cu in (7.2 L) with four-barrel carburetor "Super Commando" or the six-barrel "Super Commando Six Pak" as well as the426 cu in (7.0 L) Hemi. [21] The 440- and Hemi-equipped cars received upgraded suspension components and structural reinforcements to help transfer the power to the road. [ citation needed ]

In 1970 the power plant options offered to the customer were:

  1. 275 hp (200 kW) SAE gross in the 340-4V.
  2. 335 hp (250 kW) SAE gross in the high performance 383-4V,
  3. 375 hp (280 kW) SAE gross in the 440-4V,
  4. 390 hp (290 kW) SAE gross in the 440-6V, and
  5. 425 hp (317 kW) SAE gross in the 426-8V.

Other Barracuda options included decal sets, hood modifications, and unusual "high impact" colors.

The compact Valiant sold well and built a reputation for attractive styling, durability, economy, and value. Although the Valiant hardtop was discontinued for 1967, it was reintroduced as a virtual clone of the Dodge Dart Swinger for 1971 under the model name "Valiant Scamp". The Scamp was produced along with the Valiant, Dodge Dart, and Swinger until 1976, when it was replaced with the Volaré. Featuring transverse-mounted torsion bars and a slightly larger body, the Volaré (and its Dodge twin, the Aspen) was an instant sales success. Available as coupe, sedan, or station wagon, the Volaré offered a smoother ride and better handling than the Dart/Valiant, but suffered quality control problems and by 1980, was selling poorly.

Realizing that front-wheel drive, four-cylinder engines, and rack-and-pinion steering would become the standards for the 1980s, Chrysler introduced a new compact car for 1978, the Plymouth Horizon/Dodge Omni twins, based on a Simca platform. Horizon sold well, but suffered from a scathing report by Consumer Reports, which found its handling dangerous in certain situations. Plymouth continued to sell the Horizon until 1987, when a variety of front-wheel drive compact cars made up the line. Big Plymouths, including the Fury and Gran Fury, were sold until the early 1980s, but mostly as fleet vehicles. While attempting to compete with Ford and Chevrolet for big-car sales, Plymouth was hurt by Chrysler's financial woes in the late 1970s, when both its competitors downsized their full-size models.

1980s Edit

Most Plymouth models, especially those offered from the 1970s onward, such as the Valiant, Volaré, and the Acclaim, were badge-engineered versions of Dodge or Mitsubishi models.

The Plymouth Reliant and Dodge Aries were introduced for model year 1981 as the first "K-cars" manufactured and marketed by the Chrysler Corporation. The Reliant was available as a 2-door coupe, 4-door sedan, or as a 4-door station wagon, in three different trim lines: base, Custom and SE ("Special Edition"). Station wagons came only in Custom or SE trim. Unlike many small cars, the K-cars retained the traditional 6-passenger 2-bench seat with a column shifter seating arrangement favored by many Americans. The Reliant was powered by a then-new 2.2 L I4 SOHC engine, with a Mitsubishi "Silent Shaft" 2.6 L as an option (curiously this engine also featured hemispherical combustion chambers, and all 1981 models equipped with it featured "HEMI" badges on the front fenders). Initial sales were brisk, with both Reliant and Aries each selling over 150,000 units in 1981. As rebadged variants, the Reliant and Aries were manufactured in Newark, Delaware, Detroit, Michigan, and Toluca, Mexico — in a single generation. After their introduction, the Reliant and Aries were marketed as the "Reliant K" and "Aries K". [22]

The Reliant replaced the Plymouth Volaré/Road Runner. The Aries replaced the Dodge Aspen. The Reliant and Aries were classified by the EPA as mid-size and were the smallest cars to have 6-passenger seating with a 3-seat per row setup, similar to larger rear-wheel drive cars such as the Dodge Dart and other front-wheel drive cars such as the Chevrolet Celebrity. Chrysler marketed the car as being able to seat "six Americans." The Aries was sold as the Dart in Mexico. The Reliant and Aries were selected together as Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year for 1981 and sold almost a million Aries and 1.1 million Reliant units over the nine-year run.

In 1982, Plymouth downsized the Gran Fury again, this time sharing the mid-size M platform with the Chrysler Fifth Avenue (called Chrysler New Yorker/New Yorker Fifth Avenue for 1982 and 1983) and the Dodge Diplomat. In addition to the R-body Gran Fury, the M-body Gran Fury replaced the M-body Chrysler LeBaron, which had moved to the compact K platform that year. Now considered a mid-sized car, this generation Gran Fury was close to the exterior size of what was once the compact Valiant and Volaré but offered more interior room. The M-body was in fact heavily based on the Volaré's F platform. Like its predecessor, the 1982 Gran Fury was introduced later than its Chrysler and Dodge siblings the Chrysler LeBaron and Dodge Diplomat had used the M-body since 1977. 1982-1989 Plymouth Gran Furys shared the Dodge Diplomat's front and rear fascias. They were virtually identical with the exception of badging. Once again, the third generation Gran Fury was available in base and higher-end "Salon" trim. As in previous years, the higher-volume Gran Fury base model catered more towards fleet customers while Gran Fury Salons were geared more towards private customers and offered options such as full vinyl roofs, velour upholstery, turbine-spoke wheels, power windows, and power locks. Although available to private retail customers, the M-body Gran Fury was far more popular with police departments and other fleet customers, primarily since the car was reasonably priced and had a conventional drivetrain with proven components that could withstand a good deal of abuse. This generation of the Gran Fury sold in respectable numbers. However, despite having the same base prices as the Gran Fury (just under $12,000 USD for their final year), the Diplomat always outsold it, usually by several thousand units each year. The Chrysler Fifth Avenue's total sales were always more than that of the Gran Fury and Diplomat by far, even though it generally cost about $6,000 more. This was the last car to carry the Gran Fury nameplate, but it remained largely unchanged for its 7-year run. Declining sales, a lack of promotion, and technical obsolescence—the platform dated back to the 1976 Plymouth Volare and Dodge Aspen—eventually contributed to the model's demise in early 1989. That year, a driver-side airbag became standard this would be the last RWD Plymouth until the introduction of the Prowler. While Dodge offered the 1990 Monaco, and later the 1993 Intrepid, Chrysler never replaced the Gran Fury with any other large car in the remainder of Plymouth's lineup on through to its demise in the 2001 model year.

In 1984, Chrysler marketed the rebadged Plymouth variant of its new minivan as the Voyager, using the Chrysler's S platform, derived from the K-platform (Plymouth Reliant and Dodge Aries). The Voyager shared components with the K-cars including portions of the interior, e.g., the Reliant's instrument cluster and dashboard controls, along with the K-platform front-wheel drive layout and low floor, giving the Voyager a car-like ease of entry. The Voyager was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1985. [23]

For 1987, the Voyager received minor cosmetic updates as well as the May 1987 introduction of the Grand Voyager, which was built on a longer wheelbase adding more cargo room. It was available only with SE or LE trim. First-generation Voyager minivans were offered in three trim levels: an unnamed base model, mid-grade SE, and high-end LE, the latter bearing simulated woodgrain paneling. A sportier LX model was added in 1989, sharing much of its components with the Caravan ES. Safety features included 3-point seat belts for the front two passengers and lap belts for rear passengers. Standard on all Voyagers were legally mandated side-impact reinforcements for all seating front and rear outboard positions, but airbags or ABS were not available. [23] Notably, the Voyager, along with the Dodge Caravan, are considered to be the first mass-produced vehicles to have dedicated built-in cup holders. [24] [25] Original commercials for the 1984 Voyager featured magician Doug Henning [26] as a spokesperson to promote the Voyager "Magic Wagon's" versatility, cargo space, low step-in height, passenger volume, and maneuverability. Later commercials in 1989 featured rock singer Tina Turner. [27] Canadian commercials in 1990 featured pop singer Celine Dion. [28]

For 1987, which was the Sundance's first year, it was available in a single base model. For 1988, a higher-end RS model was available. The RS model, which stood for Rally Sport, came with standard features that included two-tone paint, fog lights, and a leather-wrapped steering wheel. It was also available with a turbocharged 2.2 L I4 engine, and other amenities like an Infinity sound system, tinted window glass, and dual power mirrors. For 1991, the base model split into two distinct models: entry-level America and mid-level Highline, in addition to the high-end RS. The stripped-down America had previously been offered for the Plymouth Horizon's final year in 1990.

The AA-body cars were badge-engineered triplets, as were most Chrysler products of this time. The Acclaim differed from its siblings primarily in wheel choices, bodyside molding, and fascias where it sported its unique taillights and the corporate Plymouth eggcrate-grille. Like the K-body and E-body vehicles they replaced, the Acclaim and Dodge Spirit were both marketed as mainstream variants, while the Chrysler LeBaron was marketed as the luxury variant. Despite this, there was substantial overlap in trims and equipment among each car. For example, a fully loaded Acclaim was almost similar to a base LeBaron in features and price. [29]

In addition to its entry-level base model, the Acclaim was initially available in mid-range LE and high-end LX trim. LE and LX models came equipped with features such including premium cloth seating, power windows/door locks, premium sound systems, bodyside cladding, additional exterior brightwork, and on the latter 15-inch lace-spoke aluminum wheels. [30] In spite of this, the base model accounted for nearly 85 percent of Acclaim sales. [31] Unlike the Spirit, the Acclaim did not receive any sport-oriented models. [32] The Acclaim has also been characterized as the replacement for the smaller Reliant, [33] [34] [35] though the Sundance launched in 1987 is closer than the Acclaim in most dimensions to the Reliant.

Final years: 1990s–2001 Edit

By the 1990s, Plymouth had lost much of its identity, as its models continued to overlap in features and prices with its sister brands, Dodge and Eagle. [31] Chrysler attempted to remedy this by repositioning Plymouth to its traditional target market as the automaker's entry-level brand. This included giving Plymouth its own new sailboat logo and advertisements that focused solely on value. [31] [36] However, this only further narrowed Plymouth's product offerings and buyer appeal, and sales continued to fall. [37]

Chrysler considered giving Plymouth a variant of the highly successful new-for-1993 full-size LH platform, [38] which would have been called the Accolade, but decided against it. By the late 1990s, only four vehicles were sold under the Plymouth name: the Voyager/Grand Voyager minivans, the Breeze mid-size sedan, the Neon compact car, and the Prowler sports car, which was to be the last model unique to Plymouth, though the Chrysler PT Cruiser was conceived as a concept unique to Plymouth before production commenced as a Chrysler model.

After discontinuing the Eagle brand in 1998, Chrysler was planning to expand the Plymouth line with a number of unique models before the corporation's merger with Daimler-Benz AG. The first model was the Plymouth Prowler, a hot rod-styled sports car. The PT Cruiser was to have been the second. Both models had similar front-end styling, suggesting Chrysler intended a retro styling theme for the Plymouth brand. At the time of Daimler's takeover of Chrysler, Plymouth had no models besides the Prowler not also offered in a similar version by Dodge. [ citation needed ]

From a peak production of 973,000 for the 1973 model year, Plymouth rarely exceeded 200,000 cars per year after 1990. Even the Voyager sales were usually less than 50% that of Dodge Caravan. In Canada, the Plymouth name was defunct at the end of the 1999 model year. Consequently, DaimlerChrysler decided to drop the make after a limited run of 2001 models. This was announced on November 3, 1999. [ citation needed ]

The last new model sold under the Plymouth marque was the second-generation Neon for 2000. The PT Cruiser was ultimately launched as a Chrysler, and the Prowler and Voyager were absorbed into that make, as well. Following the 2001 model year, the Neon was sold only as a Dodge in the US, though it remained available as a Chrysler in Canadian and other markets. The Plymouth Breeze was dropped after 2000, before Chrysler introduced their redesigned 2001 Dodge Stratus and Chrysler Sebring sedan.


The Black Furies are ruled by the Inner Calyx and the Outer Calyx, composed of the oldest and most renowned Furies of the Tribe. The Outer Calyx is comprised of thirteen members who dictate Fury orthodoxy and set tribal customs. Officially, the Outer Calyx are chosen randomly by lot every year, but some Furies point out that metis are never chosen, and one incumbent has remained in the Calyx for several consecutive years. The Inner Calyx is much more secretive and comprised of five members, each mirroring one of the original Medusae as the epitomy of their respective auspices. No one knows how the members of the Inner Calyx are chosen however, some claim that Luna herself has a hand in it. Their identities are absolutely secret.

Camps are referred to as kukloi, Greek for "circles", among Black Furies. Ώ]


  • Amazons of Diana: The Amazons of Diana are a group of Furies that are more concerned with being brash, unstoppable warrior women than sacred avengers. This camp is rarely seen as a formal group, and is more a catch-all for those more dedicated to rightly proving themselves the equal of any man in combat against the Wyrm. Some within the camp see it as necessary to bring the Furies into the 21st century and away from their pointless and archaic practice of pursuing criminals, but Garou who simply hate all males tend to gravitate to the Amazons as well. Some Furies outside the camp consider Amazons to be immature, overly violent, and misandrist. (1st Edition references to "Maenads" probably are the same camp.)
  • Avenging Mother: The Avenging Mother is a very small subsect that works to bring down the patriarchal structures of the Garou Nation and Tribes like the Silver Fangs by exploiting their trust.
  • Bacchantes: In contrast to the Amazons, the Bacchantes are a conservative faction that pursues the Furies' original sacred purpose: avenging wrongs against women and children with fanatical zeal and merciless violence. They believe that in doing so, they fight the Wyrm's hold over humanity and avenge Gaia herself.
  • Freebooters: The Freebooters' mission is to find new Wyld places that can be consecrated to Gaia and opened as caerns. The kuklos is shrinking because there are so few Wyld places left in the world. A fraction of Freebooters believe they need to find a new body for Gaia elsewhere in the Umbra, somewhere the Wyrm has not yet found.
  • Moon-Daughter: Moon-Daughters seek to spread Gaia's worship through New Age neo-paganism, and they push themselves to keep Gaia's spirit alive through change, embodying the force of the Wyld as best they can. Their ritual methods change as quickly as New Age fashions change.
  • Order of Our Merciful Mother: The Order of Our Merciful Mother is among the most derided kuklos within the Tribe. Acting subtly to bring others' dogma closer to a version that respects Gaia and women, the Order works to reform human society and Christianity by utilizing their own tools against them. They take credit for the rising popularity of the Virgin Mary.
  • Sisterhood: The Sisterhood began as a network to protect Kinfolk, women, and Garou from the Inquisition and get them to safety. Today they manage the various Kinfolk networks of the Tribe, offering succor to them and informing other Tribe members when a Kinfolk has been wronged by a man's hands. They are also adept at gathering resources for the Tribe to use.
  • Temple of Artemis: The Temple of Artemis is among the oldest kukloi, and one of the most conservative. They counsel a withdrawal from the Garou Nation, and rededicating the Furies to their original purpose as the avengers of women. They also act as judges to Furies who have broken tribal customs.

In the God of War series

God of War: Ascension

In the beginning of time, The Furies were formed from the madness and rage of a war that was waged between the Primordials (the ageless creators of the world and universe), the Furies were tasked to punish the wicked and treacherous. All three sisters sport different appearances and different techniques of movement. Alecto can mutate into a colossal sea-monster, Tisiphone can summon a phoenix named Daimon to attack on her behalf and Megaera can release a swarm of parasites from a diseased looking rash on her chest that bury into the skin of her enemies, possessing them into fighting for her. The first of these traitors was the Hecatonchires, Aegaeon. When the one-hundred armed giant pledged a blood oath to Zeus only to betray him, the Furies were quick to take action. They pursued Aegaeon and upon capturing the giant, tortured him to insanity. They believed that death was too kind to any blood traitor, so they decided to use him as an example to all traitors. They petrified his body and twisted and redesigned it into a prison where all traitors would stay forever.

Silhouettes of the Furies.

Upon encountering Orkos in Delphi, Kratos is informed that the Furies were once fair in their judgement and punishment, but became ruthless because of Ares, the God of War whom convinced the Furies to help him conspire against Olympus. Alecto, the Fury Queen, and Ares conceived a child who they hoped would aid them in their mission to bring down Olympus. However, the child, Orkos, was considered weak by Ares and was thus disowned. To please his mothers, Orkos became the oath-keeper of those who pledge their oath to the gods. He later turned against his mothers once they blinded his lover, Oracle Aletheia and unjustly punished Kratos.

Kratos travels to Delos in search of the Statue of Apollo. Hiding in the sea in her monstrous form, Alecto tries to hinder Kratos' progress by destroying several ships and tossing them at both Kratos and the Statue. Several times, Alecto attacks Kratos with her tentacles but is unable to kill him, or even stop him from making sufficient progress. Kratos eventually comes across an illusion of Sparta put together by the Furies Megaera and Tisiphone. As Kratos fights illusional Spartans, Megaera also attacks is able to stand against Kratos quite well, causing powerful shockwaves with her attacks. After a long fight, Megaera begins to choke Kratos, who saves himself by tearing off her arm. The illusion then ceases as the injured Megaera and infuriated Tisiphone attack Kratos head on. Tisiphone summons her pet Daimon to aid her in the battle. During the battle, Megaera is harpooned with the Blades of Chaos and tossed off the Statue of Apollo. As Megaera is thrown off the statue, Kratos attacks Tisiphone head-on, supposedly killing her when he impales her on a spike. Alecto then appears in human form and subdues Kratos, and it is revealed that Tisiphone is still alive the Tisiphone that Kratos had killed was just another illusion.

Alecto threatening Kratos.

As the three Furies unite in front of a powerless Kratos, Alecto orders him to return to Sparta, and that if he were to serve his purpose well he may even end up on Olympus one day. As Kratos vows never to serve Ares again, the Furies prepare to capture him before Orkos returns and saves Kratos, the two men fleeing to a separate part of the Statue, as the Furies hunt them down. Later on in the game, after Kratos has reassembled the Statue of Apollo and entered the Lantern, which contains the Eyes of Truth, he encounters the three Furies once more. The sisters also have a subdued Orkos with them. Tisiphone and Megaera hold Orkos in place as Alecto captures Kratos and takes him to be tortured within the prison of Aegeon the Hecatonchires.

In present time (the beginning of the game), a one-armed Megaera wakes a bound and wounded Kratos from his sleep. She slashes at him with her claws whilst a huge metal collar holds him in place. Eventually, one of her slashes break the bond around his neck and allows Kratos to stand up. The Fury jabs at him with her spider-like appendages and the Spartan has to dodge them via promtless mini-game. Upon completing the first dodge, one of his arms is set free thus allowing him to attack. The two fight for a short amount of time and then Kratos' second arm is freed. He promptly slashes at Megaera's abdomen and then charges into her, knocking them both of the ledge that the former was once bound on. An injured Megaera flees from Kratos, taunting him as she runs on her huge legs. She summons parasites from her chest and they latch on to caged humans in order to transform them into insect-like monsters that are similar to the satyr grunts. The chase continues until they both come to a huge arm of Aegaeon. Megaera releases another swarm of parasites that burrow into the giant's skin. The arm splits in half to reveal a beastly monster inside. The Fury then leaves the scene as the mutated hand attacks Kratos.

After killing Megaera, Kratos retrieves the Amulet of Uroborus.

Megaera continues to taunt Kratos as he continues to pursue her throughout the Prison of the Damned. Eventually, Kratos comes across a house full of women who wanted to sleep with him. However, this was revealed to be an illusion made by Tisiphone, which Kratos realized after he noticed that Tisiphone is wearing the ring of his wife Lysandra. Kratos attacks Tisiphone, breaking the illusion, but she escapes his clutches and watches as Megaera charges into Kratos and takes the battle out of the house and onto a large platform hanging from Aegeon. Megaera's parasites then infect the mouth of Aegeon himself, forcing Kratos into an epic battle against the head of the Hecatonchires. He then attacks Megaera once more, who is residing on Aegeon's eye. After a brief struggle, Kratos stabs Megaera in the chest and tosses her off the Hecatonchires. Kratos then dives down after Megaera and, just as the pair smash against a lower platform, he drives his blades into Megaera's chest, killing her instantly. Kratos then recovers The Amulet of Uroborus.

Shortly after killing Megaera, Kratos enters a small temple occupied by the King of Sparta, who shows his respect to Kratos and compliments him on his work for Sparta. However, Kratos notices Lysandra's ring on the King's finger, realizes this is but another illusion and attacks the King. The illusion ceases as the King is revealed to be Tisiphone, who promptly flees from Kratos to a separate part of the Prison. Once he's caught up with Tisiphone, she orders her phoenix to attack Kratos again, but this only allows him to retrieve the Oath Stone of Orkos. Tisiphone then enters Alecto's Chamber and Kratos pursues her. Within the chamber, Kratos finds his daughter Calliope sleeping soundly and his wife Lysandra waiting for him. As he prepares to sleep with Lysandra, he discovers all around him is an illusion. Lysandra is revealed to be Alecto, who promises Kratos that if he remains in servitude to Ares, the Furies will provide him with endless illusions of his wife to keep him happy. Kratos coldly rebuffs Alecto, infuriating her and prompting both her and Tisiphone to kill Kratos once and for all.

Tisiphone, the second Fury to die.

As Tisiphone created the illusion that Alecto's Chamber was a giant whirlpool, Alecto morphed back into her sea-monster form and attacked Kratos. After a long battle against the sisters, Kratos heavily injures Alecto's monster form by impaling a ship mast into her mouth and carving her skull open. The whirlpool-illusion fades back to Alecto's Chamber as the weakened Fury Queen resorts to her human form. As Kratos approaches Alecto, Tisiphone and her pet attack him once more. Kratos kills Daimon and started beating Tisiphone to death as she formed several illusions, including the King of Sparta telling him he was not fit to be a Spartan and Kratos himself, telling him that he lost everything because of his own actions. Kratos then began to choke Tisiphone. However, she formed an illusion to become Lysandra, briefly stopping Kratos. However, Kratos managed to see through the illusion, as well as the illusion of the Village Oracle. She told Kratos that his wife and child were not at the temple where they died by chance and he killed her by breaking her neck. As the last fury lies dying, Alecto promises Kratos that her death will not free him from his madness. Kratos then finishes her off and flees as the chamber begins to collapse ending the furies judgement for good.

Alecto promises Kratos her death will not save him.

After he kills the Furies, Kratos meets with Orkos, who reveals that the Furies made Orkos the oath-keeper of Kratos once more just before their deaths. Orkos adds that in order for Kratos to finally be free, he must kill Orkos. Kratos refuses initially and states that he will not shed more innocent blood, but Orkos begs the Spartan and asks him to give him an honorable death. Kratos eventually complies and reluctantly stabs Orkos.

With the death of Orkos, Kratos is finally freed from both the Furies and his bond with Ares. Upon his death, however, Kratos' memories of the death of his wife and child returned and would haunt him for the rest of his life.

A Strange History of Real Dragons

One very prevalent fixture of fairy tales and modern fantasy films and fiction is the all-powerful presence of the mighty dragon. Immense, unstoppable, and truly terrifying, these terrible lizards are like something out of a nightmare, and one may feel comforted that they exist only in the world of the imagination. Or do they? For centuries there have been numerous accounts that treat these fierce monsters as very real, and from back in the dark corners of time all the way up to the present there are those who claim that the dragons of lore are much more than just legend and myth.

Reports of creatures very much like the fire-breathing, winged dragons of film and fantasy have been reported since far back in time, from civilizations all over the world. One such very early account comes from England, and describes how the Briton king Morvidus was killed in 336 BC by a great dragon that rose from the Irish Sea and “gulped down the body of Morvidus as a big fish swallows a little one.” The ancient explorer Titus Flavius Josephus also brought back tales of strange flying reptiles in ancient Egypt and Arabia, and the third century historian Gaius Solinus spoke of these creatures as well, further adding that they had potent venom that could kill a man even faster than he could realize that he had even been bit.

Many of the more spectacular early accounts of dragons were provided in the 4th century by Alexander the Great and his men after invading India. One account was reported by Alexander the Great himself, who claimed that he had seen an enormous hissing serpent lurking within a dank cave, and that the local tribes had worshiped it as a god, and his lieutenant, Onesicritus, also reported that there lived in India enormous serpents measuring 100 to 200 feet long. This is very interesting, because there are accounts of such creatures in India going all the way back to the 1st century, when the Greek historian Strabo described fearsome winged reptiles in his book Geography: Book XV: On India, of which he says, “In India there are reptiles two cubits long with membranous wings like bats, and that they too fly by night, discharging drops of urine, or also of sweat, which putrefy the skin of anyone who is not on his guard.” Also from India is the account from the 3rd century historian Flavious Philostratus, who also claimed that India was home to dragons, and not only a habitat for them, but by his accounts absolutely crawling with them. He wrote in his The Life of Apollonius of Tyanna:

The whole of India is girt with dragons of enormous size for not only the marshes are full of them, but the mountains as well, and there is not a single ridge without one. Now the marsh kind are sluggish in their habits and are thirty cubits long, and they have no crest standing up on their heads.

Some very intriguing early accounts of historical dragons can be found in the writings of the great 5th century Greek historian Herodotus, often referred to as “The Father of History” for his systematic method of recording events. According to the famous historian, these monsters lived in spice groves and frankincense trees, and he told that workers made a habit of driving them away with smoke before harvests, and Herodotus once wrote of these creatures:

There is a place in Arabia, situated very near the city of Buto, to which I went, on hearing of some winged serpents and when I arrived there, I saw bones and spines of serpents, in such quantities as it would be impossible to describe. The form of the serpent is like that of the water-snake but he has wings without feathers, and as like as possible to the wings of a bat.

In the 8th century we have the curious account given by a St. John of Damascus, who wrote that during a battle against Carthage a huge dragon measuring 120 feet long had appeared behind the Roman army to approach them. The army had then reportedly attacked and killed it, and had the skin sent to the Roman Senate, although what happened to it after that no one knows. This report is quite curious because it is a matter of fact account, without any obvious embellishment and sitting within other more mundane chronicles of the battle. He would even go as far as to state that these dragons were not magical creatures in any way, but rather just large, reptilian animals.

In later centuries we have the tales of the great explorer Marco Polo, who travelled around Asia, Persia, China, and Indonesia in the late 13th century and brought back all manner of fantastical tales of these exotic lands, their people, and their animals. Some of these reports included what can only be described as dragons. Within Polo’s work The Travels of Marco Polo, there is a passage concerning a place in the Far East that he called “Karajan,” which was apparently infested by the fierce beasts, and which he describes:

Here are found snakes and huge serpents, ten paces in length and ten spans in girth (meaning 50 ft. long and 100 inch circumference). At the fore part, near the head, they have two short legs, each with three claws, as well as eyes larger than a loaf and very glaring. The jaws are wide enough to swallow a man, the teeth are large and sharp, and their whole appearance is so formidable that neither man, nor any kind of animal can approach them without terror. Others are of smaller size, being eight, six, or five paces long.

Again, this is all stated as fact, even going into depth about how the natives hunt and kill the creatures, and it is hard just what to make of it all. This apparently happens a lot with early dragon reports, and they even make appearances in respectable zoological compendiums. One good example of this can be seen within the pages of the work of Konrad Gesner, who was a great naturalist in the 16th century and wrote of dragons as if they were any other mundane animal, and gives one description of a beast seen in the 10th century of a dragon seen in Ireland with a horse-like head, a thick powerful tail, and stumpy, clawed legs.

Another famed 16th century naturalist by the name of Ulysses Aldrovandus also wrote seriously of dragons, and related several tales of the beasts, such as that of a herdsman who had been driving his herd of cattle in rural Bologna when he had encountered a small dragon that had blocked his path and hissed at him. The herdsman had then apparently killed the creature and saved the carcass. Aldrovandus claimed to have come into possession of the body and to have even had it mounted, and spends a lot of time contemplating this specimen, speculating that it had been a juvenile dragon. Where the body went is anyone’s guess, but Aldrovandus did have a watercolor portrait made of it. The 16th century is actually a treasure trove of real dragon encounters. In 1543 the historian Gesner wrote of a dragon-like creature in Germany, which he describes as having “feet like lizards, and wings after the fashion of a bat, with an incurable bite.” The historian and author Charles Gould would write of another historical case of the era concerning a man named Cardan, of which he says:

Cardan states that when he resided in Paris he saw five winged dragons in the William Museum these were biped, and possessed of wings so slender that it was hardly possible that they could fly with them. Cardan doubted their having been fabricated, since they had been sent in vessels at different times, and yet all presented the same remarkable form. Bellonius states that he had seen whole carcases [sic] of winged dragons, carefully prepared, which he considered to be of the same kind as those which fly out of Arabia into Egypt they were thick about the belly, had two feet, and two wings, whole like those of a bat, and a snake’s tail.

Another rather interesting description of dragons was given in the early 16th century tome called the Aberdeen Bestiary, which goes into great depth on the appearance and behavior of the creatures and treats them as if they were all completely real. One passage reads:

The dragon has a crest, a small mouth, and narrow blow-holes through which it breathes and puts forth its tongue. Its strength lies not in its teeth but in its tail, and it kills with a blow rather than a bite. It is free from poison. They say that it does not need poison to kill things, because it kills anything around which it wraps its tail. From the dragon not even the elephant, with its huge size, is safe. For lurking on paths along which elephants are accustomed to pass, the dragon knots its tail around their legs and kills them by suffocation.

Notice that it is explained rather matter-of-factly, with no attempt to really spruce it up with amazing imagery. Moving into the 17th century we have an account from 1619, in which a noble man named Christopher Schorerum saw a great flying dragon in Essex, England, of which he reported:

On a warm night in 1619, while contemplating the serenity of the heavens, I saw a shining dragon of great size in front of Mt. Pilatus, coming from the opposite side of the lake [or ‘hollow’], a cave that is named Flue [Hogarth-near Lucerne] moving rapidly in an agitated way, seen flying across It was of a large size, with a long tail, a long neck, a reptile’s head, and ferocious gaping jaws. As it flew it was like iron struck in a forge when pressed together that scatters sparks. At first I thought it was a meteor from what I saw. But after I diligently observed it alone, I understood it was indeed a dragon from the motion of the limbs of the entire body.

In 1658 there was published a book called Historie of Foure-Footed Beasts, which like some of the zoological compendiums we looked at earlier gave various descriptions of real animals and their behaviors. Once again, sitting there amongst the various detailed descriptions of known animals is a startlingly in-depth section on dragons, which explains them as it would any other normal animal. One passage reads:

This serpent (or dragon as some call it) is reputed to be nine feete, or rather more, in length, and shaped almost in the form of an axletree of a cart: a quantitie of thickness in the middest, and somewhat smaller at both endes. The former part, which he shootes forth as a necke, is supposed to be an elle [3 ft 9 ins or 1 l4 cms] long with a white ring, as it were, of scales about it. The scales along his back seem to be blackish, and so much as is discovered under his belie, appeareth to be red… it is likewise discovered to have large feete, but the eye may there be deceived, for some suppose that serpents have no feete … [The dragon] rids away (as we call it) as fast as a man can run. His food [rabbits] is thought to be for the most part, in a conie-warren, which he much frequents …There are likewise upon either side of him discovered two great bunches so big as a large foote-ball, and (as some thinke) will in time grow to wings, but God, I hope, will (to defend the poor people in the neighbourhood) that he shall be destroyed before he grows to fledge.

There be some dragons which have wings and no feet, some again have both feet and wings, and some neither feet nor wings, but are only distinguished from the common sort of Serpents by the comb growing upon their heads, and the beard under their cheeks. Gyllius, Pierius, and Gervinus . . . do affirm that a Dragon is of a black colour, the belly somewhat green, and very beautiful to behold, having a treble row of teeth in their mouths upon every jaw, and with most bright and clear-seeing eyes, which caused the Poets to say in their writings that these dragons are the watchful keepers of Treasures.

They have also two dewlaps growing under their chin, and hanging down like a beard, which are of a red colour: their bodies are set all over with very sharp scales, and over their eyes stand certain flexible eyelids. When they gape wide with their mouth, and thrust forth their tongue, their teeth seem very much to resemble the teeth of wild Swine: And their necks have many times gross thick hair growing upon them, much like unto the bristles of a wild Boar.

Their mouth, (especially of the most tamable Dragons) is but little, not much bigger than a pipe, through which they draw in their breath, for they wound not with their mouth, but with their tails, only beating with them when they are angry. But the Indian, Ethiopian, and Phrygian dragons have very wide mouths, through which they often swallow in whole fowls and beasts. Their tongue is cloven as it were double, and the Investigators of nature do say that they have fifteen teeth of a side. The males have combs on their heads, but the females have none, and they are likewise distinguished by their beards.

It is all so painstakingly detailed and realistic one can clearly imagine exactly what they looked like. History is rife with accounts and reports such as these, and this has only scratched the surface of the countless such tales out there throughout the ages and from all over the world, stretching from Europe to the Middle East, Africa, and the Far East in places such as China, where dragons were a prominent feature of the landscape and revered. Yet this is not a phenomenon merely confined to ages way back in the mists of time, not merely the constructs of simpler eras when people believed in myth, magic, and fairy tales, and dragons have continued to be reported up into more modern times. Many of what is written of dragons in later years is not even all that spectacular or fantastical, such as the writings of Charles Gould, who documented many cases of dragons and spoke of them as being far from magical things of legend, but also very real. He would write in great detail on dragons in 1886, saying:

The dragon is nothing more than a serpent of enormous size and they formerly distinguished three sorts of them in the Indies. Viz. such as were in the mountains, such as were bred in the caves or in the flat country, and such as were found in fens and marshes. The first is the largest of all, and are covered with scales as resplendent as polished gold. These have a kind of beard hanging from their lower jaw, their eyebrows large, and very exactly arched their aspect the most frightful that can be imagined, and their cry loud and shrill… their crests of a bright yellow, and a protuberance on their heads of the colour of a burning coal. Those of the flat country differ from the former in nothing but in having their scales of a silver colour, and in their frequenting rivers, to which the former never come. Those that live in marshes and fens are of a dark colour, approaching to a black, move slowly, have no crest, or any rising upon their heads.

Dragons have remained persistent right up to present day, and there are occasionally surprisingly recent sightings. In the early 1990s there was a report from a woman out hiking in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta and British Columbia, who says that she came across an actual dragon in the wilderness there, much to her disbelief. She says of her incredible experience:

The creature was in a beautiful shade of dark green and could easily blended with trees as he been standing by them but the witness report that he was perched on a rocky outcropping on the side of the mountain. He was fanning his wings slightly, looking quite calmly into the valley below. I had been hiking up this mountain, when the movement of his head caught my eye. I had been this way before, and there was a group of trees on the cliff where there had been none before. I did not believe what I had seen at first, but the shape was too obvious, and he was parallel to me, about seven bus lengths away. I was climbing up one rock outface, he was on another.

He was the most beautiful creature I had ever seen. His head was long, with a large eye ridge and two smaller bumps with a triceratops-like horn on his nose. At the back of his head were two large horns, jutting out backwards, and two smaller horns below them. They were a greyish-white and caught the light like dull silver. His forelegs were slightly smaller than his hind legs and were gripping the edge of the cliff. He looked as though he were a quadruped. He had slightly darker dorsal ridges running from between the longest horns to about halfway down his tail.

As I stood there, gaping like a fish out of water, the dragon turned and looked at me. He cocked his head to the side, almost like a bird, then spread his enormous wings and vaulted off the cliff. He was absolutely elegant in the air, flapping his wings several times before banking into a glide and disappearing around the side of the mountain. My legs felt so weak that I had to sit down. I have been camping in those mountains for over ten years, and I had never seen anything to suggest that dragons might actually exist there. But after that encounter I began to think about it. What better place for a dragon to live than in the mountains? There are places in Banff and Jasper that nobody has ever been to, and there are many elk and deer and possibly even bears for it to feed on. Plenty of lakes, and the mountains themselves have many hidden caves and the like.

Even more recently, in 2001 an apparent dragon was purportedly seen by naturalists investigating a quarry in Wales. They described it was being “two and a half foot in length, serpentine dragon with four limbs and a head resembling that of a seahorse.” The creature apparently hovered through the air without the aid of any noticeable wings, and the startled men watched it flit about for a full 4 minutes before it descended into one of the many dark caves dotting the area.

While it seems preposterous that the dragons we know from fiction, fairy tales, and fantasy could possibly have ever been real in any sense, the fact remains that remarkably similar stories have been reported throughout history by a wide range of disparate civilizations and cultures, so why is it that the dragon myths and tales are so universal? Could there have possibly have ever been anything to this? Theories have ranged from that these were just misidentifications and romanticized accounts of known animals, some form of outsized reptiles such as crocodiles or snakes, an undiscovered species, relic populations of dinosaurs surviving into modern times, perhaps even having evolved to their environment to take on a different appearance and abilities, or even as Carl Sagan once mused the constructs of some prehistoric shared racial memory infusing us. Zoologist, cryptozoologist, and researcher for the Center for Fortean Zoology, Richard Freeman, who has spent years studying historical accounts of real dragons for his book Dragons: More Than A Myth? has said of his own ideas on the matter:

There are many creatures that have become linked to the lore and legend of what today we perceive and view as dragons, and some of these creatures are distinctly different to each other. But that should not take away from the fact that dragons are a real phenomenon. I am absolutely certain, having reviewed many ancient reports of dragon activity, that many sightings – perhaps two or three hundred years ago and probably further back – were genuine encounters, but where the witnesses were seeing what I believe to have been huge snakes, giant crocodiles, and something like the Australian ‘monster lizard’ Megalania.

In the end we have a phenomenon reported for over a millennium, of people of various cultures seeing these fierce reptilian beasts and it seems odd that they should all construct such similar legends and see such similar beasts in their respective histories. The dragon seems to be almost an archetype upon the landscape of the human psyche, somehow ingrained within us across cultures, and this makes it especially intriguing. Why should this be? Were dragons ever real in any sense, or are these just shared legends spewing forth from some universal subconsciousness? If they are real then what are they and do they exist now or have they gone extinct? With no real evidence and their tales doomed to mere speculation, it seems that we may never know the answers to these questions, and in the meantime the dragons must remain confined to legend, myth, and fiction.

Breaking point

Malcolm, promising peace, gains Caesar's permission to access the dam. But time and again, tenuous goodwill on both sides is undermined by behind-the-scenes scheming. Carver (the man who'd shot Ash earlier and nearly triggered an all-out war) had held onto a weapon he didn't turn in when the party met with Caesar a second time. He nearly kills Caesar's children, but war is averted when Malcolm's wife treats Caesar's sick one with antibiotics, saving her life. However, tensions are climbing, and while both sides recognize the existence of good members of the other, it's clear they're standing on the brink of war.

At this point, Koba stumbles upon a human armory that had been stockpiled in secret, in case of an ape attack. He brings this news to the apes and suggests Caesar's "love for the humans" will get them all killed. Caesar severely beats Koba, but spares his life since "ape not kill ape." That's not enough for Koba, though. Furious and humiliated, he sneaks back to the armory, kills the human guards, and steals an assault rifle. Upon returning to the ape village, he kills Carver, then sets the place on fire. In the chaos, he shoots Caesar, then blames the humans for the death of the ape leader and the burning of their home. Assuming command, Koba leads the apes to war.

33 'Fast and Furious' Franchise Facts You Might Not Know (Photos)

The "Fast and Furious" franchise kicked off in 2001 as little more than a movie about illegal street racing. But with eight movies and even a spinoff later, it's become one of the most lucrative franchises in Hollywood with some of the most impressive stunts seen on any screen. Ahead of "Hobbs & Shaw," here's some fun and fast facts about the franchise.

"The Fast and the Furious" (2001) - The movie was inspired by a magazine article

The idea for "The Fast and the Furious" was originally born after director Rob Cohen read an article called "Racer X" in Vibe Magazine, by Ken Li, in 1998. The article detailed the New York street racing scene. After that, Cohen sought out a race in Los Angeles, and after seeing it, was inspired to do the movie. He convinced Universal and bought the rights to the article from Li.

It was originally titled "Redline" -

For most of the filming, "The Fast and the Furious" had a different name: "Redline." According to director Rob Cohen on the DVD commentary for the film, the producers landed on the new title before they finished the movie, but couldn't use it because the rights belonged to director Roger Corman from his 1955 movie of the same name. Universal eventually agreed to give Corman the rights to some Universal stock footage in exchange for the rights to the title.

The Race Wars scene was full of real car enthusiasts -

Cohen visited real street races in Los Angeles, and enlisted the actual racers (and their actual cars) as extras in some scenes. That included more than more than 1,500 actual car enthusiasts in the “Race Wars” scene.

The movie shares a location with "Point Break" -

"The Fast and the Furious" takes some inspiration with the Keanu Reeves-Patrick Swayze movie "Point Break," in which an FBI agent goes undercover to infiltrate a group of surfer bank robbers. There's another commonality: In "The Fast and the Furious," Dom and Brian go to a restaurant called Neptune's Net, a real place in Malibu. It's also the restaurant in which Tyler (Lori Petty) works in "Point Break."

Not everyone in the cast could, uh, drive -

Despite the movie being about insane driving stunts, there were two cast members who didn't have driver's licenses: Michelle Rodriguez, who plays Letty, and Jordana Brewster, who plays Mia. Brewster told VH1 she was concerned that she might be dropped from the film for insurance reasons if she didn't obtain her license, and Rodriguez told ET that she started getting speeding tickets shortly after obtaining her license.

The train-jumping scene was two shots - The scene at the end of the movie, in which Brian and Dom just barely beat a speeding train while racing, was shot twice. The train was nowhere near hitting the cars, despite how death-defying the scene looks -- because the portion with the cars was shot separately from the portion with the train, and the two elements were combined in post-production.

"2 Fast 2 Furious" (2003) -

A short film links "The Fast and the Furious" and "2 Fast" -

There's more to the story of "2 Fast 2 Furious." A short film included with the movie's DVD release bridges the end of the first movie, in which undercover cop Brian allows thief Dom to escape capture. Afterward, Brian finds himself on the run, racing across the country to earn money before landing in Miami.

Vin Diesel turned down $25 million for the sequel -

Originally, Vin Diesel and "The Fast and the Furious" director Rob Cohen were asked to return for the sequel, but Diesel left the project. Diesel told Variety in a 2015 magazine profile that he was unhappy with the script and turned down a $25 million pay day on the film. Cohen left soon after, replaced by director John Singleton, and the film ends up focusing on Brian and his boyhood friend Roman Pierce, played by Tyrese Gibson.

Ja Rule was almost a star of the franchise

Rapper Chris "Ludacris" Bridges joined the "Fast & Furious" franchise in the second movie, taking a place in the cast that could have been occupied by rapper Jeffrey "Ja Rule" Atkins. Ja Rule was set to reprise his role as racer Edwin from the first film, and would have had a starring role in the movie after Vin Diesel exited. According to a story from Grantland, he balked at the role when he was offered $500,000 for it. Director John Singleton said talks with Ja Rule broke down, so he called up Ludacris, who was excited for the role. So Edwin was rewritten to be Tej, and Ludacris would become a franchise mainstay.

"The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift" (2006) -

"Tokyo Drift" is actually the sixth movie in the film timeline -

Although it wasn't made that way at the time, the "Fast & Furious" series was later retconned to move "Tokyo Drift" ahead in the film continuity. Han is introduced and also dies in "Tokyo Drift," but he returns in "Fast 5." That means the fourth movie, "Fast & Furious," "Fast 5" and "Fast & Furious 6" actually come before it in the continuity. A post-credits scene in "Fast & Furious 6" recontextualizes a scene in "Tokyo Drift" to set up "Furious 7."

Han is unofficially from the movie "Better Luck Tomorrow"

"Tokyo Drift" director Justin Lin's first movie also features actor Sung Kang, who plays Han in the "Fast & Furious" movies. In "Better Luck Tomorrow," Kang's character is also called Han, and fans have speculated that though "Better Luck Tomorrow" isn't part of the canon, the two characters are the same person.

Han's full name is Han Seoul-Oh -

The extremely cool character Han goes by the pseudonym "Han Seoul-Oh." It's a reference to the "Star Wars" smuggler scoundrel Han Solo, played by Harrison Ford.

The cost of Vin Diesel's cameo: "The Chronicles of Riddick" -

Justin Lin had to convince Vin Diesel to do his cameo at the end of "Tokyo Drift," which was the beginning of his return to the franchise in Lin's next movie, "Fast & Furious." Lin said in a Q&A for the film that he spent hours attempting to convince Diesel to appear. In fact, Diesel only agreed to do the cameo in exchange for the rights to "The Chronicles of Riddick," Diesel's sci-fi franchise.

"Fast & Furious" (2009) -

Series mainstays were reunited after eight years

The fourth movie in the franchise (but third chronologically) was nearly a decade removed from "The Fast and the Furious." After eight years, it was the first time series mainstays Walker, Diesel and Jordana Brewster were reunited on-screen. Michelle Rodriguez also reprises her role in the movie, but doesn't have screen time with most of the other principles before she's "killed."

Vin Diesel directed a short film that sets up "Fast & Furious" -

In "The Fast and the Furious," Dominic Toretto escapes police and flees to Baja, Mexico. It's years before his return to the franchise in "Fast & Furious," and to bridge the gap, Vin Diesel wrote and directed the short film "Los Bandoleros." The short rekindles Dom's relationship with Letty (Michelle Rodriguez), puts the team in the Dominican Republic for the start of "Fast & Furious," and introduces Dom's relationship with Han, Leo (Tego Calderón) and Santos (Don Omar). All three would return to the franchise in "Fast 5."

"Fast Five" (2011) -

The Rock's role was originally written for Tommy Lee Jones -

Vin Diesel revealed in a Facebook post that the role of Luke Hobbs, the Diplomatic Security Service manhunter who goes after Dom and the rest of his crew, was originally written for "The Fugitive" actor Tommy Lee Jones. Diesel said it was a fan suggestion that led him and Justin Lin to reach out to The Rock for the part instead.

"Fast 5" was originally planned as the second part of a "trilogy" -

When Diesel returned to the franchise with Lin, they also teamed with screenwriter Chris Morgan. They dealt with "Fast & Furious," "Fast 5" and "Fast & Furious 6" as if they were an "internal trilogy" within the franchise. Diesel said in an interview with Screen Rant that his view for sequels in the franchise was that there should be a long-term story plan in place, so the three movies have something of an arc.

The bank vault had a car inside -

The climax of the heist includes Dom and Brian stealing a whole bank vault by dragging it through the streets of Rio behind their cars. The filmmakers achieved those shots with real vaults, but not while it was being pulled. That was a mock-up fit around a truck that could be driven to give the illusion the cars were pulling it, as the stunt coordinator explained in an interview with Vanity Fair.

"Fast Five" was meant to go beyond street racing

Unlike the earlier movies in the franchise, which are often about racing, "Fast 5" takes a different tack. Universal's chairman Adam Fogelson said that by limiting the story to street racing, audiences were staying away from the franchise. "We wanted to see if we could raise it out of about racing and make car driving ability just a part of the movie, like those great chases in 'The French Connection,' 'The Bourne Identity,' 'The Italian Job,'” Fogelson told Deadline.

Eva Mendes reprises her role in a post-credits scene -

Actress Eva Mendes played an undercover customs agent working with Brian and Roman in "2 Fast 2 Furious" and has never returned to the series outside an uncredited post-credits scene in "Fast Five" with Hobbs. Her Agent Fuentes teases fans with a major reveal: the fact that Letty wasn't killed in "Fast & Furious." (She would actually return in the sixth movie.)

"Fast & Furious 6" (2013) -

It was almost two films -

There was so much story planned for the sixth movie in the franchise that Diesel said in 2011 the movie was planned to be made in two parts, with the original script running beyond 110 pages. Of course, it didn't actually happen that way: "Fast & Furious 6" was edited down to fit into one film before it was released. The next movie, "Furious 7," finally takes the story past "Tokyo Drift."

The runway at the end is obscenely long -

The final action sequence has the whole crew chasing a cargo plane trying to take off, and it goes on for quite a while. There's so much chasing involved, in fact, that people have done the math to figure out just how much road it would take to get it all done. Vulture.com figured the runway would have be 28.86 miles by contrast, the longest paved runway in the world is just 3.4 miles.

Even Michelle Rodriguez didn't know Letty was still alive -

Fans were shocked to find out that Letty survived "Fast & Furious" during the post-credits scene in "Fast Five." But producer Vin Diesel didn't tell Rodriguez that her character made it through the fourth movie. She told Yahoo! Movies she learned of Letty's survival the same way as fans: by watching the post-credits sequence in "Fast 5."

"Furious 7" (2015) -

The movie retcons "Tokyo Drift" -

To get the "Fast & Furious" timeline straight, "Fast & Furious 6" and "Furious 7" make major changes to Han's death in "Tokyo Drift." The movies put the blame on Deckard Shaw (Jason Statham), brother of "Fast & Furious 6" villain Owen Shaw (Luke Evans).

Paul Walker's brothers helped complete the film after his death -

When Walker died in 2013, he left part of the film unfinished. Diesel and director James Wan added a lengthy tribute to Walker at the end of the film, and to finish it, Walker's brothers Caleb and Cody stood in for their brother. The filmmakers used special effects and old footage of Paul to digitally add his face to his brothers' body for certain shots, particularly in the tribute scene. Meanwhile, Walker's character Brian is retired in the movie to live his life with Dom's sister, Mia.

Denzel Washington turned down Kurt Russell's role -

Denzel Washington was offered, and turned down, a "mysterious" major role for "Furious 7" during the course of filming, according to Deadline. The role wasn't detailed at the time to avoid spoilers, but with "Furious 7" out, we know who took his place: Kurt Russell, in the role of Mr. Nobody. Russell is a government covert ops team leader who teams with Dom and the crew as they deal with Deckard Shaw.

The filmmakers really dropped cars out of a plane -

One of the biggest set pieces in the movie involves the crew driving out of a cargo plane in midair, then parachuting to a remote mountain road in order to hijack a convoy. Ridiculous as it might sound, the filmmakers did, in fact, drop a bunch of cars out of a plane to film the scene. Skydivers had to follow the cars out to get the shot. One car was destroyed in the attempt because its parachute didn't open.

Ludacris had to convince the filmmakers to let him fight -

Tej is the tech-minded member of the crew, but Ludacris had asked repeatedly for a chance to do a fight scene. He got the opportunity because he started training in the 52 Blocks style of martial arts, then made a demo reel to show to Diesel and director James Wan.

"The Fate of the Furious" (2017) -

A deleted scene between Hobbs and Shaw inspired the spinoff

TheWrap reported that Dwayne Johnson and Jason Statham filmed a scene as their rival characters Hobbs and Shaw in which the two agree to stop fighting and then team up against Dom. The scene was meant as a tag at the end of the movie, but it was cut. And yet the chemistry between Johnson and Statham was so strong that it eventually spawned 2019's spinoff film "Hobbs & Shaw."

No, a submarine wouldn't win a race against cars -

TheWrap asked the Mythbusters whether or not the submarine-car chase in the eighth "Fast & Furious" movie was even plausible, but it turns out submarines are pretty slow, barely getting above 50 miles per hour while traversing through water and carrying so much nuclear firepower. Dom's high power supercars would, figuratively speaking, blow it out of the water.

Charlize Theron said Vin Diesel kisses like "a dead fish" -

When Charlize Theron joined the cast of the "F&F" franchise as cyber-terrorist Cypher, she blackmails Dom and at one point in the film kisses him to show how far he's turned. He however is supposed to be reluctant, so Theron described to "Ellen" that when the two kissed, he just sat there "frozen, like a dead fish." Diesel eventually made his own appearance on "Ellen" and clapped back at the comparison.

"Fast & Furious Presents: Hobbs & Shaw" (2019) -

Idris Elba was teased by the cast about starring in "Cats"

Immediately after filming the brawny, masculine "Hobbs & Shaw," Idris Elba was next set to star in "Cats," the live-action adaptation of the long-running Andrew Lloyd Webber musical. The Rock and Jason Statham would use their inside casting scoops as a way of taking Elba down a peg whenever he was acting tough. Elba told Stephen Colbert that his co-stars would ask him what he's doing next while in front of the whole crew.

The "Black Superman" line was originally supposed to be "Black James Bond" -

One of Idris Elba's lines in the film as a genetically enhanced super soldier in "Hobbs & Shaw" is that he's "Black Superman." The Rock took credit for coming up with the line, which he says wasn't in the original script. But he originally had the idea to call Elba the "black James Bond." The only problem was that the line cut a little too close to home, with many fans leading the charge that Elba should've been the next 007 to replace Daniel Craig.

All the “Fast and Furious” trivia you need to get in the mood for “Hobbs & Shaw”

The "Fast and Furious" franchise kicked off in 2001 as little more than a movie about illegal street racing. But with eight movies and even a spinoff later, it's become one of the most lucrative franchises in Hollywood with some of the most impressive stunts seen on any screen. Ahead of "Hobbs & Shaw," here's some fun and fast facts about the franchise.

Legacy of Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Stanton died on October 26, 1902 from heart failure. True to form, she wanted her brain to be donated to science upon her death to debunk claims that the mass of men’s brains made them smarter than women. Her children, however, didn’t carry out her wish.

Though she never gained the right to vote in her lifetime, Stanton left behind a legion of feminist crusaders who carried her torch and ensured her decades-long struggle wasn’t in vain.

Almost two decades after her death, Stanton’s vision finally came true with the passing of the 19th Amendment on August 18, 1920, which guaranteed American woman the right to vote.

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