27 April 1944

27 April 1944

27 April 1944

April 1944

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War at Sea

German submarines U-803 sunk after hitting a mine off Swinemunde

New Guinea

US troops complete the occupation of all the airfields around Hollandia

Allied troops occupy Indaw



Fire fighting on a Lancaster bomber’s wing

The veteran Avro Lancaster bomber ‘S for Sugar’, of No 467 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force, is prepared for its 97th operational sortie at RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. An Avro Lancaster B Mark I or III of No. 514 Squadron RAF based at Waterbeach, Cambridgeshire, releases its bombs through cloud, during a daylight attack on a flying-bomb launch site at Les Catelliers in northern France, (“Noball” Operation), as another aircraft behind it prepares to bomb.

On the night of the 26th/27th RAF Bomber command went to Essen and Schweinfurt, with very different experiences. The larger raid to Essen, a familiar industrial target, was accurate and suffered only 1.4 % casualties.

The raid on Schweinfurt, where the 8th USAAF had attempted to knock out the ball bearing factory in 1943, was almost a complete disaster. The target marking, by a new Pathfinder Squadron, was poor and few bombs hit the target area. High winds dispersed the 206 Lancasters on this raid and 21 aircraft were lost – an unsustainable rate.

The raid is chiefly remembered for one remarkable act of heroism:

The KING has been graciously pleased to confer the VICTORIA CROSS on the undermentioned officer in recognition of most conspicuous bravery :-

Norman Jackson VC

905192 Sergeant (Now Warrant Officer) Norman Cyril Jackson R.A.F.V.R., 106 Squadron.

This airman was the flight engineer in a Lancaster detailed to attack Schweinfurt on the night of 26th April, 1944. Bombs were dropped successfully and the aircraft was climbing out of the target area. Suddenly it was attacked by a fighter at about 20,000 feet. The captain took evading action at once, but the enemy secured many hits. A fire started near a petrol tank on the upper surface of the starboard wing, between the fuselage and the inner engine.

Sergeant Jackson was thrown to the floor during the engagement. Wounds which he received from shell splinters in the right leg and shoulder were probably sustained at that time. Recovering himself, he remarked that he could deal with the fire on the wing and obtained his captain’s permission to try to put out the flames.

Pushing a hand fire-extinguisher into the top of his life-saving jacket and clipping on his parachute pack, Sergeant Jackson jettisoned the escape hatch above the pilot’s head. He then started to climb out of the cockpit and back along the top of the fuselage to the starboard wing. Before he could leave the fuselage his parachute pack opened and the whole canopy and rigging lines spilled into the cockpit.

Undeterred, Sergeant Jackson continued. The pilot (Tony Mifflin), bomb aimer (Maurice Toft) and navigator (Frank Higgins) gathered the parachute together and held on to the rigging lines, paying them out as the airman crawled aft. Eventually he slipped and, falling from the fuselage to the starboard wing, grasped an air intake on the leading edge of the wing. He succeeded in clinging on but lost the extinguisher, which was blown away.

By this time, the fire had spread rapidly and Sergeant Jackson was involved. His face, hands and clothing were severely burnt. Unable to retain his hold he was swept through the flames and over the trailing edge of the wing, dragging his parachute behind. When last seen it was only partly inflated and was burning in a number of places.

Realising that the fire could not be controlled, the captain gave the order to abandon aircraft. Four of the remaining members of the crew landed safely. The captain and rear gunner have not been accounted for.

Sergeant Jackson was unable to control his descent and landed heavily. He sustained a broken ankle, his right eye was closed through burns and his hands were useless. These injuries, together with the wounds received earlier, reduced him to a pitiable state. At daybreak he crawled to the nearest village, where he was taken prisoner. He bore the intense pain and discomfort of the journey to Dulag Luft with magnificent fortitude. After ten months in hospital he made a good recovery, though his hands require further treatment and are only of limited use.

This airman’s attempt to extinguish the fire and save the aircraft and crew from falling into enemy hands was an act of outstanding gallantry. To venture outside, when travelling at 200 miles an hour, at a great height and in intense cold, was an almost incredible feat. Had he succeeded in subduing the flames, there was little or no prospect of his regaining the cockpit. The spilling of his parachute and the risk of grave damage to its canopy reduced his chances of survival to a minimum. By his ready willingness to face these dangers he set an example of self-sacrifice which will ever be remembered.

The London Gazette, 26 October 1945

Sergeant W Sinclair, RAF, and Flying Officer E H Giersch, RAAF, of No 463 Squadron at Waddington, test their oxygen masks in the crew room before an operational sortie, April 1944. Ground crew servicing an Avro Lancaster of No 300 Polish Bomber Squadron RAF at Faldingworth, Lincolnshire.


27 April 1944 - History

News: Nevins (27 April 1944)

Contact: Crystal Wendt
Email: [email protected]

Surnames: Scholtz, Rosandich, Paun, Matonich, Jacobson, Brnkmeier, Paun, Kapusta, Vobora, Seman, Porkovitch

----Source: Clark County Press (Neillsville, Clark County, Wis.) Thursday, 27 April 1944

Frank Scholtz left for Waukesha last week to visit his son and family, Mr. and Mrs. Vernon Scholtz.

Helen Rosandich was home all last week from her school duties in Wisconsin Rapids. Her brother Louie took her back Sunday. She attends the Wood County Normal.

Tom Paun and Adam Matonich were callers in Wisconsin Rapids Saturday.

Eli Matonich returned Friday from Chicago, where he spent to weeks visiting. Mr. Matonich was called to Chicago by the death of a cousin.

Anna Rosnadich came home over the weekend from Milwaukee with her boy friend and returned with him, but expects to come home again to stay for several weeks.

Mr. and Mrs. Francix Jacobson called on Mr. and Mrs. Oscar Brinkmeier Thursday evening.

The following are working on the railroad section near Pray - Tom and John Paun, Martin Kapusta, Eli Matonich, John Rosandich and Adam Matonich.

Adam Matonich sold all his livestock, excepting one heifer and two horses, to a party from Arpin.

Tony Vobora and Mrs. Martin Kapusta drove to Eau Claire last week after Donald Kapusta, who has been a patient in the Sacred Heart Hospital for the past two weeks. Donald went there for a medical examination but got the measles while there instead, but otherwise was not able to get any help.

John and Helen Seman called on Mr. and Mrs. Oscar Brinkmeier Sunday evening.

George, Rosie and Wanda Perkovitch are all quite sick with the measles.

Show your appreciation of this freely provided information by not copying it to any other site without our permission.

A site created and maintained by the Clark County History Buffs
and supported by your generous donations .


South Africa holds first multiracial elections

More than 22 million South Africans turn out to cast ballots in the country’s first multiracial parliamentary elections. An overwhelming majority chose anti-apartheid leader Nelson Mandela to head a new coalition government that included his African National Congress Party, former President F.W. de Klerk’s National Party, and Zulu leader Mangosuthu Buthelezi’s Inkatha Freedom Party. In May, Mandela was inaugurated as president, becoming South Africa’s first Black head of state.

In 1944, Mandela, a lawyer, joined the African National Congress (ANC), the oldest Black political organization in South Africa, where he became a leader of Johannesburg’s youth wing of the ANC. In 1952, he became deputy national president of the ANC, advocating nonviolent resistance to apartheid–South Africa’s institutionalized system of white supremacy and racial segregation. However, after the massacre of peaceful Black demonstrators at Sharpeville in 1960, Mandela helped organize a paramilitary branch of the ANC to engage in guerrilla warfare against the white minority government.

In 1961, he was arrested for treason, and although acquitted he was arrested again in 1962 for illegally leaving the country. Convicted and sentenced to five years at Robben Island Prison, he was put on trial again in 1964 on charges of sabotage. In June 1964, he was convicted along with several other ANC leaders and sentenced to life in prison.

Mandela spent the first 18 of his 27 years in jail at the brutal Robben Island Prison. Confined to a small cell without a bed or plumbing, he was forced to do hard labor in a quarry. He could write and receive a letter once every six months, and once a year he was allowed to meet with a visitor for 30 minutes. However, Mandela’s resolve remained unbroken, and while remaining the symbolic leader of the anti-apartheid movement, he led a movement of civil disobedience at the prison that coerced South African officials into drastically improving conditions on Robben Island. He was later moved to another location, where he lived under house arrest.


The military historian and broadcaster Colonel Mike Dewar spoke about his life in the Green Jacket Regiment, and how, on retirement, he became Editor of Pegasus, the Journal of the Parachute Regiment and Airborne Forces. There then followed a short, overpowering and extremely scary Nazi propaganda film used in Germany during the lead-up to the Second World War. As Col. Dewar said: “this is what we were facing”.

The first part of the evening was spent describing the assault on the Wurzburg radar establishment, near Bruneval, in France. After being discovered by an ace low-level flyer, a plan was devised to send in a small force, who would dismantle the vital parts and return with them to England. With a circular wall to contend with a further plan was set in motion to send in a mixed force of C Company 2 nd Bn. The Parachute Regiment, and Royal Engineers These people were parachuted in, duly made off with the right parts, and returned to England. This was the first example of what airborne British forces could achieve.

Secondly Col. Dewar spoke about the Normandy landings of June 1944. In particular the Pegasus Bridge operation. Photos of paratroop and glider landings were shown, as he described how they successfully took control of, and kept intact, the Pegasus Bridge. Mention was made that some of the landings were not too accurate, but the whole landing was successful, as the bridge was kept open and the battle for Caen went ahead. Mention was made of the Gondree Café, Benouville, nearby, which became such a landmark. Lastly, the subject of Arnhem was discussed. In September 1944 it was suggested that several river crossings were to be seized. Concern was raised about the success of this campaign, but it went ahead. It did not succeed. This sombre note rounded up a very interesting talk which provoked a spate of questions. Jan Fray


The Monuments Men and the Recovery of the Art in the Merkers Salt Mine April 1945

In the forthcoming movie The Monuments Men there will be a scene of Monuments Men entering the salt mine at Merkers, Thuringia, Germany in April 1945, and beholding German and looted gold, concentration camp victims’ gold teeth, and fabulous artwork. The scene looks something like this:

Capture of Germany’s Gold

ReichsBank wealth, SS loot, and Berlin Museum paintings that were removed from Berlin to a salt mine vault located in Merkers, Germany. The 3rd U.S. Army discovered the gold and other treasure in April 1945.

Of course the movie version takes liberties with what actually happened, as documented in the record holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration. What follows is a brief overview of what actually happened as documented in those records, focusing on the artworks. For a more detailed account see “Nazi Gold: The Merkers Mine Treasure” in Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration.

To protect Germany’s art treasures, the Reichminister for Education decided in March 1945 to ship them to mines for safekeeping. The first shipment took place on March 16, when forty-five cases of art from the Kaiser-Friedrichs Museum were shipped from Berlin to an unworked salt mine in Hesse, with shafts at Heimboldshausen and Ransbach. The mine is about fifteen miles west of the salt mine at Merkers, ten miles west of Vacha. Dr. Paul Ortwin Rave, curator of the German State Museum in Berlin as well an assistant director of the National Galleries in Berlin, who had been sent with the shipment, found that the mine was unsuitable for a deposit, and therefore it was decided that subsequent shipments would go to the salt mine at Merkers. The Merkers mine complex included more than 35 miles of tunnels and a dozen entrances. Between March 20 and March 31 the Germans transported one-fourth of the major holdings of fourteen of the principal Prussian state museums to Merkers. Rave was ordered to stay at Merkers and watch over the collection.

Late on the evening of March 22, elements of Lt. Gen. George Patton’s Third Army crossed the Rhine, and soon thereafter his whole army crossed the river and drove into the heart of Germany. Advancing northeast from Frankfurt, elements of the Third Army cut into the future Soviet Zone and advanced on Gotha. Just before noon on April 4, the village of Merkers fell to the Third Battalion of the 358th Infantry Regiment, Ninetieth Infantry Division, Third Army.

By noon on April 6 a story had reached Lt. Col. William A. Russell the Ninetieth Infantry Division’s G-5 (civilian affairs) officer that there was gold and other valuables in a mine at Merkers. He proceeded to the mine, where interviews with displaced persons in the area confirmed the story. They told him that works of art were also stored in the mine and that Dr. Rave was present to care for the paintings. Russell then confronted mine officials with this information, and they stated they knew that gold and valuable art were stored in the mine and that other mines in the area were likewise used for storing valuables. Russell learned from a German bank official that that the gold in the mine constituted the entire reserve of the Reichsbank in Berlin and Rave told him he was in Merkers to care for paintings stored in the mine.

With this information, Russell requested that the 712th Tank Battalion be ordered to proceed to Merkers to guard the entrances to the mine. Elements of the Ninetieth Division Military Police were also deployed about the entrances, and arrangements were made for generation of power and electricity at the mine so that the shafts could be entered for examination the next morning. Later that afternoon, after it was learned that there were at least five possible entrances to the mine at Merkers and that one tank battalion would not be sufficient to guard them all, Russell requested reinforcements. That evening Maj. Gen. Herbert L. Earnest, the Ninetieth Infantry Division’s commanding general, called the 357th Infantry Regiment then at Leimbach and ordered that its First Battalion proceed to Merkers to relieve the Ninetieth Division Military Police and reinforce the 712th Tank Battalion.

On the morning of April 7 military personnel interrogated civilians to obtain information on storage of Reich property in the mine. Also that morning, new entrances to this mine and to other nearby mines were found by the Americans at Leimbach, Ransbach, and Springen. Guards were immediately placed at these entrances. Later that morning, General Earnest directed that a company of the First Battalion of the 357th Infantry Regiment be posted to guard the main entrance of the Merkers mine. This company was reinforced with tanks from the 712th Tank Battalion, tank destroyers from the 773d Tank Destroyer Battalion, and Jeeps mounting machine guns for antiaircraft defense. Reinforced rifle companies were also ordered to guard entrances at Kaiseroda and Dietlas. Around 11 a.m. another entrance to the mine was found at Statinfsfeld by the First Battalion. Accordingly, a tank destroyer company was dispatched to guard this entrance.

At 10 a.m. Russell, the assistant division commander, and two other Ninetieth Infantry Division officers, Signal Corps photographers, Rave, and German mining officials entered the mine. The elevator took them to the bottom of the main shaft twenty-one hundred feet beneath the surface

Meanwhile the Ninetieth Infantry Division was continuing on the offensive and needed all of its forces. So at 5 p.m. the 357th Infantry Regiment was ordered to move out and join up with the division’s other units, with the exception of the First Battalion, which was to pass to division control and to continue guarding the mine, and Third Battalion guards were to be relieved by elements of the First Battalion. By that evening three companies of the First Battalion were guarding the entrances at Merkers, Kaiseroda, Leimbach, Springen, and Dietlas, with the assistance of one platoon of heavy machine guns and two sections of light tanks. The Merkers, Dietlas, and Kaiseroda factory areas were guarded by a perimeter defense, and special guards were placed on essential operating installations such as electric plants, transformers, and elevator mechanisms.

While the treasure was being reviewed on April 8, in other tunnels Americans found an enormous number of artworks. Late that day, Capt. Robert Posey, a Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives (MFA&A) officer with the Third Army, his assistant PFC Lincoln Kirsten, and Major Perera, of G-5, Third Army, arrived to inspect the artworks and the gold and currency. Robert M. Edsel, in his The Monuments Men (2009) described their inspection:

Slowly, Posey and Kirstein began to realize just how much was hidden in the Merkers mines. Crated sculptures, hastily packed, with photographs clipped from museum catalogues to show what was inside. Ancient Egyptian papyri in metal cases, which the salt in the mine had reduced to the consistency of wet cardboard. There was no time to examine the priceless antiquities inside, for in other rooms there were ancient Greek and Roman decorative works, Byzantine mosaics, Islamic rugs, leather and buckram portfolio boxes. Hidden in an inconspicuous side room, they found the original woodcuts of Albrecht Dürer’s famous Apocalypse series of 1498. And then more crates of paintings—a Rubens, a Goya, a Cranach packed together with minor works.

Posey, Kirsten, and Perera then set out for the Third Army headquarters at Frankfurt, arriving there at 10 p.m. Shortly thereafter they made their report to Lt. Col. Tupper Barrett, G-5, 12th Army Group. Word was passed up the chain of command.

A painting by the french impressionist Edouard Manet, titled “Wintergarden”, discovered in the vault at Merkers. 4/25/45. RG 111-SC-203453-5

Col. Bernard D. Bernstein, deputy chief, Financial Branch, G-5 Division of SHAEF, was then placed in charge of the Merkers operation. After inspections of the mine regarding the gold and currency, and trips back to Frankfurt, on April 11 Bernstein returned to Merkers, and that morning, he and Rave made an inspection of the art treasures. Later that day Lt. George Stout, USNR, MFA&A Officer, G-5, 12th Army Group, and the SHAEF MFA&A chief, British Lt. Col. Geoffrey Webb, reported for duty, with the expectation that they would handle the art matters. After Posey’s earlier visit to Merkers, he had notified Webb of the treasure and recommended Stout, former chief of conservation at Harvard’s Fogg Museum and considered America’s greatest expert on the techniques of packing and transporting, be sent to the mine to provide technical guidance. Webb and Stout arrived at Merkers only to find that they needed Bernstein’s permission to see the art. Bernstein showed them his letter from Third Army’s chief of staff, Maj. Gen. Hobart Gay authorizing him to decide who went into the mine and the need for XII Corps Commander Maj. Gen. Manton S. Eddy’s permission for Allied personnel to inspect the mine. Bernstein agreed to let Stout view the works of art, but he denied Webb access.

On April 12 Bernstein gave generals Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, or SHAEF commanding general) Omar Bradley (commanding general of the 12th Army Group), Patton, Eddy, and Brig. Gen. Otto P. Weyland, commander of the XIX Tactical Air Command of the Ninth Air Force, a tour of the mine. After looking at the gold, currency, and SS loot, including gold teeth from concentration camp victims, Bernstein also showed the generals the art treasures.

General Dwight D Eisenhower, Supreme Allied commander, inspects art treasures in the Merkers salt mine. Behind Eisenhower are General Omar N. Bradley (left), and (right) Lt. Gen. George S. Patton, Jr. 4/12/45.

Stout on April 12 talked to Rave at the Ransbach mine, who explained that the forty-five cases of art there could not be inspected as the mine elevator was not working. Stout returned to Merkers and made a spot-check of some of the boxes and crates of artwork. He found that in addition to the crated items, some four hundred paintings were lying loose. He had seen enough to know that he needed proper packing materials and that the art constituted great wealth. The next afternoon he returned to Ransbach to prepare the items there for the move. Upon his return to Merkers, Bernstein told him that the art convoy would leave on the sixteenth.

At some point on April 14 Bernstein met with Stout, Lt. Col. Carl L. Morris, G-4, SHAEF, and others to discuss the arrangements for the movement of approximately four hundred tons of art stored in different parts of the Merkers mine. It was agreed that loading would begin at noon on April 16. But the loading would actually begin earlier, for at midnight on the fourteenth, Bernstein ordered Stout to prepare three truckloads of art, which were to be mixed in with the gold to make the loads lighter. Stout, between 2 and 4:30 a.m., complied with Bernstein’s order, complete with an inventory.

Also on the fourteenth, Morris flew to Frankfurt to confer with transportation officers about procuring trucks to be used for the shipment of the art to Frankfurt, where it would be stored in the Reichsbank building. Morris made arrangements on April 15 with the Third Army provost marshal to obtain one hundred POWs to be used in loading the art treasure the next morning. The following morning, Morris flew back to Merkers to assist in the move.


Light and heavy AA regiments, June 1944

Post by Leo Niehorster » 09 Nov 2013, 18:58

Greetings,
I am looking a complete listing of the battery unit numbers of the British light and heavy antiaircraft regiments, on or about June 1944. Indications of corresponding equipment, of course, would be very nice, too — indeed!

Can anyone indicate a source, www or printed?

Re: Light and heavy AA regiments, June 1944

Post by gambadier » 10 Nov 2013, 07:59

History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: Anti-Aircraft Artillery, 1914-55, Brig NW Routledge, Brasseys, 1994, ISBN 1 857753 099 3 should get you started.

Table XLIX gives the AA Order of Battle, 21 Army Gp, 25 Jun 44. Basically it details 76, 80 and 106 AA Bdes (including advance elements of 100 AA Bde), but only outlines the 10 AA bdes (incl one RM AA Bde) of 21 AG still in UK. It also lists the 5 corps and 10 divisional LAA regts (UK and CA). However, you need to study the text to identify the various AA control HQs. The text also makes clearer the AA elements aboard Mulberry, etc, units. The text will also give you the AA bde commanders. The fact that Joslen didn't include arty bdes and groups (never mind divisions and corps) is his major failing.

The other source for UK arty regt subordination with dates (outside UK) is WO212/493, WO 212 is the Order of Battle series.

Re: Light and heavy AA regiments, June 1944

Post by Leo Niehorster » 10 Nov 2013, 10:24

Thank you very much.
Cheers
Leo

PS The ISBN should read 1857530993.

Re: Light and heavy AA regiments, June 1944

Post by Gary Kennedy » 13 Nov 2013, 21:56

I imagine you already know it, but Derek Barton's site lists Bty numbers for LAA and HAA Regts, and also gives an indication of their locations.

Re: Light and heavy AA regiments, June 1944

Post by Leo Niehorster » 13 Nov 2013, 22:50

Hi Gary,
Yes, I have been there. Unfortunately, not all the regimental batteries are identified, and there is no indication of their type, (SP'd, static, mobile, mixed, 40mm, 20mm, 3-inch, 3.7-inch, etc.).

Re: Light and heavy AA regiments, June 1944

Post by Clive Mortimore » 14 Nov 2013, 01:22

Have you looked at http://www.royalartilleryunitsnetherlan . ction.html OK the site only covers regiments that saw service in Holland and does not have a history for some regiments listed. Hopefully it will enable you to fill in some of the gaps.

There is always Mike Simpson's Trux information on WW2 Talk, http://ww2talk.com/forums/topic/23672-h . -contents/ he gives the following brigades and regiments that served under 21st Army Group but does not allocate which regiments were in which brigades and when they landed in France.
HQ Anti Aircraft Brigades Nos 31, 50, 74, 75, 76, 80, 100, 101, 103, 105, 106, 107 and 5 RM
Heavy Anti Aircraft Regiments Nos 60, 64, 86, 90, 98, 99, 103, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116, 118, 121, 132, 137, 139, 146, 155, 165, 174, 176, 183 and 3RM
Light Anti Aircraft Regiments Nos 4, 20, 26, 32, 54, 71, 73, 93, 102, 109, 113, 114, 120, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 133, 139, 149, 150 and 4RM

He also list which light AA regiments were with which divisions.

The searchlight units, AA ops rooms etc are not listed. The REME workshops, including the searchlight workhops are listed.

Don't forget the RAF regiment also provided some AA defence. Light Anti Aircraft Squadrons Nos 2701, 2703, 2715, 2734, 2736, 2760, 2786, 2773, 2791, 2794, 2800, 2809, 2812, 2817, 2819, 2823, 2824, 2826, 2834, 2838, 2845, 2872, 2873, 2874, 2875, 2876, 2880 and 2881.

It might be worth contacting Mike to see if he has more information. I have done so in the past regarding the landing tables for Sword Beach and he helped me.

Re: Light and heavy AA regiments, June 1944

Post by Gary Kennedy » 14 Nov 2013, 03:03

Leo Niehorster wrote: Hi Gary,
Yes, I have been there. Unfortunately, not all the regimental batteries are identified, and there is no indication of their type, (SP'd, static, mobile, mixed, 40mm, 20mm, 3-inch, 3.7-inch, etc.).

To the best of my knowledge all the Light Regts had 40-mm Btys and all the Heavy Regts 3.7-in Btys. The 20mm Tps were attached to Div LAA Regts, one per Bty. SP Btys were exclusive to the Assault Divs and Armd Div LAA Regts. I don't think there were any 3-inch AA guns in the RA for that period? If by mixed you mean male and female personnel, there were three HAA Regts of that type sent to Europe as part of the defence of Antwerp I seem to recall, which organisation generated some unique units. I don't know what HAA Regts were static, mobile or semi-mobile either I'm afraid. The WEs for the AA Bde (Mobile) elements are available, but were issued in 1942/43, so are a long ways back in the records. I did post for help on the structure of the AA Bdes but it didn't turn up much sadly. I think they were a little like AGRAs and prone to reinforcement for particular jobs.

Re: Light and heavy AA regiments, June 1944

Post by Clive Mortimore » 14 Nov 2013, 09:25

Light AA regiments were equiped as follows
A Corp LAA Battery with all guns towed by a 4 X 4 tractor.
An infantry division LAA Battery with one troop of SP guns (Morris or CMP 4X4).
An armoured division LAA Battery with all guns SP (Crusaders).

Some LAA batteries seem to have been armed with triple 20mm guns in place of 40mm Bofors.

Batteries landing with the Assault Divisions on the first tide had Crusader SP guns which towed a second gun on to the beach. Some guns were triple 20mm not Bofors. The gun tractors landing much later. The second tide was similar but this time it was Morris 4x4 SP guns towing a second Bofors.

Re: Light and heavy AA regiments, June 1944

Post by Leo Niehorster » 14 Nov 2013, 10:27

Thanks for your comments. I have ordered the AA book by Routledge. Let's see what it brings.
The link offered to the units operating in Holland does indeed provide some insights, but it is, unfortunately, only a patchwork of information. It could well be that it will be necessary to access the NA records in Kew.

Thanks for the reminder of the RAF Light Anti Aircraft Squadrons.

However, please note that the Cromwell AA equipped regiments were not divisional units.
The 73rd, 114th, and 120th LAA Rgt (each equipped with 30 Crusaders SP'd 40mm guns, and each towing a second 40mm gun during the assault), and were part of the 76th and 80th AA Brigades. The 93rd LAA Rgt had (the only) 27 Crusaders equipped with triple 20mm guns. Each towed a triple 20-mm gun during the assault. It was an 80th AA Brigade unit.

Re: Mixed. I meant a combination 40 and 20mm, or other calibers, for that matter. (I didn't know the Brits had the their own "Flakhelferinnen" in action in Europe.)
Are you saying that ALL divisional (armoured, infantry, and airborne) LAA batteries had an additional (20mm Polsten) section, or did these replace the third section?

Re: Light and heavy AA regiments, June 1944

Post by Sheldrake » 14 Nov 2013, 12:36

One complicating factor is that the AA units were reorganised and rerolled during the Normandy campaign. Prior to D Day the allies, not unreasonably, anticipated the worst case by the Luftwaffe against the beachhead. The British Army converted a couple of dozen infantry battalions into LAA Regiments in 1942. Around 50% of Gunners landed early in the invasion would be AA gunners. There was also a conscious decision to take HAA regiments over Medium artillery as the 3.7" could be used in the anti tank and field role and had a similar range to the 5.5" gun.,

As the extent of allied air superiority became clear, the British reduced the size of LAA units, transferring soldiers back to the infantry and redeployed some HAA troops with their radars in the coast defence and counter mortar roles.

AA units were also deployed in some specialist roles, e.g. manning the 40mm guns mounted on Mulberry harbour sections.

Re: Light and heavy AA regiments, June 1944

Post by Gary Kennedy » 15 Nov 2013, 15:15

Leo Niehorster wrote: Thanks for your comments. I have ordered the AA book by Routledge. Let's see what it brings.
The link offered to the units operating in Holland does indeed provide some insights, but it is, unfortunately, only a patchwork of information. It could well be that it will be necessary to access the NA records in Kew.

Thanks for the reminder of the RAF Light Anti Aircraft Squadrons.

However, please note that the Cromwell AA equipped regiments were not divisional units.
The 73rd, 114th, and 120th LAA Rgt (each equipped with 30 Crusaders SP'd 40mm guns, and each towing a second 40mm gun during the assault), and were part of the 76th and 80th AA Brigades. The 93rd LAA Rgt had (the only) 27 Crusaders equipped with triple 20mm guns. Each towed a triple 20-mm gun during the assault. It was an 80th AA Brigade unit.

Re: Mixed. I meant a combination 40 and 20mm, or other calibers, for that matter. (I didn't know the Brits had the their own "Flakhelferinnen" in action in Europe.)
Are you saying that ALL divisional (armoured, infantry, and airborne) LAA batteries had an additional (20mm Polsten) section, or did these replace the third section?

The LAA Regts were homogenous in terms of weapons until shortly before D-Day, being based on fifty-four 40-mm guns. There was a great emphasis on AA protection given the beatings handed out by the Luftwaffe early war, and alongside the LAA Regts it was planned that 20-mm guns would be distributed through various units of the Inf and Armd Divs, but this policy was changed in early 1944 (also wrapped up it appears with the change from Support Bns back to MG Bns). Instead a Tp of eight 20-mm guns was to be created for attachment to each Divisional LAA Bty, giving eighteen 40-mm and eight 20-mm weapons per Bty. I've not seen anything to indicate the same additions were to be made to Corps or Army LAA Regts.

What I was also unable to do was establish just how many of these 20-mm Tps were actually formed and sent to NWE early 1944 was a little late in the day to start forming shedloads of new subunits, but Canadian records indicate their Tps were up to strength in terms of guns at least by Apr/May 1944. Units in Italy do not look to have followed this development.

The addition of those 20-mm Tps pushed the LAA Regt strength up to over 1000 all ranks, and it was quickly found that, while the Luftwaffe was far from dead and buried, things weren't what they used to be. The 20-mm Tps were disbanded and the 40-mm Btys were reduced from eighteen to twelve guns (with the third 40-mm Tp deleted), freeing up a good chunk of manpower as alluded to above So, there were mixed Btys in terms of weapons, but not for vey long (though they did persist in the Light WEs intended for the Far East).

As you detailed above, SP 40-mm guns were wheeled, not tracked, despite what some books say! I couldn't find any WEs listed for the specialist AA units equipped with Crusader mounted weapons for D-Day.

Heavy AA Regts were all 3.7-inch guns, three Btys of eight apiece, so straightforward enough. The Mixed Regts I referred to were 137, 139 and 155, which were transferred over to NWE for static defence. I found a nice webpage on one of them at least a while ago, but of course can't find it again now! As memory serves they were part of the response to V weapons being launched against Antwerp, so not part of the mobile AA Bdes. Perhaps someone else can conjure up the page.

I do have a Unit Entitlement/Holdings for RA guns for Feb 1945, which gives a UE of 720 3.7-inch guns (all held), 1338 40-mm towed (1302 held) and 432 40-mm wheeled (468 held). Later than you Jun 1944 period I know, but the best I can offer.


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As American settlement moved west, the U.S. marshals went with it to uphold the law in remote, sparsely populated territories. The Federal Court for the Western District of Arkansas was created in 1851 and, until 1896, held jurisdiction over 13 Arkansas counties and all or parts of the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). This vast area was home to the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks and Seminoles, removed from their homelands in the Southeast by the U.S. government during the 1830s.

On May 4th 1887 Deputy U.S. Marshal Daniel Maples of Bentonville went into the Cherokee Nation to serve three liquor warrants and was murdered. Judge Isaac Parker, Fort Smith Federal Judge known as the "Hanging Judge," assumed jurisdiction since it was one of his white Marshals who had been killed.

Judge Isaac C."Hangin' Judge" Parker, circa 1875.

U.S. Marshal Henry Andrew "Heck" Thomas pushed into the Nations and was told by John Pariss that Maples had been murdered by a full blooded Cherokee called Ned Christie, resident of a wild area southeast of Tahlequah, capital of the Cherokee nation. Ned Christie was blacksmith, gunsmith, and Senator of the Cherokee nation. This led Judge Parker to issue a warrant for Christie's arrest for murder. Thomas took a posse into this rabbit warren, full of Christie's friends and relatives. They surrounded Christie's shack at dawn and Christie was summoned to surrender. The only answer was a blast of rifle fire from Christie and a cohort. Thomas set fire to an outbuilding of the cabin, and as the cabin blazed Christie and his henchman bolted for safety. The hired man went down, hit twice, and a slug from Thomas tore the bridge of Christie's nose and knocked out his left eye. In spite of his terrible wound, the Cherokee made it to safety and was nursed back to health by his friends.

For five years, the U. S. Marshals were unable to apprehend Christie although he never left his home. His home, however, was burned to the ground. In 1891 another warrant was issued for Christie's arrest for assault, presumably on Deputy Marshals. Ned built a new stronger home. This double-walled structure, a cabin with another cabin wall around it and filled with sand in between, was later described as a log fort.

For months Deputy Marshals Heck Bruner and Barney Connelly trailed Ned Christie without success. The marshals learned that Ned Christie was holding up in the new home (the log fort) at the mouth of a narrow canyon called Rabbit Trap Hollow, fourteen miles from Tahlequah. About daylight on the morning of November 2nd1892, the place was surrounded by sixteen of the bravest men under Marshal Jacob Yoes' command, led by Heck Bruner and Captain G. S. White. Among these men were Deputy Marshals Dove Rusk, Charles Copeland, Creekmore and Dye and possemen Bowers and Fields. One man with a rifle could have held off a posse indefinitely. The battle raged into the afternoon without results. Several deputies had holes burned in their clothing by Christie's bullets. Christie was a dead shot, and none were so foolish as to rush the outlaw's hot Winchester.

Heck Bruner reported the situation to Marshal Yoes at Fort Smith. Yoes was determined to take the Christie at any cost. He ordered Paden Tolbert to assemble a second posse. This second posse is believed to have been composed of the following men:

Clarksville, AR: Paden Tolbert, Deputy Marshal Frank (Becky) Polk, cook and the only black on the posse Frank Sarber, 18 years old Harry Clayland, 17 years old Vint Gray Tom Blackard and Oscar Blackard

Bentonville, AR: Sam Maples George Jefferson and Mack Peel

Hartshorne, IT: E. B. Ratteree

Poteau, IT: James Birkett, Policeman

Fort Smith Museum of History. As was often the case, U.S. deputy marshals pose with the outlaw, Ned Christie, they had captured and killed. Christie's corpse leans against a board, third from the left.

Paden Tolbert and his posse met with Deputy Marshals Smith and Johnson at Baron Fork, IT, Heck Bruner and Copeland at Summer's Post, IT, and John Tolbert and his group of Deputies (that probably include Lewis "Ab" Allen) at Fort Smith, AR. This group was dispatched to Coffeyville, where they obtained a three pound cannon. Hauling the cannon in a wagon, the party returned to the scene. They hurled thirty balls into the fort without effect before finally breaking the cannon. According to legend, this was the only time until Waco when the government used artillery on a citizen. Eventually, the deputies fashioned a rolling shield out of a wagon loaded with timber. Using this shield they got close enough for Deputy Copeland to lob dynamite into the structure. Christie attempted to escape in the smoke but was shot down.

Ned's dead body was tied to a plank door, and traveled to Fayetteville where people posed for pictures with the "notorious outlaw." The body was then taken to Fort Smith so that the deputies could collect their rewards. There, Ned's body was put on public display, with a rifle propped in his arms. The body was then shipped by train to Fort Gibson, Indian Territory where Ned's father Watt and brother James claimed the remains. He was taken by wagon to Wauhilla, and laid to rest.

The Allen ConnectionThree photos have come to light that seem to associate the Allen family of Johnson County, Arkansas with the U.S. Marshals involved in the capture and killing of Ned Christie. Unfortunately, the gentlemen in these photos have not yet been positively linked to the Johnson County Allens.

Photo #1 was provided by CeCe Reynolds, great granddaughter of Ab Allen. It appeared in an Oklahoma City newspaper article related to the capture and killing of Ned Christie. The original is in the museum in Fort Smith. The Ab Allen in the photo is Absolum "A.B." Allen who was sworn in as a Deputy Marshal along with Wes Bowman in 1891. His relationship to the descendants of William Allen has not been established.

Photo #1: Ten of the 16 deputy marshals in the posse that killed Ned Christie: Standing, from left, Wes Bowman, Ab Allen, John Tolbert, Bill Smith and Tom Johnson. Seated, from left Dove Rusk, Jack Bruner, Paden Tolbert, Charles Copeland and Captain G. S. White. It is believed that this is the first posse on the scene. Courtesy of CeCe Reynolds.

Photo #2 is in the possession of Ann (Kraus) Ferguson. It was found in an old album containing mostly Allen photos that was handed down to her by her mother, Alice (Allen) Kraus. Ann was told that these men were U.S. Deputy Marshals and that the photo was taken in Oklahoma, but she was unable to identify anyone in the photo. The same photo was published in the book "Iron Men" along with a caption and was shown in the A&E History Channel presentation "U.S. Marshals". In "Iron Men" it is identified as Paden Tolbert's posse in front of Ned Christie's sawmill. Paden Tolbert appears in both Photo #1 and Photo #2 and obviously document the same event.

Photo #2: Paden Tolbert's posse, 1892, posed by the steam-driven sawmill Christie used to construct his log fort. L. to R.: Becky Polk [incorrect], Federal Policeman James Birkett, Oscar Blackard, Frank Sarbar, Vint Gray, Tom Blackard, Mack Peel, Harry Clayland, G. Jefferson and Paden Tolbert. [from "Iron Men"]. This is believed to be the second posse on the scene. Courtesy Ann Ferguson.

Photo #3 is also in the possession of Ann Ferguson. It was found in the same family album as Photo #2. This is another shot of Tolbert's posse. Since the men appear to be dressed in the same clothes, this photo is believed to have been taken in or near Ned Christie's log fort on the same day.

Photo #3: Paden Tolbert's posse, standing, L. to R.: Paden Tolbert, Mack Peel, Oscar Blackard, Vint Gray, unknown seated L. to R. Harry Clayland, G. Jefferson, unknown, Tom Blackard, unknown, front row, L. to R., Frank "Becky" Polk, Frank Sarbar (18 years old).

Ab Allen is mentioned several times in the book, "Iron Men" written by C. H. McKennon in 1967. The book starts in the post Civil War days in Clarksville which were tough, tough times. The book is about several men from the Johnson County and their experiences as Deputy Marshals. In this book, Ab is said to have taught school, served on local posses and worked with his father who was a blacksmith and wagon maker. His relationship to the William Allen line as not been established and none of the other gentlemen in Photo #1 have been linked to the William Allen family.

Ab Allen was the son of John Allen and Louvena Brasel. John and Louvena were both born in Tennessee. Their first two known children were born in Missouri (c1857 and c1860). Absalom was born 1865 in Johnson County, Arkansas. John and Louvena are found in Newton County in 1870 where John worked as a farm laborer and in 1880 in Johnson County where John was a farmer. Absalom married Rosetta Beasley, daughter of Quinton Beasley and Elizabeth Skaggs, on 21 September 1890 in Johnson County. That same year Ab joined the US Marshall's service in Fort Smith. Rosetta's sister, Mary Eveline Beasley married to James Wesley 'Wes' Bowman. Wes was on the second posse with Ab Allen and is the man who shot Ned Christie. Before 1900 Ab and Rosetta seperated. She moved with their children to the west coast and remarried.

According to the caption of the Photo #2 that also appears in the book "Iron Men," this is Paden Tolbert's posse posing in front of the sawmill used to build Ned Christie's "fort." That places the location at Rabbit Trap Hollow southeast of Tahlequah and the date is probably November 1892. Note that Paden Tolbert appears in both Photos #1 and #2 and both photos are tied to the taking of Ned Christie. Photo #3 is of Paden Tolbert and many of the same men in Photo #1. It was probably taken the same day in Rabbit Trap Hollow. There are no Allens or known relatives in Photos #2 or #3. So why are these photos in a very formal and expensive turn of the century Allen family photo album?

There is obviously some connection to the descendants of William Allen and this event. Though no family stories related to U.S. Marshals have surfaced in the Allen family. If Ab is not related to John William it is possible that someone else in the photos is related through marriage to our Allens or possibly the descendants of Jacob Kraus or Meltire Kendall. There are a few Kraus and Kendall photos in Ann Ferguson's album and a number of Kraus family members lived in Hagarville at the turn of the century. There may, in fact, be no relationship. In 1900 John Russell Tolbert, Paden's father, lived next door to George W. Kraus, Ann Ferguson's granduncle. Perhaps the fact that the Tolberts were friends and next door neighbors of the Krauses was significant enough to warrant placing photos of the event in the Kraus Family Album. Indeed, the Tolberts may have given the photos to the Krauses. For now, the connection is still a mystery.

Names Mentioned in this Report
and their presumed role in the taking of ChristieAb Allen, second posse, Deputy Marshal, photo # 1James Birkett, second posse, policeman, Deputy Marshal, Poteau, IT, photo # 2Oscar Blackard, second posse, Clarksville, photo #2, photo # 3Tom Blackard, second posse, Clarksville, photo #2, photo # 3Jim Bowers, first posse, Deputy Marshal, wounded by ChristieJames Wesley Bowman, second posse, Deputy Marshal, photo #1, shot Ned Christie, died in 1957 at a rest home in Seminole, Oklahoma, father John Wesley "Butler" Bowman who died in Fort Douglas, Arkansas in 1899.Eli Hickman "Heck" Bruner, first posse, Siloam Springs, headquartered in Vinita, IT, future Deputy Marshal, co-leader, photo #1, formerly served as posseman under Barney Connelly, bonded on May 29, 1893 and again on July 10, 1896, died in 1902 attempting to swim across the Grand River. According to The US Department of Justice Hickman died June 22, 1898, his father was Eli Woodruff Bruner who died 1879 in Benton County, Arkansas.Ned Christie, perpetrator, presumed murderer of Daniel MaplesHarry Clayland, second posse, 17 years old, Deputy Marshall, Clarksville, photo #2, photo #3, bonded in 1892, a Harry Clayland was a guard at the Federal Jail in McAlester, OK in 1905.Bernard "Barney" Connelly, first posse, Deputy Marshal, Siloam Springs, died of pneumonia at Drumright, Oklahoma in 1924. Another source indicates that Deputy Barney Connelly of Siloam Springs was also killed in the line of duty. Fellow deputy Sheppard Busby was executed for the killing.Charles E. Copeland, first posse, Siloam Springs, Deputy Marshall, photo #1, died of pneumonia at Drumright, Oklahoma in 1924.Milo Creekmore, Deputy Marshal, first posse, co-leaderD. C. Dye, Deputy Marshal, first posseJohn Fields, first posse, Deputy Marshal, wounded by Christie., later killed in the line of duty.Vint Gray second posse, Clarksville, photo #2, photo # 3George Jefferson, second posse, Bentonville, photo #2, photo # 3Thomas B. "Tom" Johnson, second posse, Deputy Marshal, photo #1, died in 1940 in Glendale, CaliforniaDaniel "Dan" Maples, victim, Bentonville, Deputy Marshal, murdered by Ned Christie in 5 May 1887Sam Maples, second posse, Bentonville, Deputy MarshalJohn Pariss, accuser of Ned Christie, Indian Bootlegger, Outlaw, one of the two accused of the killing U. S. Deputy Marshal Dan Maples, arrested by Deputy John CurtisIsaac Parker, Territorial JudgeMack Peel, second posse, Bentonville, photo #2, photo # 3Frank "Becky" Polk, second posse, cook and only black, photo # 3E . B. Ratteree, second posse, Hartshorne, IT, Deputy MarshallDave V. Rusk, Deputy Marshal, first posse, photo # 1Frank Sarber, second posse, 18 years old. Clarksville, photo #2, photo # 3Bill Smith, second posse, Fayettville, headquartered in Vinita, IT, Deputy Marshal, photo # 1Henry Andrew "Heck" Thomas, U.S. Marshal, 1887, Thomas, a native Georgian, was 12 when he served as a Confederate Army courier after the War, while working as a private detective in Texas, he single handed, captured two desperadoes, and won renown among outlaws as a man to be shunned. Thomas provided much of the muscle in Judge Parker's crusade against outlaws, and came through Craig County often. Thomas would miss this last act of the Christie drama--he had been transferred from Fort Smith. Heck Thomas was a legendary U.S. marshal working out of the Fort Smith court of Isaac Parker, the "hanging judge." During those years, he worked with Bill Tilghman and Chris Madsen, making up a trio that gained fame in the territory as the "three guardsmen." Most historians find it difficult to say that any one of them was superior to the others however, a recent traveling exhibit on U.S. marshals by the Smithsonian calls Thomas the best of the best. Later in his career he served as chief of police at Lawton, Oklahoma, and as a deputy U.S. marshal for the western district of Oklahoma.John R. Tolbert, second posse, Clarksville, photo #1, died in 1944 at ClarksvillePaden Tolbert, second posse, Clarksville, headquartered in Vinita, IT, Deputy Marshal, photo #1, photo #2, photo #3, died April 24, 1904. The town of Paden, Oklahoma was established January 21, 1903 and named for Paden Tolbert.Captain Gideon S. "Cap" White, first posse, photo #1, died 1914 in Lavita, ColoradoJacob Yoes, U.S. Marshal, 1892

Deputy Marshal Barney Connelley was killed August 19, 1891, by Sheppard Busby. Busby was hanged for his crime April 27, 1892 at Fort Smith. Glenn Shirley's "Law West of Fort Smith," 1957/68, page 48.C. H. McKennon's, "Iron Men," 1967, pages 135, 139, and 207.A murder that Christie may not have committed, according to interview of Phillip Steele, Springdale, Arkansas, August 19-20, 1987. Also see Bonnie S. Speer's "The Killing of Ned Christie."Glenn Shirley's "Law West of Fort Smith," pages 54-55.Wayne T. Walker's "Ned Christie Terror of Cookson Hills," Real West, November 1978, page 58. In his article, Walker lists 24 members of the posse who participated in the battle.Joe Pride's "The Battle of Tahlequah Canyon," True West, October 1963. According to Pride, both Heck Thomas and Heck Bruner were members of the posse. This isn't true, because Thomas was busy elsewhere hunting for the Dalton-Doolin gang. However, it is a fact that Heck Thomas shot and wounded Ned Christie on Sept. 26, 1889. The bullet shattered the bridge of his nose and put out his left (or right) eye. See Speer, listed above.dBill O'Neal's "Encyclopedia of Western Gunfighters," 1979, page 59.Robert Roy's "Oklahoma Bandit Hideout," Real West, November 1975, page 55. Roy claimed that Heck Bruner was hit by a bullet in the shoulder and leg and was taken to a hospital in Fayetteville. A month later he walked out of the place completely recovered. This cannot be true, because a photo of Bruner and some members of the posse represent them with the body of Ned Christie on the steps of Parker's court at Fort Smith. This and another photo with Bruner were taken on or about November 3, 1892.Phillip Rand's "Blood in the Cookson Hills," Real West, January 1958, pages 30 and 62. This author also claims that Bruner was wounded in his shoulder and leg. Furthermore, Rand also claims that six bodies of Indians were found inside the fort and five members of the posse were killed. In fact, the only casualties to be found were several wounded deputies and the dead Ned Christie. The wounded Little Arch was later apprehended and sentenced to a prison term.

R. L POLK & CO’S SOUTH MCALESTER CITY DIRECTORY including MCALESTER, KREBS, ALDERSON AND BUSBY, 1905


MNMD Stock: 9 Things to Know Before MindMed Hits the Nasdaq on April 27

MindMed (OTCMKTS: MMEDF ) stock has been climbing recently in anticipation of its uplisting on the Nasdaq Exchange this week, where it will trade as MNMD stock. The company&rsquos announcement that it will be hitting the exchange came Friday morning, and drove the stock up over 65% in the last trading session of the week. Investors can expect to see these numbers continuing through Monday as the listing grows closer.

As investors&rsquo excitement continues to build over the burgeoning industry, there is a key theme to watch. Specifically, the listing of MindMed on the Nasdaq signifies a rapid shift in interest over psychedelics.

With that in mind, here&rsquos everything investors need to know ahead of the MNMD stock uplisting:

What to Know About MindMed and MNMD Stock Now

  • MindMed offers therapeutic and medicinal treatments for adults.
  • The company seeks to treat symptoms primarily of ADHD, anxiety and opioid dependence.
  • MindMed is one of the leaders of the psychedelic medicine industry, a booming sector in the wake of the increasing decriminalization of psychedelic substances.
  • Subordinate voting shares were approved on Friday.
  • The listing will take place tomorrow, April 27.
  • MMEDF stock is still trading today, but on Tuesday, the stock&rsquos ticker for U.S. investors will change to MNMD.
  • Trading of the stock will continue on the Neo Exchange for German and Canadian traders under the ticker MMED.
  • The listing capitalizes on the growing interest in psilocybin mushrooms. But, the company also produces medicine with ingredients like MDMA, LSD, DMT and 18-MC.
  • The listing&rsquos news is boosting not just MNMD stock, but also industry peers. Numinus Wellness (OTCMKTS: LKYSF ) and Champignon Brands (OTCMKTS: SHRMF ) have each gained in the wake of the MNMD stock listing news.

MMEDF stock saw a 65% upswing Friday. At open today, the stock is already jumping higher, gaining over 37% and trading at $4.80. Trading volume is also already double its norm, with 11 million shares changing hands against the average 2.8 million. The boom has rocketed MMEDF past its previous 52-week high.

On the date of publication, Brenden Rearick did not have (either directly or indirectly) any positions in the securities mentioned in this article.


1944 St. Louis Browns Statistics

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Much of the play-by-play, game results, and transaction information both shown and used to create certain data sets was obtained free of charge from and is copyrighted by RetroSheet.

Win Expectancy, Run Expectancy, and Leverage Index calculations provided by Tom Tango of InsideTheBook.com, and co-author of The Book: Playing the Percentages in Baseball.

Total Zone Rating and initial framework for Wins above Replacement calculations provided by Sean Smith.

Full-year historical Major League statistics provided by Pete Palmer and Gary Gillette of Hidden Game Sports.

Some defensive statistics Copyright © Baseball Info Solutions, 2010-2021.

Some high school data is courtesy David McWater.

Many historical player head shots courtesy of David Davis. Many thanks to him. All images are property the copyright holder and are displayed here for informational purposes only.


Watch the video: DIE DEUTSCHE WOCHENSCHAU, NO. 699, 1944