Central Park Zoo

Central Park Zoo

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Since the 1860s, exotic animals could be observed at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street in Central Park. That was when the more formal Central Park Menagerie was established.In 1934, Commissioner of Parks Robert Moses remodeled the menagerie to become the Central Park Zoo. A Works Progress Administration (WPA) project, the tiny "storybook" zoo set a standard for its time — but over the decades, it became a woefully inadequate facility for its inhabitants.In April 1980, the Wildlife Conservation Society signed an agreement with the City of New York to renovate and operate the zoo for the Department of Parks and Recreation. Today, this "newest, oldest" zoo attracts nearly one million visitors a year.Visitors can transition from a steamy rain forest to an icy Antarctic penguin habitat. The Tisch Children's Zoo, added in 1997, lets little animal lovers meet gentle creatures up close. The Zoo offers year-round education classes and innovative public programs.

Central Park Zoo

The first incarnation of the zoo in Central Park came about almost by accident. It began with New Yorkers dropping off unwanted animals at the arsenal. These included everything from 72 white swan to a black bear cub (everything, that is, except the apocryphal alligators that found their way to the sewer system.) In 1864 the legislature approved the construction of a several buildings to house the growing collection and the Central Park Menagerie was born. In 1934 Parks Commissioner Robert Moses used Works Progress Administration (WPA) funds to construct what was, for its time, a state-of-the-art facility. Designed with a storybook theme the new Central Park Zoo provided a greatly improved home for the animals and a wonderful place to visit them.

As time passed, however, it became apparent that the zoo was becoming woefully inadequate for residents. In the spring of 1980 the Wildlife Conservation Society entered into an agreement with the City of New York to renovate and operate the zoo on behalf of the Parks Department. Construction was finished by 1985 and the new Central Park Zoo was a reality, and the park once again was home to a facility which is considered one of the finest of its kind. The zoo in Central Park now attracts nearly a million visitors a year from all over the world.

The new zoo is divided in several different sections that provide the animals with homes as close to their natural habitat as possible. These include tropic, temperate and polar zones that house everything from tiny leafcutter ants to hugely popular polar bears. The zoo is also actively involved the preservation of endangered species, providing a home for rare tamarin monkeys, Wyoming toads, thick-billed parrots, and red pandas. Rumors of a secret exhibit featuring English-speaking cab drivers have never been confirmed.

The zoo has always held a special spot in the hearts of New Yorkers who have come to adopt the animals as prized members of the metropolitan community. The early menagerie was home to “Murphy” the hippo and “Mike Crowley,” the first chimpanzee ever shown in the United States. In fact, when Mr. Crowley took ill, get well cards poured in from fans all over the city.

Central Park History

Central Park was the first landscaped public park in the United States. Advocates of creating the park–primarily wealthy merchants and landowners–admired the public grounds of London and Paris and urged that New York needed a comparable facility to establish its international reputation. A public park, they argued, would offer their own families an attractive setting for carriage rides and provide working-class New Yorkers with a healthy alternative to the saloon. After three years of debate over the park site and cost, in 1853 the state legislature authorized the City of New York to use the power of eminent domain to acquire more than 700 acres of land in the center of Manhattan.

An irregular terrain of swamps and bluffs, punctuated by rocky outcroppings, made the land between Fifth and Eighth avenues and 59th and 106th streets undesirable for private development. Creating the park, however, required displacing roughly 1,600 poor residents, including Irish pig farmers and German gardeners, who lived in shanties on the site. At Eighth Avenue and 82nd Street, Seneca Village had been one of the city’s most stable African-American settlements, with three churches and a school. The extension of the boundaries to 110th Streetin 1863 brought the park to its current 843 acres.

The question of who should exercise political control of this new kind of public institution was a point of contention throughout the nineteenth century. In appointing the first Central Park Commission (1857-1870), the Republican-dominated state legislature abandoned the principle of “home rule” in order to keep the park out of the hands of locally-elected (and primarily Democratic) office holders. Under the leadership of Andrew Green, the commission became the city’s first planning agency and oversaw the laying out of uptown Manhattan as well as the management of the park. After a new citycharter in 1870 restored the park to local control, the mayor appointed park commissioners.

In 1857, the Central Park Commission held the country’s first landscape design contest and selected the “Greensward Plan,” submitted by Frederick Law Olmsted, the park’s superintendent at the time, and Calvert Vaux, an English-born architect and former partner of the popular landscape gardener, Andrew Jackson Downing. The designers sought to create a pastoral landscape in the English romantic tradition. Open rolling meadows contrasted with the picturesque effects of the Ramble and the more formal dress grounds of the Mall (Promenade) and Bethesda Terrace. In order to maintain a feeling of uninterrupted expanse, Olmsted and Vaux sank four Transverse Roads eight feet below the park’s surface to carry cross-town traffic. Responding to pressure from local critics, the designers also revised their plan’s circulation system to separate carriage drives, pedestrian walks, and equestrian paths. Vaux, assisted by Jacob Wrey Mould, designed more than forty bridges to eliminate grade crossings between the different routes.

The building of Central Park was one of nineteenth-century New York’s most massive public works projects. Some 20,000 workers–Yankee engineers, Irish laborers, German gardeners, and native-born stonecutters–reshaped the site’s topography to create the pastoral landscape. After blasting out rocky ridges with more gunpowder than was later fired at the Battle of Gettysburg, workers moved nearly 3 million cubic yards of soil and planted more than 270,000 trees and shrubs. The city also built the curvilinear reservoir immediately north of an existing rectangular receiving reservoir. The park first opened for public use in the winter of 1859 when thousands of New Yorkers skated on lakes constructed on the site of former swamps. By 1865, the park received more than seven million visitors a year. The city’s wealthiest citizens turned out daily for elaborate late-afternoon carriage parades. Indeed, in the park’s first decade more than half of its visitors arrived in carriages, costly vehicles that fewer than five percent of the city’s residents could afford to own. Middle-class New Yorkers also flocked to the park for winter skating and summer concerts on Saturday afternoons. Stringent rules governing park use–for example, a ban on group picnics–discouraged many German and Irish New Yorkers from visiting the park in its first decade. Small tradesmen were not allowed to use their commercial wagons for family drives in the park, and only school boys with a note from their principal could play ball on the meadows. New Yorkers repeatedly contested these rules, however, and in the last third of the century the park opened up to more democratic use. In the 1880s, working-class New Yorkers successfully campaigned for concerts on Sunday, their only day of rest. Park commissioners gradually permitted other attractions, from the Carousel and goat rides to tennis on the lawns and bicycling on the drives. The Zoo, first given permanent quarters in 1871, quickly became the park’s most popular feature.

In the early twentieth century, with the emergence of immigrant neighborhoods at the park’s borders, attendance reached its all time high. Progressive reformers joined many working-class New Yorkers in advocating the introduction of facilities for active recreation. In 1927, August Heckscher donated the first equipped playground, located on the southeastern meadow. When plans were announced to drain the old rectangular reservoir at the park’s center, Progressives urged than it be replaced by a sports arena, swimming pool, and playing fields. Other New Yorkers, influenced by the City Beautiful movement, proposed introducing a formal civic plaza and promenade that would connect the two museums at the park’s east and west borders. Landscape architects and preservationists campaigned against these design innovations, however, and the site of the reservoir was naturalistically landscaped into the Great Lawn. Such debates over modifications of the Greensward Plan and proper uses of a public park have persisted into the present.

In 1934, Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia placed Robert Moses in charge of a new centralized citywide park system. During his twenty-six year regime, Moses introduced many of the facilities advocated by the progressive reformers. With the assistance of federal money during the Depression, Moses built 20 playgrounds on the park’s periphery, renovated the Zoo, realigned the drives to accommodate automobiles, added athletic fields to the North Meadow, and expanded recreational programming. In the early 1950s and early 1960s, private benefactors contributed the Wollman Skating Rink, the Lasker Rink and Pool, new boathouses, and the Chess and Checkers house. Moses also introduced permanent ball fields to the Great Lawn for corporate softball and neighborhood little league teams.

In the 1960s, Mayor John Lindsay’s two park commissioners, Thomas Hoving and August Heckscher, welcomed “happenings,” rock concerts, and be-ins to the park, making it a symbol of both urban revival and the counterculture. In the 1970s, however, severe budget cuts during a fiscal crisis, a long-term decline in maintenance, and the revival of the preservation movement prompted a new approach to managing the park. In 1980, the Central Park Conservancy, a private fundraising body, took charge of restoring features of the Greensward Plan, including the Sheep Meadow, the Bethesda Terrace, and the Belvedere Castle(designed by Vaux and Mould). From 1980 to 1996, the Central Park Conservancy was led by Elizabeth Barlow Rogers, who was also appointed the Central Park Administrator in 1996, Karen Putnam assumed the dual private and public posts. By 1990, the private organization of the Central Park Conservancy contributed more than half the public park’s budget and exercised substantial influence on decisions about its future. Central Park, however, continues to be shaped by the public that uses it, from the joggers, disco roller skaters, and softball leagues to bird watchers and nature lovers.

The previous entry on “Central Park” is excerpted from The Encyclopedia of New York City, edited by Kenneth T. Jackson and published by Yale University Press (1995). It is reprinted with the permission of the authors, Elizabeth Blackmar and Roy Rosenzweig. They are also the authors of The Park and the People: A History of Central Park, which was published in 1992 and is available in paperback from Cornell University Press. The Park and the People was awarded a number of prizes, including the Historic Preservation Book Award and the Urban History Association Prize for Best Book in North American Urban History.
Click here to purchase “The Park and the People” from Amazon

Top Zoo Attractions

Location: E. 64th St & 5th Ave, New York, NY | MAP

Phone: +1 (212) 439-6500

Zoo Hours

March 27, 2021 to November 6, 2021

Monday to Friday: 10:00 AM to 5:00 PM

Weekends: 10:00 AM to 5:30 PM

November 7, 2021 to March 2022

*Last entry is 30 minutes before close time


All visitors must have a date-specific ticket.

General Admission

Main zoo & Tisch Children's Zoo

-$13.95 (adult), $8.95 (kids 3-12), $10.95 (senior)

Total Experience

Also includes 1 visit to the 4-D Theater

-$19.95 (adult), $14.95 (kids 3-12), $16.95 (senior)

*Last tickets sold 30 minutes before close time

Zoo Programs

The Polar Circle houses Gentoo, King and Chinstrap Penguins along with Tufted Puffins. The Rain Forest houses a brilliant collection of tropical birds, frogs, lizards, snakes, toads, Black and White Ruffed Lemurs, Tamarins, and more. The Temperate Territory includes the California Sea Lion tank at the center of the exhibit, Red Pandas, Japanese Macaques, Swan Geese, and Snow Leopards.

Zoo History

The first incarnation of the zoo in Central Park came about almost by accident. It began with New Yorkers dropping off unwanted animals at the arsenal. In 1864 the legislature approved the construction of a several buildings to house the growing collection, and the Central Park Menagerie was born. In 1934 Parks Commissioner Robert Moses used Works Progress Administration (WPA) funds to construct the Central Park Zoo.

In the spring of 1980 the Wildlife Conservation Society entered into an agreement with the City of New York to renovate and operate the zoo on behalf of the Parks Department. The new zoo, which was built by 1985, is divided into sections which provide the animals with homes as close to their natural habitat as possible. The zoo is also actively involved the preservation of endangered species.

The zoo has always held a special spot in the hearts of New Yorkers who have come to adopt the animals as prized members of the metropolitan community. The early menagerie was home to "Murphy" the hippo and "Mike Crowley," the first chimpanzee ever shown in the United States.

Facts about Central Park Zoo 7: the snow leopard exhibit

The snow leopard exhibit is one of the interesting features in central park zoo. It was opened for public in 2009. When you are in the zoo, you can also spot the large free flight area for birds and fruit bats in the rainforest. Get facts about Central Park here.

Facts about Central Park Zoo 8: the attraction in children’s zoo

If you are in the children’s zoo, you can spot a medieval castle feature, a Noah’s Ark feature, a fiberglass whale statue and a petting area.

How to get from Museum of Natural History to Central Park Zoo?

Walk out from the AMNH and then take a right at the opposite side of the park and you will hit the zoo. The path about 3/4 across the park from AMNH is the one we took. But I would get a map and figure out which sites in the Park you want to see and zig zag. Just watch your directions/

I'd say the total distance between the museum and zoo is about 1 1/2 miles. I'd suggest after leaving the museum you head for Belvedere Castle, then the Loeb Boathouse, were you can have a casual lunch. Continue east and south as indicated above to the zoo.

The zoo is quite small, but also quite good. I thought the rain forest pavilion particularly interesting. Your daughter will probably also enjoy the penguins and sea lions. The snow leopards are usually sleeping. The polar bear Gus swims his laps. Sadly, his consort Ida was recently euthanized due to a medical condition. There is also a cafe in the zoo which seems popular with families.

A thriving African-American community

For African-Americans, Seneca Village offered the opportunity to live in an autonomous community far from the densely populated downtown. Despite New York State’s abolition of slavery in 1827, discrimination was still prevalent throughout New York City, and severely limited the lives of African-Americans. Seneca Village’s remote location likely provided a refuge from this climate. It also would have provided an escape from the unhealthy and crowded conditions of the City, and access to more space both inside and outside the home.

Compared to other African-Americans living in New York, residents of Seneca Village seem to have been more stable and prosperous—by 1855, approximately half of them owned their own homes. With property ownership came other rights not commonly held by African-Americans in the City—namely, the right to vote. In 1821, New York State required African-American men to own at least $250 in property and hold residency for at least three years to be able to vote. Of the 100 black New Yorkers eligible to vote in 1845, 10 lived in Seneca Village.

The fact that many residents were property owners contradicts some common misperceptions during the mid-19th century that the people living on the land slated for the Park were poor squatters living in shanties. While some residents lived in shanties and in crowded conditions, most lived in two-story homes. Census records show that residents were employed, with African-Americans typically employed as laborers and in service jobs, the main options for them at the time. Records also show that most children who lived in Seneca Village attended school.


Central Park is bordered by Central Park North at 110th Street Central Park South at 59th Street Central Park West at Eighth Avenue and Fifth Avenue on the east. The park is adjacent to the neighborhoods of Harlem to the north, Midtown Manhattan to the south, the Upper West Side to the west, and the Upper East Side to the east. It measures 2.5 miles (4.0 km) from north to south and 0.5 miles (0.80 km) from west to east. [3]

Design and layout Edit

Central Park is divided into three sections: the "North End" extending above the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir "Mid-Park", between the reservoir to the north and the Lake and Conservatory Water to the south and "South End" below the Lake and Conservatory Water. [4] The park has five visitor centers: Charles A. Dana Discovery Center, Belvedere Castle, Chess & Checkers House, the Dairy, and Columbus Circle. [5] [6]

The park has natural-looking plantings and landforms, having been almost entirely landscaped when built in the 1850s and 1860s. [7] [8] It has eight lakes and ponds that were created artificially by damming natural seeps and flows. [9] There are several wooded sections, lawns, meadows, and minor grassy areas. There are 21 children's playgrounds, [10] and 6.1 miles (9.8 km) of drives. [3] [11]

Central Park is the fifth-largest park in New York City, behind Pelham Bay Park, the Staten Island Greenbelt, Van Cortlandt Park, and Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, [12] with an area of 843 acres (341 ha 1.317 sq mi 3.41 km 2 ). [13] [14] Central Park constitutes its own United States census tract, numbered 143. According to American Community Survey five-year estimates, the park was home to four females with a median age of 19.8. [15] Though the 2010 United States Census recorded 25 residents within the census tract, park officials have rejected the claim of anyone permanently living there. [16]

Visitors Edit

Central Park is the most visited urban park in the United States [17] and one of the most visited tourist attractions worldwide, [18] with 42 million visitors in 2016. [19] The number of unique visitors is much lower a Central Park Conservancy report conducted in 2011 [update] found that between eight and nine million people visited Central Park, with 37 to 38 million visits between them. [20] By comparison, there were 25 million visitors in 2009, [21] and 12.3 million in 1973. [22]

The number of tourists as a proportion of total visitors is much lower: in 2009, one-fifth of the 25 million park visitors recorded that year were estimated to be tourists. [21] The 2011 Conservancy report gave a similar ratio of park usage: only 14% of visits are by people visiting Central Park for the first time. According to the report, nearly two-thirds of visitors are regular park users who enter the park at least once weekly, and about 70% of visitors live in New York City. Moreover, peak visitation occurred during summer weekends, and most visitors used the park for passive recreational activities such as walking or sightseeing, rather than for active sport. [20]

The park is maintained by the Central Park Conservancy, a private, not-for-profit organization that manages the park under a contract with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (NYC Parks), [13] in which the president of the Conservancy is the ex officio administrator of Central Park. It effectively oversees the work of both the private and public employees under the authority of the publicly appointed Central Park administrator, who reports to the parks commissioner and the conservancy's president. [13] The Central Park Conservancy was founded in 1980 as a nonprofit organization with a citizen board to assist with the city's initiatives to clean up and rehabilitate the park. [23] [24] The Conservancy took over the park's management duties from NYC Parks in 1998, though NYC Parks retained ownership of Central Park. [25] The Conservancy provides maintenance support and staff training programs for other public parks in New York City, and has assisted with the development of new parks such as the High Line and Brooklyn Bridge Park. [26]

Central Park is patrolled by its own New York City Police Department precinct, the 22nd (Central Park) Precinct, [a] at the 86th Street transverse. The precinct employs both regular police and auxiliary officers. [28] The 22nd Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 81.2% between 1990 and 2019. The precinct saw one murder, one rape, 21 robberies, seven felony assaults, one burglary, 37 grand larcenies, and one grand larceny auto in 2019. [29] The citywide New York City Parks Enforcement Patrol patrols Central Park, and the Central Park Conservancy sometimes hires seasonal Parks Enforcement Patrol officers to protect certain features such as the Conservatory Garden. [30]

A free volunteer medical emergency service, the Central Park Medical Unit, operates within Central Park. The unit operates a rapid-response patrol with bicycles, ambulances, and an all-terrain vehicle. Before the unit was established in 1975, the New York City Fire Department Bureau of EMS often took over 30 minutes to respond to incidents in the park. [31]

Planning Edit

Between 1821 and 1855, New York City's population nearly quadrupled. As the city expanded northward up Manhattan Island, people were drawn to the few existing open spaces, mainly cemeteries, for passive recreation. These were seen as escapes from the noise and chaotic life in the city, which at the time was almost entirely centered on Lower Manhattan. [32] The Commissioners' Plan of 1811, the outline for Manhattan's modern street grid, included several smaller open spaces but not Central Park. [33] As such, John Randel Jr. had surveyed the grounds for the construction of intersections within the modern-day park site. The only remaining surveying bolt from his survey is embedded in a rock north of the present Dairy and the 66th Street transverse, marking the location where West 65th Street would have intersected Sixth Avenue. [34] [35]

Site Edit

By the 1840s, members of the city's elite were publicly calling for the construction of a new large park in Manhattan. [32] At the time, Manhattan's seventeen squares comprised a combined 165 acres (67 ha) of land, the largest of which was the 10-acre (4 ha) Battery Park at Manhattan island's southern tip. [36] These plans were endorsed by New York Evening Post editor William Cullen Bryant, [37] [38] [39] and by Andrew Jackson Downing, one of the first American landscape designers. [37] [39] [40]

One of the first sites considered was Jones's Wood, a 160-acre (65 ha) tract of land between 66th and 75th streets on the Upper East Side. The acquisition was controversial because of its location, small size, and cost. [41] [42] [43] A bill to acquire Jones's Wood was invalidated as unconstitutional, [44] [45] and so attention turned to a second site: a 750-acre (300 ha) area known as "the Central Park", bounded by 59th and 106th streets between Fifth and Eighth avenues. [44] [46] Croton Aqueduct Board president Nicholas Dean, who proposed the Central Park site, chose it because the Croton Aqueduct's 35-acre (14 ha), 150-million-US-gallon (570 × 10 ^ 6 L) collecting reservoir would be in the geographical center. [44] [46] In July 1853, the New York State Legislature passed the Central Park Act, authorizing the purchase of the present-day site of Central Park. [47] [48]

The board of land commissioners conducted property assessments on more than 34,000 lots in the area, [49] completing them by July 1855. [50] While the assessments were ongoing, proposals to downsize the plans were vetoed by mayor Fernando Wood. [50] [51] [52] At the time, the site was occupied by free black people and Irish immigrants who had developed a property-owning community there since 1825. [53] [54] Most of the Central Park site's residents lived in small villages, such as Pigtown [55] [56] Seneca Village [57] or in the school and convent at Mount St. Vincent's Academy. [58] Clearing began shortly after the land commission's report was released in October 1855, [49] [59] and approximately 1,600 residents were evicted under eminent domain. [57] [60] [61] Though supporters claimed that the park would cost just $1.7 million, [62] the total cost of the land ended up being $7.39 million (equivalent to $205 million in 2020), more than the price that the United States would pay for Alaska a few years later. [63] [64] [65]

Design contest Edit

In June 1856, Fernando Wood appointed a "consulting board" of seven people, headed by author Washington Irving, to inspire public confidence in the proposed development. [66] [67] Wood hired military engineer Egbert Ludovicus Viele as the park's chief engineer, tasking him with a topographical survey of the site. [68] [69] [70] The following April, the state legislature passed a bill to authorize the appointment of four Democratic and seven Republican commissioners, [66] [71] who had exclusive control over the planning and construction process. [72] [73] [74] Though Viele had already devised a plan for the park, [75] the commissioners disregarded it and retained him to complete only the topographical surveys. [76] [77] The Central Park Commission began hosting a landscape design contest shortly after its creation. [77] [78] [79] The commission specified that each entry contain extremely detailed specifications, as mandated by the consulting board. [79] [80] [81] Thirty-three firms or organizations submitted plans. [79] [80]

In April 1858, the park commissioners selected Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux's "Greensward Plan" as the winning design. [82] [83] [84] Three other plans were designated as runners-up and featured in a city exhibit. [83] [85] Unlike many of the other designs, which effectively integrated Central Park with the surrounding city, Olmsted and Vaux's proposal introduced clear separations with four sunken transverse roadways. [86] The plan eschewed symmetry, instead opting for a more picturesque design. [87] It was influenced by the pastoral ideals of landscaped cemeteries such as Mount Auburn in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Green-Wood in Brooklyn. [86] [88] The design was also inspired by Olmsted's 1850 visit to Birkenhead Park in England, [89] which is generally acknowledged as the first publicly funded civil park in the world. [90] [91] [92] According to Olmsted, the park was "of great importance as the first real Park made in this country—a democratic development of the highest significance". [87] [93]

Construction Edit

Central Park's design was finalized by a gamut of professionals. Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux were the primary designers, assisted by board member Andrew Haswell Green, architect Jacob Wrey Mould, master gardener Ignaz Anton Pilat, and engineer George E. Waring, Jr.. [94] [95] Olmsted was responsible for the overall plan, while Vaux designed some of the finer details. Mould, who worked frequently with Vaux, designed the Central Park Esplanade and the Tavern on the Green building. [96] Pilat was the park's chief landscape architect, whose primary responsibility was the importation and placement of plants within the park. [96] [97] A "corps" of construction engineers and foremen, managed by superintending engineer William H. Grant, were tasked with the measuring and constructing architectural features such as paths, roads, and buildings. [98] [99] Waring was one of the engineers working under Grant's leadership and was in charge of land drainage. [100] [101]

Central Park was difficult to construct because of the generally rocky and swampy landscape. [7] Around five million cubic feet (140,000 m 3 ) of soil and rocks had to be transported out of the park, and more gunpowder was used to clear the area than was used at the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War. [8] More than 18,500 cubic yards (14,100 m 3 ) of topsoil were transported from Long Island and New Jersey, because the original soil was neither fertile nor sufficiently substantial to sustain the flora specified in the Greensward Plan. [7] [8] Modern steam-powered equipment and custom tree-moving machines augmented the work of unskilled laborers. [8] In total, over 20,000 individuals helped construct Central Park. [8] Because of extreme precautions taken to minimize collateral damage, five laborers died during the project, at a time when fatality rates were generally much higher. [102]

During the development of Central Park, Superintendent Olmsted hired several dozen mounted police officers, who were classified into two types of "keepers": park keepers and gate keepers. [7] [103] [104] The mounted police were viewed favorably by park patrons and were later incorporated into a permanent patrol. [7] The regulations were sometimes strict. [104] For instance, prohibited actions included games of chance, speech-making, large congregations such as picnics, or picking flowers or other parts of plants. [104] [105] [106] These ordinances were effective: by 1866, there had been nearly eight million visits and only 110 arrests in the park's history. [107]

Late 1850s Edit

In late August 1857, workers began building fences, clearing vegetation, draining the land, and leveling uneven terrain. [108] [109] By the following month, chief engineer Viele reported that the project employed nearly 700 workers. [109] Olmsted employed workers using day labor, hiring men directly without any contracts and paying them by the day. [98] Many of the laborers were Irish immigrants or first-or-second generation Irish Americans, and some Germans and Italians [110] there were no black or female laborers. [111] [112] The workers were often underpaid, [112] [113] and workers would often take jobs at other construction projects to supplement their income. [114] A pattern of seasonal hiring was established, wherein more workers would be hired and paid at higher rates during the summers. [112]

For several months, the park commissioners faced funding issues, [73] [115] and a dedicated workforce and funding stream was not secured until June 1858. [73] The landscaped Upper Reservoir was the only part of the park that the commissioners were not responsible for constructing instead, the Reservoir would be built by the Croton Aqueduct board. Work on the Reservoir started in April 1858. [116] The first major work in Central Park involved grading the driveways and draining the land in the park's southern section. [117] [118] The Lake in Central Park's southwestern section was the first feature to open to the public, in December 1858, [119] followed by the Ramble in June 1859. [102] [120] The same year, the New York State Legislature authorized the purchase of an additional 65 acres (26 ha) at the northern end of Central Park, from 106th to 110th Streets. [119] [121] The section of Central Park south of 79th Street was mostly completed by 1860. [122]

The park commissioners reported in June 1860 that $4 million had been spent on the construction to date. [123] As a result of the sharply rising construction costs, the commissioners eliminated or downsized several features in the Greensward Plan. [124] Based on claims of cost mismanagement, the New York State Senate commissioned the Swiss engineer Julius Kellersberger to write a report on the park. [125] Kellersberger's report, submitted in 1861, stated that the commission's management of the park was a "triumphant success". [126] [127]

1860s Edit

Olmsted often clashed with the park commissioners, notably with Chief Commissioner Green. [124] [128] Olmsted resigned in June 1862, and Green was appointed to Olmsted's position. [129] [130] Vaux resigned in 1863 because of what he saw as pressure from Green. [131] As superintendent of the park, Green accelerated construction, though having little experience in architecture. [129] He implemented a style of micromanagement, keeping records of the smallest transactions in an effort to reduce costs. [128] [132] Green finalized the negotiations to purchase the northernmost 65 acres (26 ha) of the park which was later converted into a "rugged" woodland and the Harlem Meer waterway. [129] [132]

When the American Civil War began in 1861, the park commissioners decided to continue building Central Park, since significant parts of the park had already been completed. [133] Only three major structures were completed during the Civil War: the Music Stand and the Casino restaurant, both later demolished, and the Bethesda Terrace and Fountain. [134] By late 1861, the park south of 72nd Street had been completed, except for various fences. [135] Work had begun on the northern section of the park but was complicated by a need to preserve the historic McGowan's Pass. [136] The Upper Reservoir was completed the following year. [137]

During this period Central Park began to gain popularity. [133] One of the main attractions was the "Carriage Parade", a daily display of horse-drawn carriages that traversed the park. [133] [138] [139] Park patronage grew steadily: by 1867, Central Park accommodated nearly three million pedestrians, 85,000 horses, and 1.38 million vehicles annually. [133] The park had activities for New Yorkers of all social classes. While the wealthy could ride horses on bridle paths or travel in horse-drawn carriages, almost everyone was able to participate in sports such as ice-skating or rowing, or listen to concerts at the Mall's bandstand. [140]

Olmsted and Vaux were re-hired in mid-1865. [141] Several structures were erected, including the Children's District, the Ballplayers House, and the Dairy in the southern part of Central Park. Construction commenced on Belvedere Castle, Harlem Meer, and structures on Conservatory Water and the Lake. [134] [142]

1870–1876: completion Edit

The Tammany Hall political machine, which was the largest political force in New York at the time, was in control of Central Park for a brief period beginning in April 1870. [143] A new charter created by Tammany boss William M. Tweed abolished the old 11-member commission and replaced it with one with five men composed of Green and four other Tammany-connected figures. [143] [144] Subsequently, Olmsted and Vaux resigned again from the project in November 1870. [143] After Tweed's embezzlement was publicly revealed in 1871, leading to his imprisonment, Olmsted and Vaux were re-hired, and the Central Park Commission appointed new members who were mostly in favor of Olmsted. [145]

One of the areas that remained relatively untouched was the underdeveloped western side of Central Park, though some large structures would be erected in the park's remaining empty plots. [146] By 1872, Manhattan Square had been reserved for the American Museum of Natural History, founded three years before at the Arsenal. A corresponding area on the East Side, originally intended as a playground, would later become the Metropolitan Museum of Art. [146] [147] In the final years of Central Park's construction, Vaux and Mould designed several structures for Central Park. The park's sheepfold (now Tavern on the Green) and Ladies' Meadow were designed by Mould in 1870–1871, followed by the administrative offices on the 86th Street transverse in 1872. [148] Even though Olmsted and Vaux's partnership was dissolved by the end of 1872, [149] the park was not officially completed until 1876. [150]

Late 19th and early 20th centuries: first decline Edit

By the 1870s, the park's patrons increasingly came to include the middle and working class, and strict regulations were gradually eased, such as those against public gatherings. [151] Because of the heightened visitor count, neglect by the Tammany administration, and budget cuts demanded by taxpayers, the maintenance expenses for Central Park had reached a nadir by 1879. [105] [152] Olmsted blamed politicians, real estate owners, and park workers for Central Park's decline, though high maintenance costs were also a factor. [153] By the 1890s, the park faced several challenges: cars were becoming commonplace, and with the proliferation of amusements and refreshment stands, people were beginning to see the park as a recreational attraction. [154] [155] The 1904 opening of the New York City Subway displaced Central Park as the city's predominant leisure destination, as New Yorkers could travel to farther destinations such as Coney Island beaches or Broadway theaters for a five-cent fare. [156]

In the late 19th century the landscape architect Samuel Parsons took the position of New York City parks superintendent. A onetime apprentice of Calvert Vaux, [157] Parsons helped restore the nurseries of Central Park in 1886. [158] Parsons closely followed Olmsted's original vision for the park, restoring Central Park's trees while blocking the placement of several large statues in the park. [159] Under Parsons' leadership, two circles (now Duke Ellington and Frederick Douglass Circles) were constructed at the northern corners of the park. [160] [161] He was removed in May 1911 following a lengthy dispute over whether an expense to replace the soil in the park was unnecessary. [159] [162] A succession of Tammany-affiliated Democratic mayors were indifferent toward Central Park. [163]

Several park advocacy groups were formed in the early 20th century. To preserve the park's character, the citywide Parks and Playground Association, and a consortium of multiple Central Park civic groups operating under the Parks Conservation Association, were formed in the 1900s and 1910s. [164] These associations advocated against such changes to the park as the construction of a library, [165] sports stadium, [166] a cultural center, [167] and an underground parking lot. [168] A third group, the Central Park Association, was created in 1926. [164] The Central Park Association and the Parks and Playgrounds Association were merged into the Park Association of New York City two years later. [169]

The Heckscher Playground—named after philanthropist August Heckscher, who donated the play equipment—opened near its southern end in 1926, [170] [171] and quickly became popular with poor immigrant families. [171] The following year, mayor Walker commissioned landscape designer Herman W. Merkel to create a plan to improve Central Park. [163] Merkel's plans would combat vandalism and plant destruction, rehabilitate paths, and add eight new playgrounds, at a cost of $1 million. [172] [173] One of the suggested modifications, underground irrigation pipes, were installed soon after Merkel's report was submitted. [163] [174] The other improvements outlined in the report, such as fences to mitigate plant destruction, were postponed due to the Great Depression. [175]

1930s to 1950s: Moses rehabilitation Edit

In 1934, Republican Fiorello La Guardia was elected mayor of New York City. He unified the five park-related departments then in existence. Newly appointed city parks commissioner Robert Moses was given the task of cleaning up the park, and he summarily fired many of the Tammany-era staff. [176] At the time, the lawns were filled with weeds and dust patches, while many trees were dying or already dead. Monuments had been vandalized, equipment and walkways were broken, and ironwork was rusted. [176] [177] Moses's biographer Robert Caro later said, "The once beautiful Mall looked like a scene of a wild party the morning after. Benches lay on their backs, their legs jabbing at the sky. " [177]

During the following year, the city's parks department replanted lawns and flowers, replaced dead trees and bushes, sandblasted walls, repaired roads and bridges, and restored statues. [178] [179] [180] The park menagerie and Arsenal was transformed into the modern Central Park Zoo, and a rat extermination program was instituted within the zoo. [179] Another dramatic change was Moses' removal of the "Hoover valley" shantytown at the north end of Turtle Pond, which became the 30-acre (12 ha) Great Lawn. [178] [180] The western part of the Pond at the park's southeast corner became an ice skating rink called Wollman Rink, [179] roads were improved or widened, [181] and twenty-one playgrounds were added. [180] These projects used funds from the New Deal program, and donations from the public. [180] Moses removed Sheep Meadow's sheep to make way for the Tavern on the Green restaurant. [181] [182]

Renovations in the 1940s and 1950s include a restoration of the Harlem Meer completed in 1943, [183] and a new boathouse completed in 1954. [184] [185] [186] Moses began construction on several other recreational features in Central Park, such as playgrounds and ball fields. [187] One of the more controversial projects proposed during this time was a 1956 dispute over a parking lot for Tavern in the Green. The controversy placed Moses, an urban planner known for displacing families for other large projects around the city, against a group of mothers who frequented a wooded hollow at the site of a parking lot. [187] [188] Though opposed by the parents, Moses approved the destruction of part of the hollow. Demolition work commenced after Central Park was closed for the night and was only halted after the threat of a lawsuit. [187] [189]

1960s and 1970s: "Events Era" and second decline Edit

Moses left his position in May 1960. No park commissioner since then has been able to exercise the same degree of power, nor did NYC Parks remain in as stable a position in the aftermath of his departure. Eight commissioners held the office in the twenty years following his departure. [190] The city experienced economic and social changes, with some residents moving to the suburbs. [191] [192] Interest in Central Park's landscape had long since declined, and it was now mostly being used for recreation. [193] Several unrealized additions were proposed for Central Park in that decade, such as a public housing development, [194] a golf course, [195] and a "revolving world's fair". [196]

The 1960s marked the beginning of an "Events Era" in Central Park that reflected the widespread cultural and political trends of the period. [197] The Public Theater's annual Shakespeare in the Park festival was settled in the Delacorte Theater, [198] and summer performances were instituted on the Sheep Meadow and the Great Lawn by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and the Metropolitan Opera. [199] During the late 1960s, the park became the venue for rallies and cultural events such as the "love-ins" and "be-ins" of the period. [200] The same year, Lasker Rink opened in the northern part of the park the facility served as an ice rink in winter and Central Park's only swimming pool in summer. [201]

By the mid-1970s, managerial neglect resulted in a decline in park conditions. A 1973 report noted that the park suffered from severe erosion and tree decay, and that individual structures were being vandalized or neglected. [202] The Central Park Community Fund was subsequently created based on the recommendation of a report from a Columbia University professor. [203] The Fund then commissioned a study of the park's management and suggested the appointment of both a NYC Parks administrator and a board of citizens. [204] In 1979, Parks Commissioner Gordon Davis established the Office of Central Park Administrator and appointed Elizabeth Barlow, the executive director of the Central Park Task Force, to the position. [205] [206] The Central Park Conservancy, a nonprofit organization with a citizen board, was founded the following year. [23] [24]

1970s to 2000s: restoration Edit

Under the leadership of the Central Park Conservancy, the park's reclamation began by addressing needs that could not be met within NYC Parks' existing resources. The Conservancy hired interns and a small restoration staff to reconstruct and repair unique rustic features, undertaking horticultural projects, and removing graffiti under the broken windows theory which advocated removing visible signs of decay. [207] The first structure to be renovated was the Dairy, which reopened as the park's first visitor center in 1979. [208] The Sheep Meadow, which reopened the following year, was the first landscape to be restored. [209] Bethesda Terrace and Fountain, the USS Maine National Monument, and the Bow Bridge were also rehabilitated. [210] [211] [212] By then, the Conservancy was engaged in design efforts and long-term restoration planning, [213] and in 1981, Davis and Barlow announced a 10-year, $100 million "Central Park Management and Restoration Plan". [212] The long-closed Belvedere Castle was renovated and reopened in 1983, [214] [215] while the Central Park Zoo closed for a full reconstruction that year. [206] [213] To reduce the maintenance effort, large gatherings such as free concerts were canceled. [216]

On completion of the planning stage in 1985, the Conservancy launched its first campaign [192] and mapped out a 15-year restoration plan. [217] Over the next several years, the campaign restored landmarks in the southern part of the park, such as Grand Army Plaza [218] and the police station at the 86th Street transverse [219] while Conservatory Garden in the northeastern corner of the park was restored to a design by Lynden B. Miller. [220] [221] [222] Real estate developer Donald Trump renovated the Wollman Rink in 1987 after plans to renovate it were delayed repeatedly. [223] The following year, the Zoo reopened after a $35 million, four-year renovation. [224]

Work on the northern end of the park began in 1989. [225] A $51 million campaign, announced in 1993, [226] resulted in the restoration of bridle trails, [227] the Mall, [228] the Harlem Meer, [229] and the North Woods, [225] and the construction of the Dana Discovery Center on the Harlem Meer. [229] This was followed by the Conservancy's overhaul of the 55 acres (22 ha) near the Great Lawn and Turtle Pond, which was completed in 1997. [230] The Upper Reservoir was decommissioned as a part of the city's water supply system in 1993, [231] [232] and was renamed after former U.S. first lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis the next year. [231] [233] During the mid-1990s, the Conservancy hired additional volunteers and implemented a zone-based system of management throughout the park. [192] The Conservancy assumed much of the park's operations in early 1998. [25]

Renovations continued through the first decade of the 21st century, and a project to restore the pond was commenced in 2000. [234] Four years later, the Conservancy replaced a chain-link fence with a replica of the original cast-iron fence that surrounded the Upper Reservoir. [235] It started refurbishing the ceiling tiles of the Bethesda Arcade, [236] which was completed in 2007. [237] Soon after, the Central Park Conservancy began restoring the Ramble and Lake, [238] in a project that was completed in 2012. [239] Bank Rock Bridge was restored, [240] [241] and the Gill, which empties into the lake, was reconstructed to approximate its dramatic original form. [242] The final feature to be restored was the East Meadow, which was rehabilitated in 2011. [243]

2010s to present Edit

In 2014, the New York City Council proposed a study on the viability of banning vehicular traffic from the park's drives. [244] The next year, mayor Bill de Blasio announced that West and East drives north of 72nd Street would be closed to vehicular traffic, because the city's data showed that closing the roads did not adversely impact traffic flows. [245] Subsequently, in June 2018, the remaining drives south of 72nd Street were closed to vehicular traffic. [246] [247]

Several structures were renovated. Belvedere Castle was closed in 2018 for an extensive renovation, reopening in June 2019. [248] [249] [250] Later in 2018, it was announced that the Delacorte Theater would be closed from 2020 to 2022 for a $110 million rebuild. [251] The Central Park Conservancy further announced that Lasker Rink would be closed for a $150 million renovation [252] between 2021 and 2024. [253] [254] [255]

Geology Edit

There are four different types of bedrock in Manhattan. In Central Park, Manhattan schist and Hartland schist, which are both metamorphosed sedimentary rock, are exposed in various outcroppings. The other two types, Fordham gneiss (an older deeper layer) and Inwood marble (metamorphosed limestone which overlays the gneiss), do not surface in the park. [256] [257] [258] Fordham gneiss, which consists of metamorphosed igneous rocks, was formed a billion years ago, during the Grenville orogeny that occurred during the creation of an ancient super-continent. Manhattan schist and Hartland schist were formed in the Iapetus Ocean during the Taconic orogeny in the Paleozoic era, about 450 million years ago, when the tectonic plates began to merge to form the supercontinent Pangaea. [259] Cameron's Line, a fault zone that traverses Central Park on an east–west axis, divides the outcroppings of Hartland schist to the south and Manhattan schist to the north. [260]

Various glaciers have covered the area of Central Park in the past, with the most recent being the Wisconsin glacier which receded about 12,000 years ago. Evidence of past glaciers can be seen throughout the park in the form of glacial erratics (large boulders dropped by the receding glacier) and north–south glacial striations visible on stone outcroppings. [256] [261] [262] Alignments of glacial erratics, called "boulder trains", are present throughout Central Park. [263] The most notable of these outcroppings is Rat Rock (also known as Umpire Rock), a circular outcropping at the southwestern corner of the park. [261] [264] It measures 55 feet (17 m) wide and 15 feet (4.6 m) tall with different east, west, and north faces. [264] [265] Boulderers sometimes congregate there. [265] A single glacial pothole with yellow clay is near the southwest corner of the park. [266] [267]

The underground geology of Central Park was altered by the construction of several subway lines underneath it, and by the New York City Water Tunnel No. 3 approximately 700 feet (210 m) underground. Excavations for the project have uncovered pegmatite, feldspar, quartz, biotite, and several metals. [268]

Wooded areas and lawns Edit

There are three wooded areas in Central Park: North Woods, the Ramble, and Hallett Nature Sanctuary. [269] North Woods, the largest of the woodlands, is at the northwestern corner of Central Park. [270] [271] [272] It covers about 90 acres (36 ha) adjacent to North Meadow. [273] The name sometimes applies to other attractions in the park's northern end these adjacent features plus the area of North Woods can be 200 acres (81 ha). [225] North Woods contains the 55-acre (22 ha) Ravine, a forest with deciduous trees on its northwestern slope, and the Loch, a small stream that winds diagonally through North Woods. [272] [274] [275]

The Ramble is in the southern third of the park next to the Lake. [4] [276] [277] Covering 36 to 38 acres (15 to 15 ha), it contains a series of winding paths. [277] The area contains a diverse selection of vegetation and other flora, which attracts a plethora of birds. [276] [277] At least 250 species of birds have been spotted in the Ramble over the years. [277] [278] Historically, the Ramble was known as a place for private homosexual encounters due to its seclusion. [279]

The Hallett Nature Sanctuary is at the southeastern corner of Central Park. [4] [280] [281] It is the smallest wooded area at 4 acres (1.6 ha). [282] Originally known as the Promontory, it was renamed after civic activist and birder George Hervey Hallett Jr. in 1986. [281] [282] [283] The Hallett Sanctuary was closed to the public from 1934 to May 2016, when it was reopened allowing limited access. [284]

The Central Park Conservancy classifies its remaining green space into four types of lawns, labeled alphabetically based on usage and the amount of maintenance needed. There are seven high-priority "A Lawns", collectively covering 65 acres (26 ha), that are heavily used: Sheep Meadow, Great Lawn, North Meadow, East Meadow, Conservatory Garden, Heckscher Ballfields, and the Lawn Bowling and Croquet Greens near Sheep Meadow. These are permanently surrounded by fences, are constantly maintained, and are closed during the off-season. Another 16 lawns, covering 37 acres (15 ha), are classed as "B Lawns" and are fenced off only during off-seasons, while an additional 69 acres (28 ha) are "C Lawns" and are only occasionally fenced off. The lowest-prioritized type of turf, "D Lawns", cover 162 acres (66 ha) and are open year-round with few barriers or access restrictions. [285]

Watercourses Edit

Central Park is home to numerous bodies of water. [9] The northernmost lake, Harlem Meer, is near the northeastern corner of the park and covers nearly 11 acres (4.5 ha). [286] [287] Located in a wooded area of oak, cypress, and beech trees, it was named after Harlem, one of Manhattan's first suburban communities, and was built after the completion of the southern portion of the park. Harlem Meer allows catch and release fishing. [286] It is fed by two interconnected water features: the Pool, a pond within the North Woods fed by drinking water, [288] and the Loch, a small stream with three cascades that winds through the North Woods. [289] [270] These are all adapted from a single watercourse called Montayne's Rivulet, originally fed from a natural spring but later replenished by the city's water system. [290] [291] Lasker Rink is above the mouth of the Loch where it drains into the Harlem Meer. [292] [293]

South of Harlem Meer and the Pool is Central Park's largest lake, the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir, known as the Central Park Reservoir before 1994. [294] It was constructed between 1858 and 1862. Covering an area of 106 acres (43 ha) between 86th and 96th streets, the reservoir reaches a depth of more than 40 feet (12 m) in places and contains about 1 billion U.S. gallons (3.8 billion liters) of water. [295] [296] The Onassis Reservoir was created as a new, landscaped storage reservoir to the north of the Croton Aqueduct's rectangular receiving reservoir. [137] Because of the Onassis Reservoir's shape, East Drive was built as a straight path, with little clearance between the reservoir to the west and Fifth Avenue to the east. [297] It was decommissioned in 1993 [231] [232] and renamed after Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis the following year, after her death. [231] [233]

The Turtle Pond, a man-made pond, is at the southern edge of the Great Lawn. The pond was originally part of the Croton receiving reservoir. [298] [299] The receiving reservoir was drained starting in 1930, [300] [301] and the dry reservoir bed was temporarily used as a homeless encampment when filling stopped during the Great Depression. [299] [302] [303] The Great Lawn was completed in 1937 on the site of the reservoir. [304] Until 1987, it was known as Belvedere Lake, after the castle at its southwestern corner. [298] [299]

The Lake, south of the 79th Street transverse, covers nearly 18 acres (7.3 ha). [305] Originally, it was part of the Sawkill Creek, which flowed near the American Museum of Natural History. [306] [307] The Lake was among the first features to be completed, opening to skaters in December 1858. [119] It was intended to accommodate boats in the summer and ice skaters in winter. [119] [305] The Loeb Boathouse, on the eastern shore of the Lake, rents out rowboats, kayaks, and gondolas, and houses a restaurant. [185] [186] [308] The Lake is spanned by Bow Bridge at its center, [308] and its northern inlet, Bank Rock Bay, is spanned by the Bank Rock or Oak Bridge. [309] [307] Ladies' Pond, spanned by two bridges on the western end of the Lake, was infilled in the 1930s. [307]

Directly east of the Lake is Conservatory Water, [4] on the site of an unbuilt formal garden. [310] The shore of Conservatory Water contains the Kerbs Memorial Boathouse, [311] where patrons can rent and navigate model boats. [310] [312] [313]

In the park's southeast corner is the Pond, with an area of 3.5 acres (1.4 ha). [314] [315] The Pond was adapted from part of the former DeVoor's Mill Stream, which used to flow into the East River at the modern-day neighborhood of Turtle Bay. [9] [316] The western section of the Pond was converted into Wollman Rink in 1950. [179] [317] [318]

Central Park is biologically diverse. A 2013 survey of park species by William E. Macaulay Honors College found 571 total species, [319] [320] including 173 species that were not previously known to live there. [321]

Flora Edit

According to a 2011 survey [update] , Central Park had more than 20,000 trees, [322] [323] [324] representing a decrease from the 26,000 trees that were recorded in the park in 1993. [325] The majority of them are native to New York City, but there are several clusters of non-native species. [326] With few exceptions, the trees in Central Park were mostly planted or placed manually. Over four million trees, shrubs, and plants representing approximately 1,500 species were planted or imported to the park. [8] In Central Park's earliest years, two plant nurseries were maintained within the park boundaries: a demolished nursery near the Arsenal, and the still-extant Conservatory Garden. [327] Central Park Conservancy later took over regular maintenance of the park's flora, allocating gardeners to one of 49 "zones" for maintenance purposes. [328]

Central Park contains ten "great tree" clusters that are specially recognized by NYC Parks. These include four individual American Elms and one American Elm grove the 600 pine trees in the Arthur Ross Pinetum a Black Tupelo in the Ramble 35 Yoshino Cherries on the east side of the Onassis Reservoir one of the park's oldest London Plane trees at 96th Street and an Evodia at Heckscher Playground. [326] [329] The American Elms in Central Park are the largest remaining stands in the northeastern U.S., protected by their isolation from the Dutch elm disease that devastated the tree throughout its native range. [325] There are several "tree walks" that run through Central Park. [324]

Fauna Edit

Central Park contains various migratory birds during their spring and fall migration on the Atlantic Flyway. [330] The first official list of birds observed in Central Park, which numbered 235 species, was published in Forest and Stream in 1886 by Augustus G. Paine Jr. and Lewis B. Woodruff. [331] [332] Overall, 303 bird species have been seen in the park since the first official list of records was published, [330] and an estimated 200 species are spotted every season. [333] No single group is responsible for tracking Central Park's bird species. [334] Some of the more famous birds include a male red-tailed hawk called Pale Male, who made his perch on an apartment building overlooking Central Park in 1991. [335] [336] A mandarin duck nicknamed Mandarin Patinkin received international media attention in late 2018 and early 2019 [337] due to its colorful appearance and the species' presence outside its native range in East Asia. [338] More infamously, Eugene Schieffelin released 100 imported European starlings in Central Park in 1890–1891, which led to them becoming an invasive species across North America. [339] [340]

Central Park has approximately ten species of mammals as of 2013 [update] . [320] Bats, a nocturnal order, have been found in dark crevices. [341] Because of the prevalence of raccoons, the Parks Department posts rabies advisories. [342] Eastern gray squirrels, Eastern chipmunks, and Virginia opossums inhabit the park. [343]

There are 223 invertebrate species in Central Park. [320] Nannarrup hoffmani, a centipede species discovered in Central Park in 2002, is one of the smallest centipedes in the world at about 0.4 inches (10 mm) long. [344] The more prevalent Asian long-horned beetle is an invasive species that has infected trees in Long Island and Manhattan, including in Central Park. [345] [346]

Turtles, fish, and frogs live in Central Park. [320] There are five turtle species: red-eared sliders, snapping turtles, painted turtles, musk turtles, and box turtles. [298] Most of the turtles live in Turtle Pond, and many of these are former pets that were released into the park. [319] The fish are scattered more widely, but they include several freshwater species, [347] such as the snakehead, an invasive species. [348] Catch and release fishing is allowed in the Lake, Pond, and Harlem Meer. [347] [349] Central Park is a habitat for two amphibian species: the American bullfrog and the green frog. [350] The park contained snakes in the late 19th century, [351] though Marie Winn, who wrote about wildlife in Central Park, said in a 2008 interview that the snakes had died off. [352]

Plazas and entrances Edit

Central Park is surrounded by a 29,025-foot-long (8,847 m), 3-foot-10-inch-high (117 cm) stone wall. It initially contained 18 unnamed gates. [353] In April 1862, the Central Park commissioners adopted a proposal to name each gate with "the vocations to which this city owes its metropolitan character", such as miners, scholars, artists, or hunters. [353] [354] The park grew to contain 20 named gates, [355] [356] four of which are accessed from plazas at each corner of the park. [4] [355]

Columbus Circle is a circular plaza at the southwestern corner, at the junction of Central Park West/Eighth Avenue, Broadway, and 59th Street (Central Park South). [4] [357] Built in the 1860s, [357] it contains the Merchant's Gate entrance to the park., [355] and is largest feature is the 1892 Columbus Monument [357] [358] and was the subject of controversies in the 2010s. [359] [360] The 1913 USS Maine National Monument is just outside the park entrance. [361]

The square Grand Army Plaza is on the southeastern corner, at the junction with Fifth Avenue and 59th Street. [4] Its largest feature is the Pulitzer Fountain, which was completed in 1916 along with the plaza itself. [362] The plaza contains the William Tecumseh Sherman statue, dedicated in 1903. [363]

Duke Ellington Circle, at the northeastern corner, forms the junction between Fifth Avenue and Central Park North/110th Street. [4] It contains the Duke Ellington Memorial, dedicated in 1997. [364] Duke Ellington Circle is adjacent to the Pioneers' Gate. [355]

Frederick Douglass Circle is on the northwestern corner, at the junction with Central Park West/Eighth Avenue and Central Park North/110th Street. [4] It was named for Douglass in 1950. [365] The center of the circle contains a memorial to Frederick Douglass, dedicated in 2011. [366]

Structures Edit

The Dana Discovery Center is at the northeast section of the park, on the shore of the Harlem Meer. [4] [271] [292] Nearby is Blockhouse No. 1, the oldest extant structure to be built in Central Park, which was erected as part of Fort Clinton during the War of 1812. [271] [367] [292] The Blockhouse is near McGowan's Pass, a set of rocky outcroppings that also contains Fort Fish and Nutter's Battery. [368] An ice-skating rink, Lasker Rink, is adjacent to the Harlem Meer, above the Loch near Fifth Avenue and 107th Street. [4] [369] The park's only formal garden, the Conservatory Garden, is two blocks south. [4] [370] The North Meadow Recreation Center, tennis courts, and the East Meadow, sit between the Loch to the north and the reservoir to the south. [4] [371] The North Woods takes up the rest of the northern third of the park. The areas in the northern section of the park were developed later than the southern section, and are not as heavily used, so there are several unnamed features. [372]

The area between the 86th and 96th Street transverses is mostly occupied by the Onassis Reservoir. Directly south of the Reservoir is the Great Lawn and Turtle Pond. The Lawn is bordered by the Metropolitan Museum of Art to the east, Turtle Pond to the south, and Summit Rock to the west. [4] Summit Rock, the highest point in Central Park at 137.5 feet (41.9 m), [373] [374] abuts Diana Ross Playground to the south and the Seneca Village site, occupied by the Mariners Gate playground, to the north. [4] Turtle Pond's western shore contains Belvedere Castle, Delacorte Theater, the Shakespeare Garden, and Marionette Theatre. [4] The section between the 79th Street transverse and Terrace Drive at 72nd Street contains three main natural features: the forested Ramble, the L-shaped Lake, and Conservatory Water. Cherry Hill is to the south of the Lake, while Cedar Hill is to the east. [4] [271]

The southernmost part of Central Park, below Terrace Drive, contains several children's attractions and other flagship features. [4] It contains many of the structures built in Central Park's initial stage of construction, designed in the Victorian Gothic style. [375] Directly facing the southeastern shore of the Lake is a bi-level hall called Bethesda Terrace, which contains an elaborate fountain on its lower level. [375] [376] Bethesda Terrace connects to Central Park Mall, a landscaped walkway and the only formal feature in the Greensward Plan. [4] [375] Near the southwestern shore of the Lake is Strawberry Fields, a memorial to John Lennon who was murdered nearby [4] [377] Sheep Meadow, a lawn originally intended for use as a parade ground [378] and Tavern on the Green, a restaurant. [4] The southern border of Central Park contains the "Children's District", [379] an area that includes Heckscher Playground, the Central Park Carousel, the Ballplayers House, and the Chess and Checkers House. [4] [379] Wollman Rink/Victorian Gardens, the Central Park Zoo and Children's Zoo, the NYC Parks headquarters at the Arsenal, and the Pond and Hallett Nature Sanctuary are nearby. [4] [271]

There are 21 children's playgrounds in Central Park. The largest, at three acres (12,000 m 2 ), is Heckscher Playground. [10] Central Park includes 36 ornamental bridges, all with different designs. [380] [381] "Rustic" shelters and other structures were originally spread out through the park. Most have been demolished over the years, and several have been restored. [382] [383] The park contains around 9,500 benches in three styles, of which nearly half have small engraved tablets of some kind, installed as part of Central Park's "Adopt-a-Bench" program. These engravings typically contain short personalized messages and can be installed for at least $10,000 apiece. "Handmade rustic benches" can cost more than half a million dollars and are only granted when the honoree underwrites a major park project. [384] [385]

Art and monuments Edit

Sculptures Edit

Twenty-nine sculptures have been erected within Central Park's boundaries. [375] [386] [387] Most of the sculptures were not part of the Greensward Plan, but were nevertheless included to placate wealthy donors when appreciation of art increased in the late 19th century. [157] [388] [389] Though Vaux and Mould proposed 26 statues in the Terrace in 1862, these were eliminated because they were too expensive. [388] More sculptures were added through the late 19th century, and by 1890s, there were 24 in the park. [390]

A number of the sculptures are busts of authors and poets, located on Literary Walk adjacent to the Central Park Mall. [375] [391] [392] Another cluster of sculptures, around the Zoo and Conservancy Water, are statues of characters from children's stories. A third sculpture grouping primarily depicts "subjects in nature" such as animals and hunters. [375]

Several sculptures stand out because of their geography and topography. [375] Alice in Wonderland Margaret Delacorte Memorial (1959), a sculpture of Alice, is at Conservatory Water. [393] [394] Angel of the Waters (1873), by Emma Stebbins, is the centerpiece of Bethesda Fountain, the first large public sculpture commission for an American woman, [395] and the only statue included in the original park design. [388] Balto (1925), a statue of Balto, the sled dog who became famous during the 1925 serum run to Nome, is near East Drive and East 66th Street. [396] King Jagiello Monument (1939, installed 1945), a bronze monument, is at the east end of Turtle Pond. [397] Women's Rights Pioneers Monument (2020), a monument of Sojourner Truth, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, [398] was the city's first statue to depict a female historical figure. [399] [400]

Structures and exhibitions Edit

Cleopatra's Needle, a red granite obelisk west of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, [4] is the oldest man-made structure in Central Park. [401] The needle in Central Park is one of three Cleopatra's Needles that were originally erected at the Temple of Ra in Heliopolis in Ancient Egypt around 1450 BC by the Pharaoh Thutmose III. [401] [402] [403] The hieroglyphs were inscribed about 200 years later by Pharaoh Rameses II to glorify his military victories. The needles are so named because they were later moved to in front of the Caesarium in Alexandria, a temple originally built by Cleopatra VII of Egypt in honor of Mark Antony. [404] The needle in Central Park arrived in late 1880 and was dedicated early the following year. [401] [403] [405]

The Strawberry Fields memorial, near Central Park West and 72nd Street, [4] is a memorial commemorating John Lennon, who was murdered outside the nearby Dakota apartment building. The city dedicated Strawberry Fields in Lennon's honor in April 1981, [406] and the memorial was completely rebuilt and rededicated on what would have been Lennon's 45th birthday, October 9, 1985. [407] Countries from all around the world contributed trees, and Italy donated the "Imagine" mosaic in the center of the memorial. It has since become the site of impromptu memorial gatherings for other notables. [408] [409]

For 16 days in 2005, Central Park was the setting for Christo and Jeanne-Claude's installation The Gates, an exhibition that had been planned since 1979. [410] Although the project was the subject of mixed reactions, it was a major attraction for the park while it was open, drawing over a million people. [411]

Restaurants Edit

Central Park contains two indoor restaurants. The Tavern on the Green, located at Central Park West and West 67th Street, was built in 1870 as a sheepfold and was converted into a restaurant in 1934. [179] [181] [182] The Tavern on the Green was renovated and expanded in 1974 [412] it was closed in 2009 and reopened five years later after a renovation. [413] The Loeb Boathouse restaurant is located at the Loeb Boathouse, on the Lake, near Fifth Avenue between 74th and 75th streets. [185] [186] Though the boathouse was constructed in 1954, [186] its restaurant opened in 1983. [414]

Tours Edit

In the late 19th century, West and East Drives was a popular place for carriage rides, though only five percent of the city was able to afford a carriage. One of the main attractions in the park's early years was the introduction of the "Carriage Parade", a daily display of horse-drawn carriages that traversed the park. [133] [415] [139] The introduction of the automobile caused the carriage industry to die out by World War I, [415] though the carriage-horse tradition was revived in 1935. [416] The carriages have become a symbolic institution of the city for instance, in a much-publicized event after the September 11 attacks, Mayor Rudy Giuliani went to the stables to ask the drivers to go back to work to help return a sense of normality. [416]

Some activists, celebrities and politicians have questioned the ethics of the carriage-horse industry and called for its end. [417] The history of accidents involving spooked horses came under scrutiny in the 2000s and 2010s after reports of horses collapsing and even dying. [418] [419] Supporters of the trade say it needs to be reformed rather than shut down. [420] Some replacements have been proposed, including electric vintage cars. [421] [422] Bill de Blasio, in his successful 2013 mayoral campaign, pledged to eliminate horse carriage tours if he was elected [423] as of August 2018 [update] , had only succeeded in relocating the carriage pick-up areas. [424]

Pedicabs operate mostly in the southern part of the park, as horse carriages do. The pedicabs have been criticized: there have been reports of pedicab drivers charging exorbitant fares of several hundred dollars, [425] [426] and mayor de Blasio has proposed restricting pedicabs below 85th Street to eliminate competition for the carriage horses. [427]

Recreation Edit

The park's drives, which are 6.1 miles (9.8 km) long, are used heavily by runners, joggers, pedestrians, bicyclists, and inline skaters. [3] [11] The park drives contain protected bike lanes [428] and are used as the home course for the racing series of the Century Road Club Association, a USA Cycling-sanctioned amateur cycling club. [429] The park is used for professional running, and the New York Road Runners designated a 5-mile (8.0 km) running loop within Central Park. [430] The New York City Marathon course utilizes several miles of drives within Central Park and finishes outside Tavern on the Green [431] from 1970 through 1975, the race was held entirely in Central Park. [432]

There are 26 baseball fields in Central Park: eight on the Great Lawn, six at Heckscher Ballfields near Columbus Circle, and twelve in the North Meadow. [433] [434] [435] 12 tennis courts, six non-regulation soccer fields (which overlap with the North Meadow ball fields), four basketball courts, and a recreation center are in the North Meadow. [435] [436] An additional soccer field and four basketball courts are at Great Lawn. [435] Four volleyball courts are in the southern part of the park. [437]

Central Park has two ice skating rinks: Wollman Rink in its southern portion and Lasker Rink in its northern portion. [438] During summer, the former is the site of Victorian Gardens seasonal amusement park, [439] and the latter converts to an outdoor swimming pool. [440] [441]

Central Park's glaciated rock outcroppings attract climbers, especially boulderers, but the quality of the stone is poor, and the climbs present so little challenge that it has been called "one of America's most pathetic boulders". [264] The two most renowned spots for boulderers are Rat Rock and Cat Rock. Other rocks frequented by climbers, mostly at the south end of the park, include Dog Rock, Duck Rock, Rock N' Roll Rock, and Beaver Rock. [442]

Concerts and performances Edit

Central Park has been the site of concerts almost since its inception. Originally, they were hosted in the Ramble, but these were moved to the Concert Ground next to the Mall in the 1870s. [443] The weekend concerts hosted in the Mall drew tens of thousands of visitors from all social classes. [444] Since 1923, concerts have been held in Naumburg Bandshell, a bandshell of Indiana limestone on the Mall. [445] Named for banker Elkan Naumburg, who funded its construction, the bandshell has deteriorated over the years but has never been fully restored. [446] The oldest free classical music concert series in the United States—the Naumburg Orchestral Concerts, founded in 1905—is hosted in the bandshell. [447] Other large concerts include The Concert in Central Park, a benefit performance by Simon & Garfunkel in 1982, [448] and Garth: Live from Central Park, a free concert by Garth Brooks in 1997 with an estimated 980,000 attendees. [449]

Several arts groups are dedicated to performing in Central Park. [447] These include Central Park Brass, which performs concert series, [450] and the New York Classical Theatre, which produces an annual series of plays. [451]

There are several regular summer events. The Public Theater presents free open-air theater productions, such as Shakespeare in the Park, in the Delacorte Theater. [452] [453] The City Parks Foundation offers Central Park Summerstage, a series of free performances including music, dance, spoken word, and film presentations, often featuring famous performers. [447] [454] Additionally, the New York Philharmonic gives an open-air concert on the Great Lawn yearly during the summer, [447] and from 1967 until 2007, the Metropolitan Opera presented two operas in concert each year. [455] Every August since 2003, the Central Park Conservancy has hosted the Central Park Film Festival, a series of free film screenings. [456]

Central Park incorporates a system of pedestrian walkways, scenic drives, bridle paths, and transverse roads to aid traffic circulation, [356] and it is easily accessible via several subway stations and bus routes. [457]

Public transport Edit

The New York City Subway's IND Eighth Avenue Line ( A , ​ B , ​ C , and ​ D trains) runs along the western edge of the park. Most of the Eighth Avenue Line stations on Central Park West serve only the local B and ​ C trains, the 59th Street–Columbus Circle station is served by the express A and ​ D trains, and the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line ( 1 train). The IRT Lenox Avenue Line ( 2 and ​ 3 trains) has a station at Central Park North. From there the line curves southwest under the park and heads west under 104th Street. On the southeastern corner of the park, the BMT Broadway Line ( N , ​ R , and ​ W trains) has a station at Fifth Avenue and 59th Street. [458] The 63rd Street lines ( F , <F> ​​, and Q trains) pass underneath without stopping, [458] and the line contains a single ventilation shaft within the park, west of Fifth Avenue and 63rd Street. [268]

Various bus routes pass through Central Park or stop along its boundaries. The M10 bus stops along Central Park West, while the M5 and part of the M7 runs along Central Park South, and the M2, M3 and M4 run along Central Park North. The M1, M2, M3, and M4 run southbound along Fifth Avenue with corresponding northbound bus service on Madison Avenue. The M66, M72, M79 SBS (Select Bus Service), M86 SBS, M96 and M106 buses use the transverse roads across Central Park. The M12, M20 and M104 only serve Columbus Circle on the south end of the park, and the M31 and M57 run on 57th Street two blocks from the park's south end but do not stop on the boundaries of the park. [457]

Some of the buses running on the edge of Central Park replaced former streetcar routes that formerly traveled across Manhattan. These streetcar routes included the Sixth Avenue line, which became the M5 bus, and the Eighth Avenue line, which became the M10. [459] Only one streetcar line traversed Central Park: the 86th Street Crosstown Line, the predecessor to the M86 bus. [460]

Transverse roads Edit

Central Park contains four transverse roadways that carry crosstown traffic across the park. [4] [86] [356] From south to north, they are located at 66th Street, 79th Street, 86th Street, and 97th Street the transverse roads were originally numbered sequentially in that order. The 66th Street transverse connects the discontinuous sections of 65th and 66th streets on either side of the park. The 97th Street transverse likewise joins the disconnected segments of 96th and 97th streets. However, the 79th Street transverse links West 81st and East 79th streets, while the 86th Street transverse links West 86th Street with East 84th and 85th streets. [4] Each roadway carries two lanes, one in each direction, and is sunken below the level of the rest of the park to minimize the transverses' visual impact on it. [86] [356] The transverse roadways are open even when the park is closed. [461]

The 66th Street transverse was the first to be finished, having opened in December 1859. [462] The 79th Street transverse—which passed under Vista Rock, Central Park's second-highest point—was completed by a railroad contractor because of their experience in drilling through hard rock [463] it opened in December 1860. The 86th and 97th Street transverses opened in late 1862. [462] By the 1890s, maintenance had decreased to the point where the 86th Street transverse handled most crosstown traffic because the other transverse roads had been so poorly maintained. [161] Both ends of the 79th Street transverse were widened in 1964 to accommodate increased traffic. [464] Generally, the transverses were not maintained as frequently as the rest of the park, though being used more frequently than the park proper. [465]

Scenic drives Edit

The park has three scenic drives that travel through it vertically. [4] They have multiple traffic lights at the intersections with pedestrian paths, although there are some arches and bridges where pedestrian and drive traffic can cross without intersection. [356] [380] [381] To discourage park patrons from speeding, the designers incorporated extensive curves in the park drives. [466] [467]

West Drive is the westernmost of the park's three vertical "drives". The road, which carries southbound bicycle and horse-carriage traffic, winds through the western part of Central Park, connecting Lenox Avenue/Central Park North with Seventh Avenue/Central Park South and Central Drive. [4] The drive is dangerous in 2014, a 0.5-mile (0.80 km) stretch of West Drive was considered to be "the most dangerous section of Central Park" for pedestrians, with bicycle crashes along the drive leaving 15 people injured. [468]

Two other scenic drives cross the park horizontally. Terrace Drive is at 72nd Street and connects West and East Drives, passing over Bethesda Terrace and Fountain. The 102nd Street Crossing, further north near the street of the same name, is a former carriage drive connecting West and East Drives. [4]

Modifications and closures Edit

In Central Park's earliest years, the speed limits were set at 5 miles per hour (8.0 km/h) for carriages and 6 mph (9.7 km/h) for horses, which were later raised to 7 mph (11 km/h) and 10 mph (16 km/h) respectively. Commercial vehicles and buses were banned from the park. [466] Automobiles became more common in Central Park during the 1900s and 1910s, and they often broke the speed limits, resulting in crashes. To increase safety, the gravel roads were paved in 1912, and the carriage speed limit was raised to 15 mph (24 km/h) two years later. With the proliferation of cars among the middle class in the 1920s, traffic increased on the drives, to as many as eight thousand cars per hour in 1929. [415] The roads were still dangerous in the first ten months of 1929, eight people were killed and 249 were injured in 338 separate collisions. [470]

In November 1929, the scenic drives were converted from two-way traffic to unidirectional traffic. [471] Further improvements were made in 1932 when forty-two traffic lights were installed along the scenic drives, and the speed limit was lowered to 25 miles per hour (40 km/h). The signals were coordinated so that drivers could go through all of the green lights if they maintained a steady speed of 25 miles per hour (40 km/h). [415] [472] The drives were experimentally closed to automotive traffic on weekends beginning in 1967, for exclusive use by pedestrians and bicyclists. [473] In subsequent years, the scenic drives were closed to automotive traffic for most of the day during the summer. By 1979, the drives were only open during rush hours and late evenings during the summer. [474]

Legislation was proposed in October 2014 to conduct a study to make the park car-free in summer 2015. [247] In 2015, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced the permanent closure of West and East Drives north of 72nd Street to vehicular traffic as it was proven that closing the roads did not adversely impact traffic. [475] After most of the Central Park loop drives were closed to vehicular traffic, the city performed a follow-up study. The city found that West Drive was open for two hours during the morning rush period and was used by an average of 1,050 vehicles a day, while East Drive was open 12 hours a day and was used by an average of 3,400 vehicles daily. [476] Subsequently, all cars were banned from East Drive in January 2018. [477] In April 2018, de Blasio announced that the entirety of the three loop drives would be closed permanently to traffic. [476] [478] The closure was put into effect in June 2018. [246] [247]

During the early 21st century, there were numerous collisions in Central Park involving cyclists. The 2014 death of Jill Tarlov, after she was hit by a cyclist on West 63rd Street, called attention to the issue. [479] Approximately 300 people a year have been injured in cycling-related accidents since the city started tracking the issue in 2011. [480] That year, residents of nearby communities unsuccessfully petitioned the NYPD to increase enforcement of cycling rules within the park. [481]

Crime and neglect Edit

In the mid-20th century, Central Park had a reputation for being very dangerous, especially after dark. Such a viewpoint was reinforced following a 1941 incident when 12-year-old Jerome Dore fatally stabbed 15-year-old James O'Connell in the northern section of the park. Local tabloids cited this incident and several other crimes as evidence of a highly exaggerated "crime wave". Though recorded crime had indeed increased since Central Park opened in the late 1850s, this was in line with crime trends seen in the rest of the city. [482] Central Park's reputation for crime was reinforced by its worldwide name recognition, and the fact that crimes in the park were covered disproportionately compared to crimes in the rest of the city. For instance, in 1973 The New York Times wrote stories about 20% of murders that occurred citywide but wrote about three of the four murders that took place in Central Park that year. By the 1970s and 1980s, the number of murders in the police precincts north of Central Park was 18 times higher than the number of murders within the park itself, and even in the precincts south of the park, the number of murders was three times as high. [483]

The park was the site of numerous high-profile crimes during the late 20th century. Of these, two particularly notable cases shaped public perception against the park. [483] In 1986, Robert Chambers murdered Jennifer Levin in what was later called the "preppy murder". [484] [485] Three years later, an investment banker was raped and brutally beaten in what came to be known as the Central Park jogger case. [486] [487] Conversely, other crimes such as the 1984 gang-rape of two homeless women were barely reported. [483] After World War II, it was feared that gay men perpetrated sex crimes and attracted violence. [488] Other problems in the 1970s and 1980s included a drug epidemic, a large homeless presence, vandalism, and neglect. [216] [489] [490]

As crime has declined in New York City, many of these negative perceptions have waned. [483] Safety measures keep the number of crimes in the park to fewer than 100 per year as of 2019 [update] , down from approximately 1,000 in the early 1980s. [29] Some well-publicized crimes have occurred since then: for instance, on June 11, 2000, following the Puerto Rican Day Parade, gangs of drunken men sexually assaulted women in the park. [491]

Other issues Edit

Permission to hold issue-centered rallies in Central Park, similar to the be-ins of the 1960s, has been met with increasingly stiff resistance from the city. During some 2004 protests, the organization United for Peace and Justice wanted to hold a rally on the Great Lawn during the Republican National Convention. The city denied an application for a permit, stating that such a mass gathering would be harmful to the grass and the damage would make it harder to collect private donations to maintain the park. [492] A judge of the New York Supreme Court's New York County branch upheld the refusal. [493]

During the 2000s and 2010s, new supertall skyscrapers were constructed along the southern end of Central Park, in a corridor commonly known as Billionaires' Row. According to a Municipal Art Society report, such buildings cast long shadows over the southern end of the park. [494] [495] A 2016 analysis by The New York Times found that some of the tallest and skinniest skyscrapers, such as One57, Central Park Tower, and 220 Central Park South, would cast shadows that can be as much as 1 mile (1.6 km) long during the winter, covering up to a third of the park's length. [496] In 2018, the New York City Council proposed legislation that would restrict the construction of skyscrapers near city parks. [497]

Cultural significance Edit

Central Park's size and cultural position has served as a model for many urban parks. [498] [499] Olmsted believed landscape design was a way to improve the feeling of community and had intended the park as the antithesis of the stresses of the city's daily life. [500] The Greensward Plan, radical at the time of its construction, led to widespread changes in park designs and urban planning in particular, parks were designed to incorporate landscapes whose elements were related to each other. [501] [502]

A New York City icon, Central Park is the most filmed location in the world. [503] [504] A December 2017 report found that 231 movies had used it for on-location shoots, more than the 160 movies that had filmed in Greenwich Village or the 99 movies that had filmed in Times Square. [503] [505] Some of the movies filmed at Central Park, such as the 1993 film The Age of Innocence, reflect ideals of the past. Other films, including The Fisher King (1991), Marathon Man (1976), The Out of Towners (1970), and Home Alone 2: Lost in New York (1992), use the park for dramatic conflict scenes. Central Park has been used in romance films such as Maid in Manhattan (2002), 13 Going on 30 (2004) or Hitch (2005), and fantasy live-action/animated films such as Enchanted (2007). [506] In 2009, an estimated 4,000 days of film shoots were hosted, or an average of more than ten film shoots per day, accounting for $135.5 million in city revenue. [21]

Because of its cultural and historical significance, Central Park has been a National Historic Landmark since 1962, [507] [508] [509] and a New York City designated scenic landmark since 1974. [1] It was placed on UNESCO's list of tentative World Heritage Sites in 2017. [510]

Real estate and economy Edit

The value of the surrounding land started rising significantly in the mid-1860s during the park's construction. [268] [511] The completion of Central Park immediately increased the surrounding area's real estate prices, in some cases by up to 700 percent between 1858 and 1870. [512] [513] It also resulted in the creation of the zoning plan in Upper Manhattan. [514] Upscale districts grew on both sides of Central Park following its completion. [515] On the Upper East Side, a portion of Fifth Avenue abutting lower Central Park became known as "Millionaires' Row" by the 1890s, due to the concentration of wealthy families in the area. [515] [516] The Upper West Side took longer to develop, but row houses and luxury apartment buildings came to predominate the neighborhood, and some were later included in the Central Park West Historic District. [515] [517] Though most of the city's rich formerly lived in mansions, they moved into apartments close to Central Park during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [518]

During the late 20th century, until Central Park's restoration in the 1990s, proximity to the park did not have a significant positive effect on real estate values. Following Central Park's restoration, some of the city's most expensive properties have been sold or rented near the park. [490] The value of the land in Central Park was estimated to be about $528.8 billion in December 2005, though this was based on the park's impact on the average value of nearby land. [519]

In the modern day, it is estimated that Central Park has resulted in billions of dollars in economic impact. A 2009 study found that the city received annual tax revenue of more than $656 million, visitors spent more than $395 million due to the park, in-park businesses such as concessions generated $135.5 million , and the 4,000 hours of annual film shoots and other photography generated $135.6 million of economic output. [21] In 2013, about 550,000 people lived within a ten-minute walk (about 0.5 miles or 0.80 kilometers) of the park's boundaries, and 1.15 million more people could get to the park within a half-hour subway ride. [490]

Memories of Plymouth's Central Park Zoo in 100 incredible photographs

It's hard to believe that a plot of boggy land in Plymouth's Central Park was once frequented by hundreds of people every week, keen to feast their eyes on wild animals without having to leave the city.

But for sixteen years Central Park was the home to the incredibly popular Plymouth Zoo and people travelled from miles around to get a glimpse of the animals - including chimps, elephants, giraffes, penguins and donkeys.

The zoo was officially opened by then-Deputy Lord Mayor Ivor Thompson on April 19, 1962 and cost the city around £30,000 to construct - about £228,000 in today's money, according to the National Archive. Scroll down for pictures.

Plymouth Zoo was popular with people of all ages but made a particularly popular destination for school trips for primary school children in the city.

In its first three days of opening, Plymouth Zoo attracted 13,000 visitors - while at the height of its popularity it pulled in crowds of more than 50,000 visitors per year.

But as time went by, visitor numbers dropped off and the zoo closed its gates for the last time in 1978.

Forty years later, in 2018, PlymouthLive found heaps of previously unpublished photos from the zoo. At the time, we spoke to Peverell resident Vina Shaddick, who worked at Plymouth Zoo from 1965, about her experiences.

Ms Shaddicks said Plymouth Zoo was run by the famous Chipperfield Organisation who rented the land from Plymouth City Council and recalled that the zoo had a huge range of animals, including lions, tigers, leopards, pumas, elephants, zebra, rhinos, hippos, wallabies and penguins.

As well as the usual animal exhibits and enclosures, the zoo had a "quarantine area" for animals being imported into the country, meaning animals bound for other zoos could be brought in from ships at Millbay Docks and 'quarantined' at Plymouth Zoo before eventually being transported to their new home, Ms Shaddicks said.

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The zoo also had a snack bar and "amusement area" and pretty "ornamental ponds".

"The zoo was very popular, and they did pony and cart rides around it," Ms Shaddicks said. "People used to complain about the small enclosures. Because it was a quarantine centre it was supposed only to be a stop over place for the animals.

"But the animals did not mind their enclosures - they were more like pets. Except the lions - they were a bit wild!"

In 2018, we also spoke to David Marshall the son of a former head keeper at Plymouth Zoo. David's father, Bill Marshall, began his career at the zoo after leaving the Royal Navy and worked his way up from the bottom of the ladder.

"He ended up working seven days a week, but he loved the job," David recalled. "I was 13 or 14 years old at the time he began working there, and I remember it well.

"He loved his kids and the job so much, and his grandchildren know all about his time there. Some nights he would even sleep in the zoo grounds near to the animals if they were poorly."

In 2019, Alasdair Smith, who now lives in Ayrshire in Scotland, found amazing colour footage from his trip to Plymouth Zoo in 1967.

The footage, which you can watch at the top of this article, shows him and his family exploring the zoo.

He said: "I am the grumpy one-year-old baby. I am 52 now! It was a family outing with my mum and dad and sister.

"At the time it was filmed we were living in Ballantrae in Ayrshire, Scotland. My dad was the GP there and we were on a family holiday to Devon staying at the Hotel Bristol in Newquay. That's the building at the start of the film.

"What's interesting is the lack of health and safety at the zoo - I am surprised the visitors left with all their fingers intact! I love the safety rope at the elephant enclosure - maybe people were trusted not to get too close.

"The other woman in the film was a family friend from Ballantrae who was looking after me and my sister part of the time to give my mum and dad a rest I think!

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At PlymouthLive, we've taken another look through the archives belonging to our sister newspaper The Herald and have rediscovered some incredible photos from Plymouth Zoo in the 1960s and 1970s..

Scroll down to see 100 incredible photographs of Plymouth Zoo - and why not share your own zoo photos and memories in the comments section below?

Vina Shaddick leading the pony and cart ride at Plymouth Zoo in 1965

(Image: Vina Shaddick) 1 of 100

Mustapha the lion cub appears to have mistaken himself for a guard dog, December 1967

Mustapha the lion cub at Plymouth Zoo, December 1967

Mustapha the lion cub meets a dog at Plymouth Zoo, December 1967

Mustapha the lion cub playing in a basket at Plymouth Zoo, December 1967

Mustapha the lion cub with a little boy at Plymouth Zoo in December 1967

Modelling shoot for Dingles at Plymouth Zoo c1960s

A large crowd watches the sea lion show at Plymouth Zoo on April 11, 1968

Brian Stoke, manager of Louie the hippopotamus in the mud, June 1968

Plymouth Zoo was a popular choice for school trips

Pictured: Ernesettle Infants School on a trip to Plymouth Zoo on June 20, 1968

A peacock draws the crowds at Plymouth Zoo on May 23, 1969

A cheeky chicken pecked a little girl's ice lolly at Plymouth Zoo, September 22 1969

Camels at Plymouth Zoo c1970

Jason Seward, age 18-months, befriends Hecate the baby seal and pushes him in his pram, December 1970

(Image: Mirrorpix) 14 of 100

Jason Seward and Hecate the baby seal share a pram

(Image: Mirrorpix) 15 of 100

Archive photo of two people feeding a chimp at Plymouth Zoo

(Image: Plymouth Herald) 16 of 100

The penguins at Plymouth Zoo c1970s

Feeding time for the giraffes at Plymouth Zoo

Percy the Pelican proved to be the most popular attraction, following visitors around the zoo grounds at Plymouth Zoo

Bill Marshall was the Head Keeper at Plymouth Zoo, after working his way up from the bottom of the ladder

(Image: David Marshall) 22 of 100

Bill Marshall, head keeper at Plymouth Zoo

(Image: David Marshall) 23 of 100

Bill Marshall with lion cubs

(Image: David Marshall) 24 of 100

Andy Adamson rides on a giant tortoise at Plymouth Zoo

Feeding time at the chimp enclosure at Plymouth Zoo c1970

The guinea pig and rabbit enclosure at Plymouth Zoo c1970

An inquisitive elephant at Plymouth Zoo

Making friends at Plymouth Zoo c1970s

Plymouth Zoo guidebook from the 1970s

St Michael's Church playschool trip to Plymouth Zoo Summer 1975

Photo courtesy of Lynn Easton (the little girl in the spotty dress with plaits)

(Image: Lynn Easton) 31 of 100

A sea lion entertains children at Plymouth Zoo during National Playgroup Week, June 17, 1976

Dixie Congdon, 25, of Barry, Wales the 6ft5in keeper of the 24 giraffes at Plymouth Zoo

More archive pictures of the animals at Plymouth Zoo

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The Real Animals at a 1950s Zoo: Review of the Edward Albee Play

Bruce Chadwick lectures on history and film at Rutgers University in New Jersey. He also teaches writing at New Jersey City University. He holds his PhD from Rutgers and was a former editor for the New York Daily News. Mr. Chadwick can be reached at [email protected]

A zoo is a place that you visit to admire monkeys, bears and lions and get some fresh air. It is full of smiling parents, laughing children and a menagerie of animals. The zoo in New York’s Central Park, like all of them, is also a perfect place to rest, roam around and read a book.

In the play Edward Albee’s At Home at the Zoo (Zoo Story), a pair of one act stories, one written by Albee in 1958 and the other in 2004, though, the animal kingdom in New York is not a place where you want to go because some of the people you meet there are more vicious than the animals behind the bars.

That’s what happened to Peter, a laid-back New York publishing executive in Albee’s play, that is getting a sensational revival at the Unicorn Theater in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, part of the Berkshire Theatre group. In this scorching drama about New York in the 1950s, Peter went to the Central Park Zoo to read his book after a rather heated argument with his wife over their sex life. He lounges back, opens the volume, breathes in the fresh air and is ready for a quiet afternoon. Then Jerry, a jumpy, loud, opinionated young man, arrives and interrupts him. A moment later the play plunges into a riveting tale about the two men as they talk about their lives. Jerry’s anger grows deeper and deeper and Peter, trying to somehow calm down the stranger, falls into what appears to be an endless rabbit hole of trouble.

Jerry is obviously a mentally ill man, but his stories about life in his traumatized boarding house, and its oddball tenants, intrigue Peter. As a book editor, he loves stories and Jerry tells him a colorful one, especially the part about Jerry’s attempts to kill a dog who lives there. But then Jerry starts to crowd Peter, demanding information about his life (he jeers at Peter’s dog and two parakeets) and family and wants to know where he lives and what he does for a living. Peter starts to feel very uncomfortable and Jerry seems out of control as the play hurtles towards an emotional explosion.

At Home at the Zoo is a very strong play, highlighted by astonishingly good acting, and calls into question much about our lives. Peter goes for a simple walk in the park and is, at random, confronted by a troubled man he has never met and the encounter leads to danger. He and his wife argue over something silly and it causes him to blurt out his deepest and darkest sexual secrets. What happened to Peter could have happened to any of us.

The story works so well because when Albee wrote it in 1958 Central Park was losing its quaint charm and becoming a dangerous place. So was the upper west side.

Jerry’s boarding house on the west side is across from Central Park between Columbus Avenue and Central Park West. Today, that area, home to Lincoln Center, is a high rent, sophisticated section of New York (brownstones worth millions each). In the late 1950s, though, it was a tawdry, run down area, a poor match to Peter’s upscale neighborhood on the east side (that neighborhood is still a trendy place). Albee selected the neighborhoods of the two men to show the differences and to hint that Jerry’s miserable boarding house and rundown neighborhood made him the man he was.

The drama’s Central Park setting, too, explains a lot of history and serves as the perfect setting for the tale. The purpose of Central Park was to provide a large, airy retreat for New Yorkers who felt hemmed in by the dense and sprawling city that was stifling them in the 1850s, when the population was nearly one million. The city was in terrible physical shape. Garbage was piled in the streets, pollution filled the air, the murder rate was nearly six times what it is today and neighborhoods overflowed with people. It was a town with too many people with nowhere to go. The oversized park, designed by Frederick Olmstead and Charles Vaux, opened in 1873 and was seen as a miracle of urban design around the world. The park gets 42 million visitors a year. Many New Yorkers, just like Peter in the play, just go there in the afternoon to read a book and soak in the trees and ponds. They have no idea of the potential for danger that lurks behind the botanical beauty, and in the late 1950s that was even more of a problem.

The zoo plays a role in the play because Albee is suggesting that the animals are not behind the cages, but in front of them. The Central Park Zoo, a 6.5-acre animal village, was created in 1860 as part of the new Central Park. It was the second zoo in America. It housed several dozen animals, including a bear. In 1934, the zoo was redesigned and renovated as part of a plan by New York City urban planner Robert Moses to revitalize Central Park, which had become rundown and was filled with crime. The 1934 zoo had more buildings, a sea lion pool and artistically fit in better to its park like surroundings. Ordinarily, the zoo, like the park, served as a respite for city dwellers, but from time to time was the scene of trouble. In 2017, as an example, a deranged man climbed to the top of one of the animal cages and stayed there for five hours until police forcibly removed him.

In the late 1950s, too, the police were a problem. The Central Park police were a wing of the NYPD, but did not have as many officers per square mile as the rest of the city, so there were just not enough of them to combat the growing crime wave just starting to develop in that area. The upper west side on the edge of the park and the zoo was a new crime den then, infested with members of new criminal street gangs that warred against each other and roved through Central Park. They were the face of the new “juvenile delinquency” wave of the late '50s. In addition to that, the upper west side was home to racial and ethnic strife as whites, blacks and Hispanics struggled to live together.

In the late '50s, police who were supposed to patrol the park were also busy chasing homosexuals, as Jerry notes in the play, and could not devote sufficient time to curbing the crime wave. All of this left Peter unprotected when he met Jerry. This history blended in nicely with Albee’s alarming story. In fact, there is a scene in the story where Peter yells out hopelessly for the police, who do not come.

Director Eric Hill did a fine job handling the multiple tensions in the drama. He kept the first act moving along well, a real chore since it is a pretty tepid part of the play. The acting in the play is wonderful. All three performers do admirable work. David Adkins is a sturdy Peter who really personifies the average guy. Tara Franklin does a fine job as his sex starved and combative wife. It is Joey Collins, as the deranged Jerry, who steals the play. He gives one of the best performances I have ever seen as the mystery man who emerges from nowhere to create a major confrontation with an unsuspecting bench-sitter. Collins goes through the full range of emotions as Jerry and you become more and more entranced with him, and afraid of him, as the story develops.

At Home at the Zoo was a smash hit as just Zoo Story fifty years ago and it is just as electrifying as two one acts today.

It was a warning, too, that in any zoo, in any city, in any era, we are all random victims for the shadows of evil in the world.

PRODUCTION: Sets: Randall Parsons, Costumes: David Murin, Lighting: Solomon Weisbard, Sound: J Hagenbuckle. The play is directed by Eric Hill. It runs through August 26.

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