JFK in Europe Pre WWII - History

JFK in Europe Pre WWII - History

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During his Junior year, Jack traveled extensively throughout Europe, as well as the Middle East. Jack was in Europe during the time of the Munich Accords. He visited Nazi Germany several times. He even visited Prague, after the Germans occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia. Jack enjoyed his travels immensely, he always found time to have fun and meet girls. Yet, Jack was still a keen observer of the events around him. Jack wrote his observations back to his father at every stop. Before his return to school, Jack was sent by his father to help the Americans who had been rescued.

Jack sailed to England on the Queen Mary and began to plan an extended trip through Europe.?Being the son of the American Ambassador to Great Britain opened a great many doors for Jack. Carrying a personal letter of introduction from Secretary of State Cordell Hull opened even more doors..

Kennedy started his journey in Paris. From there he headed to Poland.?In a report Jack wrote to his father from Paris, he states: " the strongest impression I have gotten is that, rightly or wrongly, the Poles will fight over the question of Danzig. " ?

From Poland Jack went on to the Soviet Union.?There Jack acquired his lifelong belief that the Soviet Union was backward and bureaucratic.?From the Soviet Union, he headed south to Turkey, and then to Palestine.?After spending time in Palestine, Jack wrote to his father, that the only solution to the Palestine problem was some sort of partition.?

Jack then visited the Balkans, following which he went on to Romania. He returned to England for the June 22nd coming-out party of his sister, Eunice.?He then returned to the Continent, this time with Torbert " Torby" MacDonald.?

Jack and Torby began in Western Europe and then headed for Germany.?There,?they were involved in an incident with Nazi soldiers who had pelted their car with stones when they noticed that the car carried English license plates. From Germany, Kennedy insisted on going to Prague, already occupied by Germany. He succeeded in getting permission to visit, but was then given a cold shoulder by the Embassy staff, who felt they had better things to do than ??babysit?? a young college student. On his way back to London, Jack vacationed for a week on the French Riviera, partying with sultry actress Marlene Dietrich.?

By the time Jack returned to London in August 1939, the war was rapidly approaching. A month later, World War II erupted when Germany invaded Poland. On September 3rd the Germans torpedoed the British ocean liner Athenia 250 miles off the coast of Scotland, among whose passengers there were three hundred Americans.?Jack was sent to Scotland to represent the Ambassador. He worked to help the survivors return to the United States.

JFK in Europe Pre WWII - History

Kennedy’s close advisers believed that Eisenhower’s foreign policy establishment was stultified, slow moving, overly reliant on brinksmanship and massive retaliation, and complacent. Their fear was that after eight years, the State Department would be unable to implement their new international vision. The new President was determined to control foreign policy through a young and energetic White House and NSC staffers who would make their own informal contacts within the foreign affairs bureaucracy. Furthermore, Kennedy thought that Eisenhower and Secretaries Dulles and Herter had all but ceded the newly emerging states in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to the communists.

The execution of Kennedy’s foreign policy did not quite live up to the stirring rhetoric of his inaugural speech, in which he said: “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.” In fact, his foreign policy was marred by a string of failures.

First, Kennedy gave the green light to an Eisenhower-initiated invasion of the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in 1961. Based on faulty intelligence, the military action, which was carried out by Cuban exiles without crucial air support was a fiasco. Then in June 1961 at the Vienna Summit with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev , Kennedy was unprepared and seemed to be a lightweight playboy. Next, Kennedy’s tough talk about the Soviet Union in Berlin did not improve the situation—instead, the Soviets built the Berlin Wall. Finally, his decision not to draw the line against communism in Laos, as the Eisenhower Administration had urged, left South Vietnam as the place to fight communism in Asia.


According to genealogist Brian Kennedy in his work JFK's Irish O'Kennedy Ancestors, the Kennedys who would go on to play a significant role in the United States of America originated from the Ó Cinnéide Fionn (one of the three Irish Gaelic Ó Cinnéide clans who ruled the kingdom of Ormond, along with the Ó Cinnéide Donn and Ó Cinnéide Ruadh). Their progenitor, Diarmaid Ó Cinnéide Fionn, held Knigh Castle close to what is today Puckane, County Tipperary in 1546. From there, having lost out to the New English order in the Kingdom of Ireland, they ended up in Dunganstown, New Ross, County Wexford by 1740. Patrick Kennedy was born there in 1823.

The first Kennedys to reside in the United States were Patrick Kennedy (1823–1858) and Bridget Murphy (1824–1888), who sailed from Ireland to East Boston in 1849 Patrick worked in East Boston as a barrel maker, or cooper. [4] Patrick and Bridget had five children: their youngest, Patrick Joseph "P. J." Kennedy, went into business and served in the Massachusetts state legislature from 1884 to 1895.

P. J. and Mary Augusta Hickey were the parents of four children. Their oldest was Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy Sr., [5] who amassed a fortune in banking and securities trading, which he further expanded by investing in other growing industries. Joseph Sr. was appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt as the first chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission, chairman of the Maritime Commission, and U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom in the lead-up to World War II. He served on The Hoover Commission, officially named the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government, from 1947 to 1949 the commission was appointed by President Harry Truman to recommend administrative changes in the federal government.

Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald were the parents of nine children: Joseph Jr., John, Rose Marie (called Rosemary), Kathleen, Eunice, Patricia, Robert, Jean, and Edward (called Ted). John served as the 35th President of the United States, while Robert and Ted both became prominent senators. Every Kennedy elected to public office has served as a Democrat, while other members of the family have worked for the Democratic Party or held Cabinet posts in Democratic administrations. Many have attended Harvard University, and the family has contributed greatly to that university's John F. Kennedy School of Government.

Joseph Sr. expected his eldest son, Joseph Jr., to go into politics and to ultimately be elected president. Joseph Jr. was elected as a delegate to the 1940 Democratic National Convention, and enlisted in the Navy after the U.S. entered World War II. Joseph Jr. was killed in 1944 when the bomber he was piloting exploded in flight. It then fell upon John, who had considered a career as a journalist — he had authored a book and did some reporting for Hearst Newspapers — to fulfill his father's desire to see the family involved in politics and government. After returning from Navy service, John served in the U.S. House of Representatives representing Massachusetts's 11th congressional district from 1947 to 1953, and then as U.S. Senator from Massachusetts until his election as President in 1960.

During John's administration, Robert served as attorney general his brother-in-law Sargent Shriver served as director of the new Peace Corps, and Ted was elected to the U.S. Senate, occupying his brother's former seat in Massachusetts until his death in 2009. Among the Kennedy administration's accomplishments: the Alliance for Progress, the Peace Corps, peaceful resolution to the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963, the 24th Amendment ending the poll tax, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. [6] The family was the subject of intense media coverage during and after the Kennedy presidency, often emphasizing their relative youth, allure, education, and future in politics. Ted served in the Senate with his brother Robert (1965–1968), and was serving in the Senate when his nephew, Joseph P. II (1987–1999), and son, Patrick J. (1995–2011), served in the U.S. House of Representatives.

In November 2012, Joseph P. Kennedy III, son of former Rep. Joseph P. Kennedy II and grandson of the late Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts's 4th congressional district. In 2020, he lost the 2020 Senate primary election in Massachusetts to Ed Markey, the first Kennedy to ever lose an election in the state. [7] [8]

Family incidents led Senator Ted Kennedy to wonder, in a televised statement about the Chappaquiddick incident in 1969, whether there really was a "Kennedy curse." Some of the events endured by the Kennedy clan include: in 1941, Rosemary underwent a non-consensual lobotomy intended to prevent her from embarrassing the family with her violent mood swings, convulsions, and intellectual disability. The operation left her incapacitated for the rest of her life. Joseph Jr. died in 1944 when the Navy bomber he was piloting exploded in mid-flight. Kathleen died in a plane crash in France in 1948. John and Robert were assassinated, in 1963 and 1968 respectively. In 1964, Ted was nearly killed when his plane crashed in an apple orchard near Southampton, Massachusetts. [9] [10] (Legislative aide Edward Moss and the pilot were killed in the crash.) [11] Ted was seriously injured and spent months in a hospital recovering from a severe back injury, a punctured lung, broken ribs and internal bleeding. [12]

In later generations, Robert's son David died of a drug overdose in 1984 and son Michael died from injuries sustained in a skiing accident in 1997 John's son John Jr. died in a plane crash (along with his wife Carolyn and sister-in-law Lauren) off the coast of Martha's Vineyard in 1999 Kara Kennedy and Christopher Kennedy Lawford died of heart attacks, in 2011 and 2018 respectively and Saoirse Kennedy Hill died of a drug overdose in 2019. [13] [14]

In April 2020, Robert's granddaughter Maeve Kennedy McKean, a former official in the Obama Administration, and her eight-year-old son, Gideon Joseph Kennedy McKean, disappeared in Chesapeake Bay after embarking in a canoe to retrieve a ball. The rescue operation was suspended after 26 hours. [15] Maeve McKean's body was recovered several days later. [16]

  1. ^ Lundy, Darryl (May 10, 2003). "Patrick Kennedy". The Peerage. p. 6527 § 65269 . Retrieved October 21, 2014 . Patrick Kennedy M, b. circa 1823, d. 22 November 1858
  2. ^ The numbering of generations (in Roman numerals I–VI) is based on Patrick and Bridget being the first generation of Kennedys to reside in the United States.
  3. ^ Parents:
  4. Maier, Thomas (2003). The Kennedys: America's Emerald Kings. Basic Books. p. [page needed] . ISBN978-0-465-04317-0 .
  5. ^ Marriage:
  6. Collier, P. Horowitz, D. (1984). The Kennedys - An American Drama. [full citation needed]
  7. ^ Parents:
  8. Goodwin, Doris Kearns (2001). The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys: An American Saga. Simon and Schuster. pp. 88–89.
  9. ^ In generation VI, only family members with articles and their siblings are listed
    : Massachusetts state Representative 1884–1889 Massachusetts state Senator, 1889–1895.
      : Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 1934–1935 chairman of the United States Maritime Commission, 1936–1938 United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom, 1938–1940.
        : United States Representative from Massachusetts, 1947–1953 United States Senator from Massachusetts, 1953–1960 President of the United States, 1961–1963
          : United States Ambassador to Japan, 2013–2017.
          : Santa Monica, California City Council member, 2004–2012 Mayor of Santa Monica, 2010. : Maryland state Delegate, 1995–2003.
          : Lieutenant governor of Maryland, 1995–2003. : United States Representative from Massachusetts, 1987–1999.
            : United States Representative from Massachusetts, 2013–2021.
            : Connecticut state Senator, 2015–2019. : Rhode Island state Representative, 1989–1993 United States Representative from Rhode Island, 1995–2011.

          There was a member of the Kennedy family in public office nearly continuously from 1946, when John F. Kennedy was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, until early 2011, when Patrick J. Kennedy left the House. The only exception in that time was the period between John F. Kennedy's resignation from the Senate on December 22, 1960 and his assumption of the office of President on January 20, 1961. In 2013 Joseph P. Kennedy III was elected U.S. Representative from Massachusetts and served until 2021.

          Congressional timeline Edit

          In 1961, John F. Kennedy was presented with a grant of arms for all the descendants of Patrick Kennedy (1823–1858) from the Chief Herald of Ireland. The design of the arms (three gold closed helmets on a black field) [17] strongly alludes to symbols in the coats of arms of the O'Kennedys of Ormonde and the FitzGeralds of Desmond, from whom the family is believed to be descended. The crest is an armored hand holding four arrows between two olive branches, elements taken from the coat of arms of the United States of America and also symbolic of Kennedy and his brothers. [18]

          JFK in Europe Pre WWII - History

          Charles Lindbergh attending Nazi party in Berlin - 1935

          A number of prominent and wealthy American businessmen helped to support fascist regimes in Europe from the 1920s through the 1940s. These people helped to support Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War of 1936, as well as Benito Mussolini, and Adolph Hitler.

          Some of the primary and more famous Americans and companies that were involved with the fascist regimes of Europe are: William Randolph Hearst, Joseph Kennedy (JFK's father), Charles Lindbergh, John Rockefeller, Andrew Mellon (head of Alcoa, banker, and Secretary of Treasury), DuPont, General Motors, Standard Oil (now Exxon), Ford, ITT, Allen Dulles (later head of the CIA), Prescott Bush, National City Bank, and General Electric.

          It should be noted that businessmen from many countries, including England and Australia, also worked with the fascist regimes of Europe prior to WWII. The fascist governments were involved in a high level of construction, production, and international business.

          I.G. Farben, a German company, was the largest chemical manufacturing enterprise in the world during the early part of the 20 th century. As such the company had many holdings in a variety of countries, including America. The American holdings of I.G. Farben included Bayer Co., General Aniline Works, Agfa Ansco, and Winthrop Chemical Company.

          I.G. Farben was critical in the development of the German economy and war machine leading up to WWII. During this time I.G. Farben's international holdings along with its international business contracts with companies like Standard Oil, DuPont, Alcoa, and Dow Chemical were crucial in supplying the Nazi regime with the materials needed for war as well as financial support.

          The Spanish Civil War was the precursor to World War II. Fascist Francisco Franco was aided by Hitler and Mussolini during the Spanish Civil War. At this time GM, Ford, DuPont, and Standard Oil were working with Franco and supplying the fascist powers of Europe. At this same time many Americans were protesting the goings on in Europe as well as the involvement of American companies in helping the fascist powers. A group of American volunteer soldiers known as the Abe Lincoln Brigade went to Spain during this time to fight against Franco in defense of the Spanish Republic. This group was made up primarily of leftist American groups, such as members of American socialist parties and communist parties.

          This Spanish Poster reads:
          "Greed, Militarism, War - this is fascism. Unite to destroy it."

          The success of the fascists in Spain was an important first step in the building of fascist power in Europe and the stepping-stone for the Italian and German powers.

          The support of American corporations, and lack of American intervention by the government, was crucial in the success of this first step.

          American banks and businesses continued to support the fascist regimes of Europe legally up until the day Germany declared war on America and the activities were stopped under the Trading with the Enemy Act. Despite this, some companies and individuals still maintained a business relationship with the Third Reich. Ford and GM supplied European fascists with trucks and equipment as well as investing money in I.G. Farben plants. Standard Oil supplied the fascists with fuel. US Steel and Alcoa supplied them with critically needed metals. American banks gave them billion's of dollars worth of loans.

          The following is excerpted from a report printed by the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary in 1974:

          The activities of General Motors, Ford and Chrysler prior to and during World War II. are instructive. At that time, these three firms dominated motor vehicle production in both the United States and Germany. Due to its mass production capabilities, automobile manufacturing is one of the most crucial industries with respect to national defense. As a result, these firms retained the economic and political power to affect the shape of governmental relations both within and between these nations in a manner which maximized corporate global profits. In short, they were private governments unaccountable to the citizens of any country yet possessing tremendous influence over the course of war and peace in the world. The substantial contribution of these firms to the American war effort in terms of tanks, aircraft components, and other military equipment is widely acknowledged. Less well known are the simultaneous contributions of their foreign subsidiaries to the Axis Powers. In sum, they maximized profits by supplying both sides with the materiel needed to conduct the war.

          During the 1920's and 1930's, the Big Three automakers undertook an extensive program of multinational expansion. By the mid-1930's, these three American companies owned automotive subsidiaries throughout Europe and the Far East many of their largest facilities were located in the politically sensitive nations of Germany, Poland, Rumania, Austria, Hungary, Latvia, and Japan. Due to their concentrated economic power over motor vehicle production in both Allied and Axis territories, the Big Three inevitably became major factors in the preparations and progress of the war. In Germany, for example, General Motors and Ford became an integral part of the Nazi war efforts. GM's plants in Germany built thousands of bomber and jet fighter propulsion systems for the Luftwaffe at the same time that its American plants produced aircraft engines for the U.S. Army Air Corps.

          Ford was also active in Nazi Germany's prewar preparations. In 1938, for instance, it opened a truck assembly plant in Berlin whose "real purpose," according to U.S. Army Intelligence, was producing "troop transport-type" vehicles for the Wehrmacht. That year Ford's chief executive received the Nazi German Eagle (first class).

          The outbreak of war in September 1939 resulted inevitably in the full conversion by GM and Ford of their Axis plants to the production of military aircraft and trucks. On the ground, GM and Ford subsidiaries built nearly 90 percent of the armored "mule" 3-ton half-trucks and more than 70 percent of the Reich's medium and heavy-duty trucks. These vehicles, according to American intelligence reports, served as "the backbone of the German Army transportation system.".

          After the cessation of hostilities, GM and Ford demanded reparations from the U.S. Government for wartime damages sustained by their Axis facilities as a result of Allied bombing. Ford received a little less than $1 million, primarily as a result of damages sustained by its military truck complex at Cologne.

          Due to their multinational dominance of motor vehicle production, GM and Ford became principal suppliers for the forces of fascism as well as for the forces of democracy. It may, of course, be argued that participating in both sides of an international conflict, like the common corporate practice of investing in both political parties before an election, is an appropriate corporate activity. Had the Nazis won, General Motors and Ford would have appeared impeccably Nazi as Hitler lost, these companies were able to re-emerge impeccably American. In either case, the viability of these corporations and the interests of their respective stockholders would have been preserved.

          In 1940 Graeme K. Howard, Vice President of General Motors, published America and a New World Order, in which he advised that America give full cooperation to the Nazi regime. In his book he blames FDR for causing the war in Europe and goes on to say that the fascists should be supported as the better alternative to the spread of Communism.

          The du Ponts helped to finance the Black Legion. The Black Legion was a Nazi style group supported by the du Ponts who were supporters of the Nazi movement in Germany and fanatical followers of the Third Reich. The organization was an American anti-socialist group that used violence against union leaders and union members. They have been implicated in the murder of several members of workers groups who were working in support of workers rights and benefits. The Black Legion was reported to have over 1.5 million members in the United States and was a group that was opposed to the FDR administration and was supposedly working to overthrow the administration. The Black Legion also had ties with the Ku Klux Klan, which was also a pro-Nazi group. The American Liberty League was another such organization.

          For more on the Black Legion you can refer to the Federal Freedom of Information archives at:

          "This cult-type organization operated in the midwest in the 1930's supposedly to protect the country from various forms of "isms". Members wore black costumes with skull and crossbones insignia and were allegedly responsible for numerous murders."

          William Randolph Hearst is known as one of the largest media moguls of all time. During the 1930s he worked with the Nazi party to help promote a positive image of the Nazi party in American media. He also received loans from Italian fascists bankers during this time. The actions of Hearst were an important element in shaping American sentiment about not getting involved in the political situation in Europe as many Americans were led to believe that there was nothing terribly wrong going on in Europe, and even after the war started some Americans continued to support the Nazi regime based on the propaganda that they had been exposed to through Hearst media sources.

          Below is an example of what was said about the Nazis in Hearst publications, in this case the Reader's Digest, 1933:

          "That Hitler's conquest of the hearts and minds of all classes of Germans is now so complete that even if all his Brown Shirts and Steel Helmets were to be disbanded, tomorrow he would still be easily the strongest man in Germany, and on any appeal to the electorate would be confirmed in power by a quite overwhelming majority of votes.

          Hitler is recognized by the whole of the political and official intelligentsia as an exceedingly able man. As of the militarist question: One may say with complete certainty that what Hitler said in his Reichstag speech on May 17 was exactly what he meant and accurately represents the policy that he will pursue.

          I found no German who dreamed of the possibility of war, few who did not hope that it might be prevented in the future altogether. The truth is that the Nazi mind is concentrated on the internal problems of Germany and does not want to be bothered by foreign affairs for a long time to come.

          Hitler has passed from the stage of party leader to being the national prophet of an exceedingly serious people, and it would need another prophet to replace him."

          - Clifford Sharp, former editor of the New Statesman writing in The New Statesman and Nation. Reprinted in Readers Digest, September, 1933

          Below is a copy of a 1938 article published in Better Homes and Gardens, a Hearst publication:

          In 1935 American Ambassador to Germany wrote to President Roosevelt about the extent of Hearst's dealings with the Nazis.

          In this letter it was stated:

          "For this service Hearst was to receive $200,000 a year, and he at once began to bring pressure to bear on his correspondents to give only friendly accounts of what happened in Germany."

          "…I [reporter Karl von Wiegand] learned a little later that all my reports from Germany went directly to Hearst and were re-edited so as to fit the new program."

          "…he [Hearst] at the same time sent Dosch-Fleurot here from Paris to administer the service in such a way that it would always be friendly to the Hitler regime."

          Hearst publications continued to present the fascist regimes in Europe in a positive light until America finally entered the war.

          Perhaps one of the most egregious contributors to the Nazi cause was IBM under the direction of Thomas J. Watson.

          IBM knowing helped to setup Nazi census databases through the use of data sorting machines that enabled the Nazis to carry out the Holocaust in a way that they would not have otherwise been able to. Point blank, IBM increased the size and scope of the Holocaust, and did it for profit. Not only this, but IBM leased the machines, which they had developed especially for the Nazis, to the regime with the intention of taking them back, "once they were finished with them". Thomas Watson was awarded a medal by Adolph Hitler for his role in assisting in the Nazi regime, .and Watson expressed, "the necessity of extending a sympathetic understanding to the German people, and their leader Adolph Hitler." He also expressed "the highest esteem for Hitler, his country, and his people."

          More on IBM and Thomas J. Watson can be found here:

          Charles Lindbergh was perhaps the most vocal and public supporter of the fascists, especially the Germans. Lindbergh was not so much a financial supporter of the Nazis, as he was a public advocate for allying with Germany to fight against Communism and promote White racial superiority. Lindbergh attended the Olympics as a guest of the Nazis and in 1938 he was given the Service Cross of the German Eagle while attending a dinner party in Berlin. He founded the America First Committee in 1940 to build opposition to FDR and FDR's support for American entry into the war in Europe.

          After American entry into World War II Lindbergh went to work for Henry Ford as an aircraft design consultant, and then went on to Japan to support American efforts in the Pacific. This was actually against the approval of the Roosevelt administration.

          Henry Ford was an avowed anti-Semite, and significant contributor to the Nazi movement in Germany.

          In 1920 Ford stated: "The international financiers are behind all war. They are what is called the International Jew -- German Jews, French Jews, English Jews, American Jews. I believe that in all these countries except our own the Jewish financier is supreme. Here, the Jew is a threat."

          In the 1920s he published The International Jew. Hitler himself ordered many copies of this book and was said to keep a copy on his desk. It is easy to see why when reading the book, because the attack on the Jews is vehement. The book states:

          WHAT TO DO ABOUT IT?

          Simply identify the source and nature of the influence which has overrun our schools and universities. Let the students know that their choice is between the Anglo-Saxons and the Tribe of Judah. Let the students decide, in making up their allegiance, whether they will follow the Builders or those who seek to tear down. It is not a case for argument. The only absolute antidote to the Jewish influence is to call college students back to a pride of race.

          We often speak of the Fathers as if they were the few who happened to affix their signatures to a great document which marked a new era of liberty. The Fathers of our nation were the men of the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic race. The men who came from Europe with civilization in their blood and in their destiny. The men who crossed the Atlantic and set up civilization on a bleak and rock-bound coast the men who drove north to Alaska and west to California the men who opened up the tropics and subdued the arctics the men who mastered the African veldt the men who peopled Australia and seized the gates of the world at Suez, Gibraltar and Panama men who have given form to every government and a livelihood to every people and an ideal to every century. They got neither their God nor their religion from Judah, nor yet their speech nor their creative genius- they are the Ruling People. Chosen throughout the centuries to Master the world, by building it ever better and better, and not by breaking it down.

          Into the camp of this race, among the sons of the rulers, comes a people that has no civilization to point to, no aspiring religion, no universal speech, no great achievement in any realm but the realm of "get," cast out of every land that gave them hospitality, and these people endeavor to tell the Sons of the Saxons what is needed to make the world what it ought to be!

          If our sons follow this counsel of dark rebellion and destruction, it is because they do not know whose sons they are, of what race they are the scions. Let there be free speech to the limit in our universities and free intercourse of ideas, but let Jewish thoughts be labeled Jewish, and let our sons know the racial secret.

          NAME THE ENEMY!


          Judah has begun the struggle. Judah has made the invasion. Let it come. Let no man fear it. But let every a man insist that the fight be fair. Let college students and leaders of thought know that the objective is the regnancy of the ideas and the race that have built all the civilization we see and that promises all the civilization of the future let them also know that the attacking force is Jewish.

          That is all that will be necessary. It is against this that the Jews protest. "You must not identify us," they say, "You must not use the term 'Jew'." Why? Because unless the Jewish idea can creep in under the assumption of other than Jewish origin, it is doomed. Anglo-Saxon ideas dare proclaim themselves and their origin. A proper proclamation is all that is necessary today. Compel every invading idea to run up its flag!

          People today try to put all of this blame on Hitler, but it was not just Hitler, in fact the ideas of the Nazis were far more pervasive and were publicized by Henry Ford.

          Why? Because he believed in an international Jewish conspiracy. Ford was more then just anti-Semitic, you can see by reading his publications that it went well beyond a matter of racism and not liking people. He viewed this, and many others did as well, as a war between the Anglo way of life and that of the Jews.

          The hate that so many talk about in America today, it runs much deeper then many would imagine, and it is founded in much more substantial ideas then most would think as well.

          Ford helped shape Hitler's views on the Jews, and those of many people around he world.

          At the Nuremberg Trials Baldur Von Shirach claimed that Henry Ford was the primary inspiration for his anti-Semitism.

          Shirach, a former Nazi youth leader, stated: "You have no idea what a great influence this book had on the thinking of the German youth…I read Henry Ford's book 'The International Jewry'…and became anti-Semitic."

          Ford also made large personal contributions to Hitler's political campaigns. Hitler spoke of Ford in his speeches and had a portrait of Ford in his office.

          In 1938 Henry Ford received the Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle as a birthday present from Adolph Hitler. He was given the medal in his office in Michigan by two officials from the Third Reich, as seen below:

          Ford never returned this medal, even after WWII. The head of IBM, who had also been given a medal from Hitler because he was a supporter of the Third-Reich, returned his medal after WWII, but Henry did not despite public outcry.

          Overall, what is critical to recognize is that American corporations and wealthy individuals played an important part in the construction of the Nazi Empire and the various fascist groups of Europe leading up to World War II. Without American support it is doubtful that the fascist powers of Europe would have ever achieved their positions of power and been able to develop the military institutions necessary to wage the Second World War. Indeed Ford himself contributed not only monetarily but ideologically as well. It is important to note that America was still the wealthiest country in the world at that time even though America was also in a state of economic depression. Many of America's wealthy were only mildly affected by the depression, if at all, and many of them were opposed to the FDR administration.

          Important information about the ties between American businessmen and the fascist powers of Europe was communicated to FDR by the American Ambassador to Germany during the 1930s, William E. Dodd. His writings on the matter are of critical importance. He wrote about connections between Hearst and the Nazis as well as Hearst and the Italians, in addition to Nazi connections with other wealthy Americans.

          "A clique of U.S. industrialists is hell-bent to bring a fascist state to supplant our democratic government and is working closely with the fascist regime in Germany and Italy. I have had plenty of opportunity in my post in Berlin to witness how close some of our American ruling families are to the Nazi regime. . . . "

          "Certain American industrialists had a great deal to do with bringing fascist regimes into being in both Germany and Italy. They extended aid to help Fascism occupy the seat of power, and they are helping to keep it there."

          - William E. Dodd, U.S. Ambassador to Germany, 1937

          This is the only internet library of the writings of William E. Dodd:

          The Diary of William E. Dodd:

          What is also critical to observe is that this information is not a part of standard American history. The fact that this information is not openly disclosed is very important from many perspectives. For one, how can we as a people truly learn from history if we don't know real history? We have to know what really happened if we are to learn to really prevent it from happening again. For another, why is it that so many of America's largest corporations and most influential political officials have direct ties to the Nazi empire?

          The Kennedy Curse in World War II

          Left: Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., USN, 1942 Right: Kathleen Kennedy, American Red Cross, 1943. (Photos: John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum).

          Though John F. Kennedy emerged from World War II as a national hero, he thought of the war years as a dark period for his family. “It turned [us] upside down and sucked all the oxygen out of our smug and comfortable assumptions,” he said.

          Joseph P. Kennedy, patriarch of the clan and a fierce isolationist, opposed the war and made several missteps that severely damaged his political career, which once seemed destined to climax in a bid for the White House. Appointed in 1938 as President Franklin Roosevelt’s ambassador to Great Britain, he backed the appeasement policy of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, describing Czechoslovakia and other nations threatened by Hitler as “disposable countries,” according to Edward Renehan Jr.’s The Kennedys at War. During the Battle of Britain, he declared that democracy was “finished” in England and perhaps America, too. In a line from a speech that Roosevelt censored, he said, “I should like to ask you all if you know of any dispute or controversy existing in the world which is worth the life of your son?”

          That line would haunt Kennedy when the three of his nine children who were of age and able—Joe Jr., Jack, and Kathleen—joined the war effort. Kathleen, the fourth of his nine children, volunteered for the Red Cross in London, in part to be closer to Billy Hartington, a wealthy British aristocrat she’d met while her father was ambassador. She and Hartington married in May 1944, but the groom, a captain in the British Army, was killed in combat three months later.

          Jack’s near-death misfortune in the Solomons left him in the hospital for months after back surgery. But the biggest Kennedy tragedy of the war was the death of Joe Kennedy Jr. A navy bomber pilot, he flew at D-Day and twice extended his tour of duty in Europe. In August 1944—days before Billy Hartington died—he volunteered for a secret mission testing an experimental drone plane packed with explosives—a weapon the Allies hoped to use as a guided missile. On the first test flight, the explosives detonated prematurely and the plane exploded. Kennedy’s body was never found.

          His son’s death shattered Joe Kennedy and fueled his rage at Roosevelt for entangling America in the war. “For a fellow who didn’t want this war to touch your country or mine,” he wrote a friend in Britain, “I have had a rather bad dose—Joe dead, Billy Hartington dead, my son Jack in the Naval Hospital. I have had brought home to me very personally what I saw for all the mothers and fathers of the world.”

          JFK in Europe Pre WWII - History

          Timeline with Photos and Text




          July 29 - Adolf Hitler becomes leader of National Socialist (Nazi) Party.




          September 8 - Germany admitted to League of Nations.


          October 29 - Stock Market on Wall Street crashes.


          September 14 - Germans elect Nazis making them the 2nd largest political party in Germany.


          November 8 - Franklin Roosevelt elected President of the United States.


          January 30 - Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.

          February 27 - The German Reichstag burns.

          March 12 - First concentration camp opened at Oranienburg outside Berlin.

          March 23 - Enabling Act gives Hitler dictatorial power.

          April 1 - Nazi boycott of Jewish owned shops.

          May 10 - Nazis burn books in Germany.

          In June - Nazis open Dachau concentration camp.

          July 14 - Nazi Party declared Germany's only political party.

          October 14 - Germany quits the League of Nations.


          June 30 - The Nazi "Night of the Long Knives."

          July 25 - Nazis murder Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss.

          August 2 - German President Hindenburg dies.

          August 19 - Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of Germany.


          March 16 - Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles by introducing military conscription.

          September 15 - German Jews stripped of rights by Nuremberg Race Laws.


          February 10 - The German Gestapo is placed above the law.

          March 7 - German troops occupy the Rhineland.

          May 9 - Mussolini's Italian forces take Ethiopia.

          July 18 - Civil war erupts in Spain.

          August 1 - Olympic games begin in Berlin.

          October 1 - Franco declared head of Spanish State.


          June 11 - Soviet leader Josef Stalin begins a purge of Red Army generals.

          November 5 - Hitler reveals war plans during Hossbach Conference.


          March 12/13 - Germany announces 'Anschluss' (union) with Austria.

          August 12 - German military mobilizes.

          September 30 - British Prime Minister Chamberlain appeases Hitler at Munich.

          October 15 - German troops occupy the Sudetenland Czech government resigns.

          November 9/10 - Kristallnacht - The Night of Broken Glass.

          See also: The History Place - Holocaust Timeline

          1939 Return to Top of Page

          January 30, 1939 - Hitler threatens Jews during Reichstag speech.

          March 15/16 - Nazis take Czechoslovakia.

          March 28, 1939 - Spanish Civil war ends.

          May 22, 1939 - Nazis sign 'Pact of Steel' with Italy.

          August 23, 1939 - Nazis and Soviets sign Pact.

          August 25, 1939 - Britain and Poland sign a Mutual Assistance Treaty.

          August 31, 1939 - British fleet mobilizes Civilian evacuations begin from London.

          September 1, 1939 - Nazis invade Poland.

          September 3, 1939 - Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany.

          September 4, 1939 - British Royal Air Force attacks the German Navy.

          September 5, 1939 - United States proclaims its neutrality German troops cross the Vistula River in Poland.

          September 10, 1939 - Canada declares war on Germany Battle of the Atlantic begins.

          September 17, 1939 - Soviets invade Poland.

          September 27, 1939 - Warsaw surrenders to Nazis Reinhard Heydrich becomes the leader of new Reich Main Security Office (RSHA).

          See also: The History Place - Biography of Reinhard Heydrich.

          September 29, 1939 - Nazis and Soviets divide up Poland.

          In October - Nazis begin euthanasia on sick and disabled in Germany.

          November 8, 1939 - Assassination attempt on Hitler fails.

          November 30, 1939 - Soviets attack Finland.

          December 14, 1939 - Soviet Union expelled from the League of Nations.

          1940 Return to Top of Page

          January 8, 1940 - Rationing begins in Britain.

          March 12, 1940 - Finland signs a peace treaty with Soviets.

          March 16, 1940 - Germans bomb Scapa Flow naval base near Scotland.

          April 9, 1940 - Nazis invade Denmark and Norway.

          May 10, 1940 - Nazis invade France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands Winston Churchill becomes British Prime Minister.

          May 15, 1940 - Holland surrenders to the Nazis.

          May 26, 1940 - Evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk begins.

          May 28, 1940 - Belgium surrenders to the Nazis.

          June 3, 1940 - Germans bomb Paris Dunkirk evacuation ends.

          June 10, 1940 - Norway surrenders to the Nazis Italy declares war on Britain and France.

          June 14, 1940 - Germans enter Paris.

          June 16, 1940 - Marshal Pétain becomes French Prime Minister.

          June 18, 1940 - Hitler and Mussolini meet in Munich Soviets begin occupation of the Baltic States.

          June 22, 1940 - France signs an armistice with Nazi Germany.

          June 23, 1940 - Hitler tours Paris.

          June 28, 1940 - Britain recognizes General Charles de Gaulle as the Free French leader.

          July 1, 1940 - German U-boats attack merchant ships in the Atlantic.

          July 5, 1940 - French Vichy government breaks off relations with Britain.

          July 10, 1940 - Battle of Britain begins.

          July 23, 1940 - Soviets take Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

          August 3-19 - Italians occupy British Somaliland in East Africa.

          August 13, 1940 - German bombing offensive against airfields and factories in England.

          August 15, 1940 - Air battles and daylight raids over Britain.

          August 17, 1940 - Hitler declares a blockade of the British Isles.

          August 23/24 - First German air raids on Central London.

          August 25/26 - First British air raid on Berlin.

          September 3, 1940 - Hitler plans Operation Sea Lion (the invasion of Britain).

          September 7, 1940 - German Blitz against Britain begins.

          September 13, 1940 - Italians invade Egypt.

          September 15, 1940 - Massive German air raids on London, Southampton, Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool and Manchester.

          September 16, 1940 - United States military conscription bill passed.

          September 27, 1940 - Tripartite (Axis) Pact signed by Germany, Italy and Japan.

          October 7, 1940 - German troops enter Romania.

          October 12, 1940 - Germans postpone Operation Sea Lion until Spring of 1941.

          October 28, 1940 - Italy invades Greece.

          November 5, 1940 - Roosevelt re-elected as U.S. president.

          November 10/11 - Torpedo bomber raid cripples the Italian fleet at Taranto, Italy.

          November 14/15 - Germans bomb Coventry, England.

          November 20, 1940 - Hungary joins the Axis Powers.

          November 22, 1940 - Greeks defeat the Italian 9th Army.

          November 23, 1940 - Romania joins the Axis Powers.

          December 9/10 - British begin a western desert offensive in North Africa against the Italians.

          December 29/30 - Massive German air raid on London.

          1941 Return to Top of Page

          1942 Return to Top of Page

          January 1, 1942 - Declaration of the United Nations signed by 26 Allied nations.

          January 13, 1942 - Germans begin a U-boat offensive along east coast of USA.

          January 20, 1942 - SS Leader Heydrich holds the Wannsee Conference to coordinate the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question."

          January 21, 1942 - Rommel's counter-offensive from El Agheila begins.

          January 26, 1942 - First American forces arrive in Great Britain.

          In April - Japanese-Americans sent to relocation centers.

          April 23, 1942 - German air raids begin against cathedral cities in Britain.

          May 8, 1942 - German summer offensive begins in the Crimea.

          May 26, 1942 - Rommel begins an offensive against the Gazala Line.

          May 27, 1942 - SS Leader Heydrich attacked in Prague.

          May 30, 1942 - First thousand-bomber British air raid (against Cologne).

          In June - Mass murder of Jews by gassing begins at Auschwitz.

          June 4, 1942 - Heydrich dies of wounds.

          June 5, 1942 - Germans besiege Sevastopol.

          June 10, 1942 - Nazis liquidate Lidice in reprisal for Heydrich's assassination.

          June 21, 1942 - Rommel captures Tobruk.

          June 25, 1942 - General Dwight D. Eisenhower arrives in London.

          June 30, 1942 - Rommel reaches El Alamein near Cairo, Egypt.

          July 1-30 - First Battle of El Alamein.

          July 3, 1942 - Germans take Sevastopol.

          July 5, 1942 - Soviet resistance in the Crimea ends.

          July 9, 1942 - Germans begin a drive toward Stalingrad in the USSR.

          July 22, 1942 - First deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto to concentration camps Treblinka extermination camp opened.

          August 7, 1942 - British General Bernard Montgomery takes command of Eighth Army in North Africa.

          August 12, 1942 - Stalin and Churchill meet in Moscow.

          August 17, 1942 - First all-American air attack in Europe.

          August 23, 1942 - Massive German air raid on Stalingrad.

          September 2, 1942 - Rommel driven back by Montgomery in the Battle of Alam Halfa.

          September 13, 1942 - Battle of Stalingrad begins.

          October 5, 1942 - A German eyewitness observes SS mass murder.

          October 18, 1942 - Hitler orders the execution of all captured British commandos.

          November 1, 1942 - Operation Supercharge (Allies break Axis lines at El Alamein).

          November 8, 1942 - Operation Torch begins (U.S. invasion of North Africa).

          November 11, 1942 - Germans and Italians invade unoccupied Vichy France.

          November 19, 1942 - Soviet counter-offensive at Stalingrad begins.

          December 2, 1942 - Professor Enrico Fermi sets up an atomic reactor in Chicago.

          December 13, 1942 - Rommel withdraws from El Agheila.

          December 16, 1942 - Soviets defeat Italian troops on the River Don in the USSR.

          December 17, 1942 - British Foreign Secretary Eden tells the British House of Commons of mass executions of Jews by Nazis U.S. declares those crimes will be avenged.

          December 31, 1942 - Battle of the Barents Sea between German and British ships.

          1943 Return to Top of Page

          January 2/3 - Germans begin a withdrawal from the Caucasus.

          January 10, 1943 - Soviets begin an offensive against the Germans in Stalingrad.

          January 14-24 - Casablanca conference between Churchill and Roosevelt. During the conference, Roosevelt announces the war can end only with "unconditional German surrender."

          January 23, 1943 - Montgomery's Eighth Army takes Tripoli.

          January 27, 1943 - First bombing raid by Americans on Germany (at Wilhelmshaven).

          February 2, 1943 - Germans surrender at Stalingrad in the first big defeat of Hitler's armies.

          February 8, 1943 - Soviet troops take Kursk.

          February 14-25 - Battle of Kasserine Pass between the U.S. 1st Armored Division and German Panzers in North Africa.

          February 16, 1943 - Soviets re-take Kharkov.

          February 18, 1943 - Nazis arrest White Rose resistance leaders in Munich.

          March 2, 1943 - Germans begin a withdrawal from Tunisia, Africa.

          March 15, 1943 - Germans re-capture Kharkov.

          March 16-20 - Battle of Atlantic climaxes with 27 merchant ships sunk by German U-boats.

          March 20-28 - Montgomery's Eighth Army breaks through the Mareth Line in Tunisia.

          April 6/7 - Axis forces in Tunisia begin a withdrawal toward Enfidaville as American and British forces link.

          April 19, 1943 - Waffen-SS attacks Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto.

          May 7, 1943 - Allies take Tunisia.

          May 13, 1943 - German and Italian troops surrender in North Africa.

          May 16, 1943 - Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto ends.

          May 16/17 - British air raid on the Ruhr.

          May 22, 1943 - Dönitz suspends U-boat operations in the North Atlantic.

          June 10, 1943 - ' Pointblank' directive to improve Allied bombing strategy issued.

          June 11, 1943 - Himmler orders the liquidation of all Jewish ghettos in Poland.

          July 5, 1943 - Germans begin their last offensive against Kursk.

          July 9/10 - Allies land in Sicily.

          July 19, 1943 - Allies bomb Rome.

          July 22, 1943 - Americans capture Palermo, Sicily.

          July 24, 1943 - British bombing raid on Hamburg.

          July 25/26 - Mussolini arrested and the Italian Fascist government falls Marshal Pietro Badoglio takes over and negotiates with Allies.

          July 27/28 - Allied air raid causes a firestorm in Hamburg.

          August 12-17 - Germans evacuate Sicily.

          August 17, 1943 - American daylight air raids on Regensburg and Schweinfurt in Germany Allies reach Messina, Sicily.

          August 23, 1943 - Soviet troops recapture Kharkov.

          September 8, 1943 - Italian surrender to Allies is announced.

          September 9, 1943 - Allied landings at Salerno and Taranto.

          September 11, 1943 - Germans occupy Rome.

          September 12, 1943 - Germans rescue Mussolini.

          September 23, 1943 - Mussolini re-establishes a Fascist government.

          October 1, 1943 - Allies enter Naples, Italy.

          October 4, 1943 - SS-Reichsführer Himmler gives speech at Posen.

          October 13, 1943 - Italy declares war on Germany Second American air raid on Schweinfurt.

          November 6, 1943 - Russians recapture Kiev in the Ukraine.

          November 18, 1943 - Large British air raid on Berlin.

          November 28, 1943 - Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet at Teheran.

          December 24-26 - Soviets launch offensives on the Ukrainian front.

          1944 Return to Top of Page

          1945 Return to Top of Page

          January 1-17 - Germans withdraw from the Ardennes.

          January 16, 1945 - U.S. 1st and 3rd Armies link up after a month long separation during the Battle of the Bulge.

          January 17, 1945 - Soviet troops capture Warsaw, Poland.

          January 26, 1945 - Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz.

          February 4-11 - Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet at Yalta.

          February 13/14 - Dresden is destroyed by a firestorm after Allied bombing raids.

          March 6, 1945 - Last German offensive of the war begins to defend oil fields in Hungary.

          March 7, 1945 - Allies take Cologne and establish a bridge across the Rhine at Remagen.

          March 30, 1945 - Soviet troops capture Danzig.

          In April - Allies discover stolen Nazi art and wealth hidden in German salt mines.

          April 1, 1945 - U.S. troops encircle Germans in the Ruhr Allied offensive in northern Italy.

          April 12, 1945 - Allies liberate Buchenwald and Belsen concentration camps President Roosevelt dies. Harry Truman becomes President.

          April 16, 1945 - Soviet troops begin their final attack on Berlin Americans enter Nuremberg.

          April 18, 1945 - German forces in the Ruhr surrender.

          April 21, 1945 - Soviets reach Berlin.

          April 28, 1945 - Mussolini is captured and hanged by Italian partisans Allies take Venice.

          April 29, 1945 - U.S. 7th Army liberates Dachau.

          April 30, 1945 - Adolf Hitler commits suicide.

          May 2, 1945 - German troops in Italy surrender.

          May 7, 1945 - Unconditional surrender of all German forces to Allies.

          May 8, 1945 - V-E (Victory in Europe) Day.

          May 9, 1945 - Hermann Göring is captured by members of the U.S. 7th Army.

          May 23, 1945 - SS-Reichsführer Himmler commits suicide German High Command and Provisional Government imprisoned.

          June 5, 1945 - Allies divide up Germany and Berlin and take over the government.

          June 26, 1945 - United Nations Charter is signed in San Francisco.

          July 1, 1945 - American, British, and French troops move into Berlin.

          July 16, 1945 - First U.S. atomic bomb test Potsdam Conference begins.

          July 26, 1945 - Atlee succeeds Churchill as British Prime Minister.

          August 6, 1945 - First atomic bomb dropped, on Hiroshima, Japan.

          August 8, 1945 - Soviets declares war on Japan and invade Manchuria.

          August 9, 1945 - Second atomic bomb dropped, on Nagasaki, Japan.

          August 14, 1945 - Japanese agree to unconditional surrender.

          September 2, 1945 - Japanese sign the surrender agreement V-J (Victory over Japan) Day.

          October 24, 1945 - United Nations is born.

          November 20, 1945 - Nuremberg war crimes trials begin.


          October 16 - Hermann Göring commits suicide two hours before his scheduled execution.

          Statistics of World War II

          Copyright © 1996 The History Place™ All Rights Reserved

          See also: The History Place three-part narrative history of Adolf Hitler (62 chapters)
          I. The Rise of Hitler - from unknown to dictator of Germany.
          II. The Triumph of Hitler - the prewar years of Nazi Germany.
          III. The Defeat of Hitler - the quest for a Nazi empire.

          Terms of use: Private home/school non-commercial, non-Internet re-usage only is allowed of any text, graphics, photos, audio clips, other electronic files or materials from The History Place.

          How Bush's grandfather helped Hitler's rise to power

          George Bush's grandfather, the late US senator Prescott Bush, was a director and shareholder of companies that profited from their involvement with the financial backers of Nazi Germany.

          The Guardian has obtained confirmation from newly discovered files in the US National Archives that a firm of which Prescott Bush was a director was involved with the financial architects of Nazism.

          His business dealings, which continued until his company's assets were seized in 1942 under the Trading with the Enemy Act, has led more than 60 years later to a civil action for damages being brought in Germany against the Bush family by two former slave labourers at Auschwitz and to a hum of pre-election controversy.

          The evidence has also prompted one former US Nazi war crimes prosecutor to argue that the late senator's action should have been grounds for prosecution for giving aid and comfort to the enemy.

          The debate over Prescott Bush's behaviour has been bubbling under the surface for some time. There has been a steady internet chatter about the "Bush/Nazi" connection, much of it inaccurate and unfair. But the new documents, many of which were only declassified last year, show that even after America had entered the war and when there was already significant information about the Nazis' plans and policies, he worked for and profited from companies closely involved with the very German businesses that financed Hitler's rise to power. It has also been suggested that the money he made from these dealings helped to establish the Bush family fortune and set up its political dynasty.

          Remarkably, little of Bush's dealings with Germany has received public scrutiny, partly because of the secret status of the documentation involving him. But now the multibillion dollar legal action for damages by two Holocaust survivors against the Bush family, and the imminent publication of three books on the subject are threatening to make Prescott Bush's business history an uncomfortable issue for his grandson, George W, as he seeks re-election.

          While there is no suggestion that Prescott Bush was sympathetic to the Nazi cause, the documents reveal that the firm he worked for, Brown Brothers Harriman (BBH), acted as a US base for the German industrialist, Fritz Thyssen, who helped finance Hitler in the 1930s before falling out with him at the end of the decade. The Guardian has seen evidence that shows Bush was the director of the New York-based Union Banking Corporation (UBC) that represented Thyssen's US interests and he continued to work for the bank after America entered the war.

          Bush was also on the board of at least one of the companies that formed part of a multinational network of front companies to allow Thyssen to move assets around the world.

          Thyssen owned the largest steel and coal company in Germany and grew rich from Hitler's efforts to re-arm between the two world wars. One of the pillars in Thyssen's international corporate web, UBC, worked exclusively for, and was owned by, a Thyssen-controlled bank in the Netherlands. More tantalising are Bush's links to the Consolidated Silesian Steel Company (CSSC), based in mineral rich Silesia on the German-Polish border. During the war, the company made use of Nazi slave labour from the concentration camps, including Auschwitz. The ownership of CSSC changed hands several times in the 1930s, but documents from the US National Archive declassified last year link Bush to CSSC, although it is not clear if he and UBC were still involved in the company when Thyssen's American assets were seized in 1942.

          Three sets of archives spell out Prescott Bush's involvement. All three are readily available, thanks to the efficient US archive system and a helpful and dedicated staff at both the Library of Congress in Washington and the National Archives at the University of Maryland.

          The first set of files, the Harriman papers in the Library of Congress, show that Prescott Bush was a director and shareholder of a number of companies involved with Thyssen.

          The second set of papers, which are in the National Archives, are contained in vesting order number 248 which records the seizure of the company assets. What these files show is that on October 20 1942 the alien property custodian seized the assets of the UBC, of which Prescott Bush was a director. Having gone through the books of the bank, further seizures were made against two affiliates, the Holland-American Trading Corporation and the Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation. By November, the Silesian-American Company, another of Prescott Bush's ventures, had also been seized.

          The third set of documents, also at the National Archives, are contained in the files on IG Farben, who was prosecuted for war crimes.

          A report issued by the Office of Alien Property Custodian in 1942 stated of the companies that "since 1939, these (steel and mining) properties have been in possession of and have been operated by the German government and have undoubtedly been of considerable assistance to that country's war effort".

          Prescott Bush, a 6ft 4in charmer with a rich singing voice, was the founder of the Bush political dynasty and was once considered a potential presidential candidate himself. Like his son, George, and grandson, George W, he went to Yale where he was, again like his descendants, a member of the secretive and influential Skull and Bones student society. He was an artillery captain in the first world war and married Dorothy Walker, the daughter of George Herbert Walker, in 1921.

          In 1924, his father-in-law, a well-known St Louis investment banker, helped set him up in business in New York with Averill Harriman, the wealthy son of railroad magnate E H Harriman in New York, who had gone into banking.

          One of the first jobs Walker gave Bush was to manage UBC. Bush was a founding member of the bank and the incorporation documents, which list him as one of seven directors, show he owned one share in UBC worth $125.

          The bank was set up by Harriman and Bush's father-in-law to provide a US bank for the Thyssens, Germany's most powerful industrial family.

          August Thyssen, the founder of the dynasty had been a major contributor to Germany's first world war effort and in the 1920s, he and his sons Fritz and Heinrich established a network of overseas banks and companies so their assets and money could be whisked offshore if threatened again.

          By the time Fritz Thyssen inherited the business empire in 1926, Germany's economic recovery was faltering. After hearing Adolf Hitler speak, Thyssen became mesmerised by the young firebrand. He joined the Nazi party in December 1931 and admits backing Hitler in his autobiography, I Paid Hitler, when the National Socialists were still a radical fringe party. He stepped in several times to bail out the struggling party: in 1928 Thyssen had bought the Barlow Palace on Briennerstrasse, in Munich, which Hitler converted into the Brown House, the headquarters of the Nazi party. The money came from another Thyssen overseas institution, the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvarrt in Rotterdam.

          By the late 1930s, Brown Brothers Harriman, which claimed to be the world's largest private investment bank, and UBC had bought and shipped millions of dollars of gold, fuel, steel, coal and US treasury bonds to Germany, both feeding and financing Hitler's build-up to war.

          Between 1931 and 1933 UBC bought more than $8m worth of gold, of which $3m was shipped abroad. According to documents seen by the Guardian, after UBC was set up it transferred $2m to BBH accounts and between 1924 and 1940 the assets of UBC hovered around $3m, dropping to $1m only on a few occasions.

          In 1941, Thyssen fled Germany after falling out with Hitler but he was captured in France and detained for the remainder of the war.

          There was nothing illegal in doing business with the Thyssens throughout the 1930s and many of America's best-known business names invested heavily in the German economic recovery. However, everything changed after Germany invaded Poland in 1939. Even then it could be argued that BBH was within its rights continuing business relations with the Thyssens until the end of 1941 as the US was still technically neutral until the attack on Pearl Harbor. The trouble started on July 30 1942 when the New York Herald-Tribune ran an article entitled "Hitler's Angel Has $3m in US Bank". UBC's huge gold purchases had raised suspicions that the bank was in fact a "secret nest egg" hidden in New York for Thyssen and other Nazi bigwigs. The Alien Property Commission (APC) launched an investigation.

          There is no dispute over the fact that the US government seized a string of assets controlled by BBH - including UBC and SAC - in the autumn of 1942 under the Trading with the Enemy act. What is in dispute is if Harriman, Walker and Bush did more than own these companies on paper.

          Erwin May, a treasury attache and officer for the department of investigation in the APC, was assigned to look into UBC's business. The first fact to emerge was that Roland Harriman, Prescott Bush and the other directors didn't actually own their shares in UBC but merely held them on behalf of Bank voor Handel. Strangely, no one seemed to know who owned the Rotterdam-based bank, including UBC's president.

          May wrote in his report of August 16 1941: "Union Banking Corporation, incorporated August 4 1924, is wholly owned by the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart N.V of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. My investigation has produced no evidence as to the ownership of the Dutch bank. Mr Cornelis [sic] Lievense, president of UBC, claims no knowledge as to the ownership of the Bank voor Handel but believes it possible that Baron Heinrich Thyssen, brother of Fritz Thyssen, may own a substantial interest."

          May cleared the bank of holding a golden nest egg for the Nazi leaders but went on to describe a network of companies spreading out from UBC across Europe, America and Canada, and how money from voor Handel travelled to these companies through UBC.

          By September May had traced the origins of the non-American board members and found that Dutchman HJ Kouwenhoven - who met with Harriman in 1924 to set up UBC - had several other jobs: in addition to being the managing director of voor Handel he was also the director of the August Thyssen bank in Berlin and a director of Fritz Thyssen's Union Steel Works, the holding company that controlled Thyssen's steel and coal mine empire in Germany.

          Within a few weeks, Homer Jones, the chief of the APC investigation and research division sent a memo to the executive committee of APC recommending the US government vest UBC and its assets. Jones named the directors of the bank in the memo, including Prescott Bush's name, and wrote: "Said stock is held by the above named individuals, however, solely as nominees for the Bank voor Handel, Rotterdam, Holland, which is owned by one or more of the Thyssen family, nationals of Germany and Hungary. The 4,000 shares hereinbefore set out are therefore beneficially owned and help for the interests of enemy nationals, and are vestible by the APC," according to the memo from the National Archives seen by the Guardian.

          Jones recommended that the assets be liquidated for the benefit of the government, but instead UBC was maintained intact and eventually returned to the American shareholders after the war. Some claim that Bush sold his share in UBC after the war for $1.5m - a huge amount of money at the time - but there is no documentary evidence to support this claim. No further action was ever taken nor was the investigation continued, despite the fact UBC was caught red-handed operating a American shell company for the Thyssen family eight months after America had entered the war and that this was the bank that had partly financed Hitler's rise to power.

          The most tantalising part of the story remains shrouded in mystery: the connection, if any, between Prescott Bush, Thyssen, Consolidated Silesian Steel Company (CSSC) and Auschwitz.

          Thyssen's partner in United Steel Works, which had coal mines and steel plants across the region, was Friedrich Flick, another steel magnate who also owned part of IG Farben, the powerful German chemical company.

          Flick's plants in Poland made heavy use of slave labour from the concentration camps in Poland. According to a New York Times article published in March 18 1934 Flick owned two-thirds of CSSC while "American interests" held the rest.

          The US National Archive documents show that BBH's involvement with CSSC was more than simply holding the shares in the mid-1930s. Bush's friend and fellow "bonesman" Knight Woolley, another partner at BBH, wrote to Averill Harriman in January 1933 warning of problems with CSSC after the Poles started their drive to nationalise the plant. "The Consolidated Silesian Steel Company situation has become increasingly complicated, and I have accordingly brought in Sullivan and Cromwell, in order to be sure that our interests are protected," wrote Knight. "After studying the situation Foster Dulles is insisting that their man in Berlin get into the picture and obtain the information which the directors here should have. You will recall that Foster is a director and he is particularly anxious to be certain that there is no liability attaching to the American directors."

          But the ownership of the CSSC between 1939 when the Germans invaded Poland and 1942 when the US government vested UBC and SAC is not clear.

          "SAC held coal mines and definitely owned CSSC between 1934 and 1935, but when SAC was vested there was no trace of CSSC. All concrete evidence of its ownership disappears after 1935 and there are only a few traces in 1938 and 1939," says Eva Schweitzer, the journalist and author whose book, America and the Holocaust, is published next month.

          Silesia was quickly made part of the German Reich after the invasion, but while Polish factories were seized by the Nazis, those belonging to the still neutral Americans (and some other nationals) were treated more carefully as Hitler was still hoping to persuade the US to at least sit out the war as a neutral country. Schweitzer says American interests were dealt with on a case-by-case basis. The Nazis bought some out, but not others.

          The two Holocaust survivors suing the US government and the Bush family for a total of $40bn in compensation claim both materially benefited from Auschwitz slave labour during the second world war.

          Kurt Julius Goldstein, 87, and Peter Gingold, 85, began a class action in America in 2001, but the case was thrown out by Judge Rosemary Collier on the grounds that the government cannot be held liable under the principle of "state sovereignty".

          Jan Lissmann, one of the lawyers for the survivors, said: "President Bush withdrew President Bill Clinton's signature from the treaty [that founded the court] not only to protect Americans, but also to protect himself and his family."

          Lissmann argues that genocide-related cases are covered by international law, which does hold governments accountable for their actions. He claims the ruling was invalid as no hearing took place.

          In their claims, Mr Goldstein and Mr Gingold, honorary chairman of the League of Anti-fascists, suggest the Americans were aware of what was happening at Auschwitz and should have bombed the camp.

          The lawyers also filed a motion in The Hague asking for an opinion on whether state sovereignty is a valid reason for refusing to hear their case. A ruling is expected within a month.

          The petition to The Hague states: "From April 1944 on, the American Air Force could have destroyed the camp with air raids, as well as the railway bridges and railway lines from Hungary to Auschwitz. The murder of about 400,000 Hungarian Holocaust victims could have been prevented."

          The case is built around a January 22 1944 executive order signed by President Franklin Roosevelt calling on the government to take all measures to rescue the European Jews. The lawyers claim the order was ignored because of pressure brought by a group of big American companies, including BBH, where Prescott Bush was a director.

          Lissmann said: "If we have a positive ruling from the court it will cause [president] Bush huge problems and make him personally liable to pay compensation."

          The US government and the Bush family deny all the claims against them.

          In addition to Eva Schweitzer's book, two other books are about to be published that raise the subject of Prescott Bush's business history. The author of the second book, to be published next year, John Loftus, is a former US attorney who prosecuted Nazi war criminals in the 70s. Now living in St Petersburg, Florida and earning his living as a security commentator for Fox News and ABC radio, Loftus is working on a novel which uses some of the material he has uncovered on Bush. Loftus stressed that what Prescott Bush was involved in was just what many other American and British businessmen were doing at the time.

          "You can't blame Bush for what his grandfather did any more than you can blame Jack Kennedy for what his father did - bought Nazi stocks - but what is important is the cover-up, how it could have gone on so successfully for half a century, and does that have implications for us today?" he said.

          "This was the mechanism by which Hitler was funded to come to power, this was the mechanism by which the Third Reich's defence industry was re-armed, this was the mechanism by which Nazi profits were repatriated back to the American owners, this was the mechanism by which investigations into the financial laundering of the Third Reich were blunted," said Loftus, who is vice-chairman of the Holocaust Museum in St Petersburg.

          "The Union Banking Corporation was a holding company for the Nazis, for Fritz Thyssen," said Loftus. "At various times, the Bush family has tried to spin it, saying they were owned by a Dutch bank and it wasn't until the Nazis took over Holland that they realised that now the Nazis controlled the apparent company and that is why the Bush supporters claim when the war was over they got their money back. Both the American treasury investigations and the intelligence investigations in Europe completely bely that, it's absolute horseshit. They always knew who the ultimate beneficiaries were."

          "There is no one left alive who could be prosecuted but they did get away with it," said Loftus. "As a former federal prosecutor, I would make a case for Prescott Bush, his father-in-law (George Walker) and Averill Harriman [to be prosecuted] for giving aid and comfort to the enemy. They remained on the boards of these companies knowing that they were of financial benefit to the nation of Germany."

          Loftus said Prescott Bush must have been aware of what was happening in Germany at the time. "My take on him was that he was a not terribly successful in-law who did what Herbert Walker told him to. Walker and Harriman were the two evil geniuses, they didn't care about the Nazis any more than they cared about their investments with the Bolsheviks."

          What is also at issue is how much money Bush made from his involvement. His supporters suggest that he had one token share. Loftus disputes this, citing sources in "the banking and intelligence communities" and suggesting that the Bush family, through George Herbert Walker and Prescott, got $1.5m out of the involvement. There is, however, no paper trail to this sum.

          The third person going into print on the subject is John Buchanan, 54, a Miami-based magazine journalist who started examining the files while working on a screenplay. Last year, Buchanan published his findings in the venerable but small-circulation New Hampshire Gazette under the headline "Documents in National Archives Prove George Bush's Grandfather Traded With the Nazis - Even After Pearl Harbor". He expands on this in his book to be published next month - Fixing America: Breaking the Stranglehold of Corporate Rule, Big Media and the Religious Right.

          In the article, Buchanan, who has worked mainly in the trade and music press with a spell as a muckraking reporter in Miami, claimed that "the essential facts have appeared on the internet and in relatively obscure books but were dismissed by the media and Bush family as undocumented diatribes".

          Buchanan suffers from hypermania, a form of manic depression, and when he found himself rebuffed in his initial efforts to interest the media, he responded with a series of threats against the journalists and media outlets that had spurned him. The threats, contained in e-mails, suggested that he would expose the journalists as "traitors to the truth".

          Unsurprisingly, he soon had difficulty getting his calls returned. Most seriously, he faced aggravated stalking charges in Miami, in connection with a man with whom he had fallen out over the best way to publicise his findings. The charges were dropped last month.

          Buchanan said he regretted his behaviour had damaged his credibility but his main aim was to secure publicity for the story. Both Loftus and Schweitzer say Buchanan has come up with previously undisclosed documentation.

          The Bush family have largely responded with no comment to any reference to Prescott Bush. Brown Brothers Harriman also declined to comment.

          The Bush family recently approved a flattering biography of Prescott Bush entitled Duty, Honour, Country by Mickey Herskowitz. The publishers, Rutledge Hill Press, promised the book would "deal honestly with Prescott Bush's alleged business relationships with Nazi industrialists and other accusations".

          In fact, the allegations are dealt with in less than two pages. The book refers to the Herald-Tribune story by saying that "a person of less established ethics would have panicked . Bush and his partners at Brown Brothers Harriman informed the government regulators that the account, opened in the late 1930s, was 'an unpaid courtesy for a client' . Prescott Bush acted quickly and openly on behalf of the firm, served well by a reputation that had never been compromised. He made available all records and all documents. Viewed six decades later in the era of serial corporate scandals and shattered careers, he received what can be viewed as the ultimate clean bill."

          The Prescott Bush story has been condemned by both conservatives and some liberals as having nothing to do with the current president. It has also been suggested that Prescott Bush had little to do with Averill Harriman and that the two men opposed each other politically.

          However, documents from the Harriman papers include a flattering wartime profile of Harriman in the New York Journal American and next to it in the files is a letter to the financial editor of that paper from Prescott Bush congratulating the paper for running the profile. He added that Harriman's "performance and his whole attitude has been a source of inspiration and pride to his partners and his friends".

          The Anti-Defamation League in the US is supportive of Prescott Bush and the Bush family. In a statement last year they said that "rumours about the alleged Nazi 'ties' of the late Prescott Bush . have circulated widely through the internet in recent years. These charges are untenable and politically motivated . Prescott Bush was neither a Nazi nor a Nazi sympathiser."

          However, one of the country's oldest Jewish publications, the Jewish Advocate, has aired the controversy in detail.

          More than 60 years after Prescott Bush came briefly under scrutiny at the time of a faraway war, his grandson is facing a different kind of scrutiny but one underpinned by the same perception that, for some people, war can be a profitable business.

          JFK in Europe Pre WWII - History

          Pre-World War II Timeline

          Apr. 6. The U.S. formally enters World War I by declaring war on Germany.

          June 15. Espionage Act of 1917 was passed to prevent people from supporting enemies of the US.

          June 28. Treaty of Versailles helps end World War I. US rejects the treaty and the power given to the League of Nations.

          July. The Chinese Communist Party is founded after a lengthy civil war in Shanghai.

          Sep. 18. Hungary becomes part of the League of Nations. Hungary would later join Germany in World War II against the Soviet Union.

          Oct. 28. The Fascists of Italy take control appointing Benito Mussolini as its prime minister.

          July 18. Mein Kampf is published. The book is an autobiography written by Adolf Hitler. Mein Kampf reveals the political ideology of Hitler.

          Apr. Persia, modern day Iran, signs the Litvinov’s Pact.

          June 7. Italy and Vatican City ratify the Lateran Treaty making Vatican City a sovereign state. Under Pope Pius XII, Vatican City remained neutral during WWII.

          Feb. Having been born in Austria, Hitler finally receives his German citizenship.

          Apr. 10. Germany elects Paul Von Hindenburg for president. He played an important role in the rise of Hitler’s Nazi party.

          Feb. 28. Hindenberg issues the Reichstag Fire Decree, it nullified many civil liberties of citizens.

          Mar. 23. The Enabling Act of 1933 approved by the German government gave Hitler unlimited power. This allowed him to be dictator in Germany.

          Mar. 27. Japan leaves the League of Nations. The reason Japan gave for withdrawing was because of accusations made against them regarding Manchuria by the League of Nations..

          Apr. 26. The Gestapo is established in Germany to maintain “order” throughout the country and especially during the war. They represent Hitler’s group of enforcers.

          May 10. The Nazi Book Burning takes place. Students from university towns marched with torches with the intent of burning “un-German books”. More than 25,000 volumes of those “un-German books” turned into ashes that night.

          Oct. 17. Albert Einstein arrives in America as a refugee from Nazi Germany. Before emigrating, he learned that the new regime (Nazi’s) would not allow Jews to hold any government position.

          June 30-July 2. Political murders known as Operation Hummingbird, or the Night of the Long Knives, is carried throughout Germany and beyond. The action was seen as a purge against those who would politically oppose the ruling Nazi party.

          Aug. 2. After a long wait, Hitler receives the Führer of Germany title, making him chancellor and head of state.

          July 18. Led by Francisco Franco, the Spanish Civil War Begins. Germany gives support to Franco, who represented the Nationalist faction during the war. Germany was instrumental in many victories for the Nationalists of Spain.

          Oct. 25. The Axis Powers or Axis Alliance is formed. Germany signs a treaty with Italy and Japan. The alliance would later be the main antagonists during WWII.

          Nov. 25. Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan come to an agreement by signing the Anti-Comintern Pact directed against the communist movement and the Soviet Union.

          Mar. 14. Nazi Germany troops enter Prague and capture Czechoslovakia in complete violation of the Munich Agreement.

          Mar. 17. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain warns in a speech that Britain will fight any attempt by Germany to dominate the world.

          World War II Timeline

          Sep. 4. Right at the beginning of the war, the United States declares its neutrality and organizes the Neutrality Patrol. The patrol was aimed to monitor warlike movements along the coasts of the western hemisphere.

          Sep. 7-16. In an attempt to assist Poland against Nazi Germany, the French organized the Saar Offensive, which was proven unsuccessful.

          Oct. 2. In order to maintain a neutral zone along the coastline of American nations, the Declaration of Panama is approved. This allowed the US Navy to patrol 300 miles beyond the coastline.

          May 10. Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after Chamberlain resigns.

          May 10. Nazi Germany make more bold moves by invading Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

          May 26. The Allies evacuate Dunkirk, this was named Operation Dynamo. The German air force continued bombarding the operation.

          June 28. The British recognize General Charles de Gaulle as the leader of the Free French.

          Sep. 16. The US congress approve the Selective Service Act that required men between the ages of 21 and 35 to register with their local draft board.

          Nov. 5. FDR wins a third term as President of the US.

          June 29. Smith Act, or Alien Registration Act is enacted to penalize those wanting to overthrow the US government. This required all non citizens to register with the Federal Government.

          Apr. 6. Yugoslavia is invaded by Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, and Italy.

          Apr. 10. The US build air and naval bases after occupying Greenland. This action was with the consent of the “free Denmark” group. The purpose was to counter the U-boat war going on.

          June 22. Germany invades the Soviet Union, this was named Operation Barbarossa. The US gives the Soviet Union a $40 million credit to help battle Germany.

          Aug. 9. Roosevelt meets with Churchill in Newfoundland and creates the Atlantic Charter. The charter addresses numerous concerns between Britain and the US in relation to WWII.

          Aug. 28. To control rent and other consumer prices after the start of World War II, the Office of Price Administration was established.

          Dec. 7. Japanese attack Pearl Harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, a territory of the US. The United States declares war against Japan.

          Aug. US Marines land on Guadalcanal that begins “island hopping” assault against Japan.

          Aug 23. Recognized as the largest battle of WWII, the Battle of Stalingrad begins.

          Mar. 20. Mao Zedong is named as the First Chairman of the Communist Party of China.

          July. British and US troops invade Italy and land in Sicily.

          Nov. 22-26. Roosevelt, Churchill, & Chiang Kai Shek meet at the Cairo Conference.

          June 6. Allies invade and regain Europe on D-Day, known as the greatest military invasion in history beginning with the Normandy Landings.

          June 22. The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act became a law, this is best known as the G.I. Bill.

          Oct. Battle of Leyte, where Douglas MacArthur’s troops land in the Philippines.

          Nov. Despite the events across the Atlantic, FDR wins his fourth term as president of the US.

          Dec. 16. In response to the invasion of Normandy, the German went on the offensive in what is known as the Battle of the Bulge.

          Apr. 1. U.S. troops land on Okinawa, the Battle of Okinawa takes place.

          Apr. 12. President Roosevelt dies after serving 4 terms as President of the US.

          Apr. 28. While trying to flee from Italy to Switzerland, Benito Mussolini is killed in Giulino.

          Apr. 30. Knowing that all was lost, Adolf Hitler commits suicide.

          May. 1. The end of World War II in Europe when Germany start surrendering.

          June 26. The United Nations Charter is signed and replaces the League of Nations.

          July 16. The infamous Manhattan Project detonates the world’s first atomic bomb.

          July 17. Truman, Churchill, & Stalin meet for two weeks to discuss postwar Europe at the Potsdam Conference.

          Aug. 6. The first atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima and two days later on Nagasaki.

          Aug. 14. Japan surrenders and completes the end of World War II.

          Sep. 2. Japanese representatives sign terms of surrender on the USS Missouri.

          Sep. The United States divide the Korean peninsula along the 38th Parallel, creating the North and South Korea’s.

          The Making of a President

          The presidency is the most powerful office in the Free World. Through its leadership can come a more vital life for our people. In it are centered the hopes of the globe around us for freedom and a more secure life." --John F. Kennedy, January 1960

          John F. Kennedy announced his candidacy for the presidency on January 2, 1960. His decision to run was shaped in large part by a competitiveness instilled in JFK by his parents from a very young age and his view of politics as the best way to get things done.

          The son and grandson of public servants, Jack Kennedy, along with his siblings, was raised by purposeful parents who believed their children should be aware of and engaged in current events and, because of their own good fortune, contribute something toward the betterment of others.

          A sometimes disorganized and lackadaisical student, but always possessing a curious mind and a love of reading and history, JFK traveled extensively as a young man, taking advantage of his connections to see different parts of the world and meet people of influence. All the while expanding his world view.

          Following heroic service in the Navy during WWII, JFK considered careers in academia and journalism. Increasingly believing in politics as the best way to make a difference, at age 29 Kennedy ultimately decided to run for public office when a congressional seat became available in his home state of Massachusetts. Three terms in the Congress were followed by two elections to the United States Senate. Nearly nominated as the vice presidential candidate by the Democratic party in 1956, JFK’s public profile became such that he began to travel across the country extensively to cultivate support and learn about the issues and concerns of the different regions of the country.

          Eleven months after declaring his candidacy, John F. Kennedy became the youngest elected president in the history of the United States.

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