The South Gate at Gla

The South Gate at Gla


What was/is the importance of the gates of Jerusalem?

The gates of ancient cities were important as a means of providing access to the city while maintaining security. The Bible speaks of the gates of Jerusalem many times in many different contexts. As the city walls are built, destroyed, and moved and the gates are bricked up, restored, or renamed, it can be difficult to figure out what gate the text is talking about. To add to the confusion, some of the gates mentioned appear to be not in the outer wall but in the wall providing access to the king’s palace.

Pre-Exilic Gates

The wall around Jerusalem before the Babylonian exile was probably close to the one that Nehemiah rebuilt. It roughly encompassed the Temple Mount to the north and trailed to the south to include the Pool of Siloam. It’s especially difficult to determine where the pre-exilic gates were in relation to modern Jerusalem.

Corner Gate: Location uncertain, although apparently on the northwest corner of the wall. It was destroyed by King Jehoash of Israel (2 Kings 14:13 2 Chronicles 25:23) and later rebuilt by King Uzziah (2 Chronicles 26:9). Jeremiah 31:38 says the Corner Gate will be rebuilt, and Zechariah 14:10 mentions it during a prophecy about the Day of the Lord.

Ephraim Gate: On the north wall, toward Ephraim. Second Kings 14:13 and 2 Chronicles 25:23 say it was near the Corner Gate. The Ephraim Gate isn’t mentioned in Nehemiah’s tour of the walls in Nehemiah 3, but it is mentioned during the Feast of Booths (Nehemiah 8:16) and the dedication of the wall (Nehemiah 12:39). The latter passage puts it in series with the Old Gate, the Fish Gate, and the Sheep Gate.

Foundation Gate: This gate is mentioned during the coronation of King Joash (2 Chronicles 23:5) The parallel passage of 2 Kings 11:6 calls it the Sur Gate. Jeremiah called it the Middle Gate and said it was where the Babylonian officials came and waited for King Zedekiah to declare defeat (Jeremiah 39:3). The Foundation Gate is apparently an interior gate in or leading to the king’s residence. It’s unclear if it is the same as the Horse Gate in 2 Kings 11:16.

Benjamin Gate: Probably the same location as the later Muster Gate or possibly the Sheep Gate. Jeremiah was put into stocks at the Benjamin Gate after Pashhur the priest beat him (Jeremiah 20:2).

New Gate: Jeremiah was put before an inquiry at “the entrance of the New Gate of the LORD’s house,” which was apparently in the courtyard of the temple (Jeremiah 26:10 36:10).

Nehemiah’s Gates

While Nehemiah served King Artaxerxes in Babylon, he heard of the ruined state of Jerusalem. He was given authorization and supplies to go there and restore the walls and the gates. When Nehemiah arrived, he made a detailed inspection of the walls and gates (Nehemiah 2:11&ndash16) and organized the people to start the rebuilding effort (Nehemiah 2:17&ndash3:32). When the wall was rebuilt, it probably encompassed the same area as before, except it may have excluded the king’s gardens in the southeast. Starting from the east corner of the north wall, Nehemiah went counterclockwise:

Sheep Gate (AKA Benjamin Gate?): North central, just north of the Temple Mount. Near where the sheep market was for the temple sacrifices. The priests rebuilt and dedicated it (Nehemiah 3:1). Possibly the entrance from the road to Jericho. It may be the same Sheep Gate of John 5:2 near the Pool of Bethesda, but that identification is unclear.

Fish Gate (AKA Ephraim Gate): Northwest, just northwest of the temple. The main entrance for fish mongers from the Mediterranean Sea and the Sea of Galilee. The Fish Gate was one of Jerusalem’s main entrances. King Manasseh had built it after God sent the Assyrians to capture him and teach him humility (2 Chronicles 33:14). Nehemiah had the sons of Hassenaah rebuild it (Nehemiah 3:3). Zephaniah prophesied that a cry will come from the Fish Gate on the Day of the Lord (Zephaniah 1:10).

Old Gate (AKA Gate of Yeshanah/Jeshanah, which means “of the old” or possibly “the gate of the new quarter”): The location of this gate is uncertain. Nehemiah 3:6 suggests it is near the northwest corner of the wall, west of the Fish Gate.

Valley Gate: West central, south of the present wall of Old City. The gate that Nehemiah used when he did his inspection of the walls (Nehemiah 2:13, 15).

Dung Gate (AKA Potsherd Gate?): Very southern tip, facing southwest. There was a walled section around the Pool of Shelah (or Siloam, John 9:6&ndash7), then the Dung Gate (Nehemiah 3:13&ndash14) exited out to a garbage dump in the Hinnom Valley where, in the days of King Manasseh, child sacrifices took place (2 Chronicles 33:6). One of two great choirs went to the Dung Gate during the dedication of the wall (Nehemiah 12:31).

Fountain Gate: Southern tip, facing east. The east gate that led out from the Pool of Shelah to the king’s gardens and the stairs that went down the eastern slope (Nehemiah 3:15 12:37).

Water Gate: Facing east, south of the current Old City walls (Nehemiah 3:26). It is near the start of the tunneled waterway that was fed by a spring&mdashpossibly En-Rogel (Joshua 15:7 18:16) or Gihon (2 Chronicles 32:30 33:14). The eastern wall on the south end apparently was abandoned and a new wall built farther west, turning the southern section into more of a tail. The new wall excluded the tomb of David and most of the water tunnel that fed the Pool of Shelah by the Dung Gate. But the narrow confines included the upper house of the king, the home of the high priest, and the ascent to the armory. After the wall was built, Ezra read the people the Law from a square by the Water Gate (Nehemiah 8:1).

Horse Gate: East side, just east of the royal palace and southeast of the Temple Mount. Near where the priests had their homes (Nehemiah 3:28). Not the same “horse gate” of 2 Kings 11:16 and 2 Chronicles 23:15 that gate was between the palace and the temple and was the site where Queen Athaliah was killed.

East Gate (AKA Golden Gate or Temple Gate): Just north of the Horse Gate, it led to the temple. Around 600 BC, Ezekiel prophesied that a “gate facing east” would be sealed (Ezekiel 44:1&ndash3), but this is not the same East Gate mentioned by Nehemiah.

Muster Gate (AKA Inspection Gate Benjamin Gate?): Between the East Gate and the northeast corner of the wall. Possibly the same as the Benjamin Gate (Jeremiah 20:2) where Jeremiah was imprisoned in stocks.

New Testament Gates

The wall around Jerusalem during the time of the New Testament was probably the biggest that ever existed. Because of that, these gates are even more difficult to locate.

Essene Gate: The Essene Gate was on the wall that existed in Jesus’ time, south and a bit west of the present-day Zion Gate. Appropriately enough, it was the gate through the wall that led to the Essene section of the city. This south wall was mentioned by Josephus but was destroyed by the Romans in AD 70 and never rebuilt.

Beautiful Gate (AKA Nicanor Gate): An entrance to the temple courtyard built by Herod the Great of polished bronze. The place where Peter and John healed a lame man (Acts 3:10). Note, this is not a gate in the city walls.

East Gate (AKA Beautiful Gate or Golden Gate): Jesus apparently entered this gate on Palm Sunday before He drove out the merchants in the temple courtyard (Matthew 21:12&ndash17).

Jerusalem Old City

The walls around Jerusalem have been torn down, built up, and moved many times. In AD 70, they were destroyed by the Romans, and in 1033 by an earthquake. The walls as we see them today were built in the 1500s. Viewed from above, they look like a rough parallelogram sloping from northeast to southwest. These are the gates around Old City Jerusalem now:

East Gate: In AD 1530 Ottoman Turks walled up the East Gate because of a Jewish tradition that states the Messiah will pass through the Eastern Gate when He comes to rule. The walling-up of the East Gate was a Muslim attempt to keep out the Jewish Messiah.

Lion’s Gate (AKA St. Stephen’s Gate): The deacon Stephen was supposedly killed in the Kidron Valley, below. In the 16th century, the Turkish sultan dreamed he was being attacked by lions. An interpreter told him they represented the lions that guarded the thrones of David and Solomon and the dream meant that, if he treated Jerusalem with respect, he would be blessed. The sultan went to Jerusalem and saw the walls were in ruins. So he rebuilt the wall, including this gate&mdashwhich appears to be guarded by relief carvings of leopards, not lions.

Herod’s Gate (AKA Flowers Gate): Near the east corner of the north wall. Right outside the gate is a cemetery. No one wanted to live in an area known for a cemetery, so they changed the Arabic for “cemetery”&mdashSahirah&mdashto Zahirah, which means “flowers.” Although it’s also known as “Herod’s Gate,” there was no gate there when Herod the Great was king, although Herod Antipas had a home nearby.

Damascus Gate: The center of the north wall. The busiest gate on weekends as shoppers come into Jerusalem.

New Gate: The northwest corner of the Old City. The current New Gate was made in 1887 when Christians demanded the Turkish sultan give them direct access to their quarter of the city.

Jaffa Gate: The center of the western wall, near where Herod’s palace was. Currently, one of the main gates into Jerusalem.

Zion Gate: Near the west corner of the southern wall. Connects King David’s tomb and the Upper Room to the Jewish Quarter of the Old City.

Tanners Gate: Although Tanners Gate dates to medieval times, it was only reopened during the 1990s to alleviate pedestrian traffic that came through the newer Dung Gate to get to the Wailing Wall.

Dung Gate: Apparently not the original Dung Gate this is farther north, as the “tail” of Nehemiah’s Jerusalem was cut off.

New Jerusalem Gates

Tribal Gates: Ezekiel 48:30&ndash35 and Revelation 21:9&ndash27 describe the New Jerusalem. The heavenly city will have three gates on each side&mdashone gate for each of the tribes of Israel. While the walls are built and decorated with jewels, each gate will be made of a single pearl, and each will be guarded by an angel.


Contents

The walls are usually founded in extremely shallow beddings carved out of the bedrock. 'Cyclopean', the term normally applied to the masonry style characteristic of Mycenaean fortification systems, describes walls built of huge, unworked limestone boulders which are roughly fitted together. Between these boulders, smaller chunks of limestone fill the interstices. The exterior faces of the large boulders may be roughly hammer-dressed, but the boulders themselves are never carefully cut blocks. Very large boulders are typical of the Mycenaean walls at Mycenae, Tiryns, Argos, Krisa (in Phocis), and the Acropolis of Athens. Somewhat smaller boulders occur in the walls of Midea, whereas large limestone slabs are characteristic of the walls at Gla. Cut stone masonry is used only in and around gateways, conglomerate at Mycenae and Tiryns and perhaps both conglomerate and limestone at Argos. [4]

Harry Thurston Peck, writing in 1898, divided Cyclopean masonry into four categories or styles: [5]

While Peck's first and possibly second and third styles conform to what archaeologists today would classify as cyclopean, the fourth now is referred to as ashlar and is not considered cyclopean. There is a more detailed description of the Cyclopean styles at the Perseus Project. [7]

Pausanias described the Cyclopean walls of Mycenae and Tiryns:

There still remain, however, parts of the city wall [of Mycenae], including the gate, upon which stand lions. These, too, are said to be the work of the Cyclopes, who made for Proetus the wall at Tiryns. (2.16.5) Going on from here and turning to the right, you come to the ruins of Tiryns. . The wall, which is the only part of the ruins still remaining, is a work of the Cyclopes made of unwrought stones, each stone being so big that a pair of mules could not move the smallest from its place to the slightest degree. Long ago small stones were so inserted that each of them binds the large blocks firmly together.(2.25.8)

Modern archaeologists use "Cyclopean" in a more restricted sense than the description by Pausanias while Pausanias attributes all of the fortifications of Tiryns and Mycenae, including the Lion Gate, to the Cyclopes, only parts of these walls are built in Cyclopean masonry. The accompanying photograph shows the difference between Cyclopean masonry (shown in the blue rectangle), and the ashlar masonry of the Lion Gate.

The entrance of a Mycenaean citadel in the Bronze Age, Lion Gate. It demonstrated the monumentalizing occurring in Greece and showed the power of the citadel. [8]

Apart from the Tirynthian and Mycenaean walls, other Cyclopean structures include some beehive tombs in Greece and the fortifications of a number of Mycenean sites, most famously at Gla.

In Sicily there are many Cyclopean structures especially in Erice, in the western part of the island. [9]

In Cyprus, the Kition archaeological site in present-day Larnaca, has revealed cyclopean walls. [10] In the ancient city of Rājagṛha (now Rajgir, Bihar, India), cyclopean walls can be seen.

The Nuraghe of Bronze age Sardinia also are described as being constructed in cyclopean masonry, as are some of the constructions of the Talaiot culture abounding on Menorca and present to a lesser extent on Mallorca. [ citation needed ]

One of the largest and least known is the "acropolis" in Alatri, an hour south of Rome. It also seems to have a portal the summer solstice sun shines and some think it is also has a number of other astronomical significant points to it. It is thought to be the second largest in Europe after Athens. [ citation needed ]


The South Gate at Gla - History

By Rabbi Joseph Schwarz, 1850

The Gates of Jerusalem.

Of the extent and the position of the walls and gates of Jerusalem of the ancient period, we know but little we only find in 1 Kings 9.15, that Solomon built the walls of the city but we find no vestige to determine how far it extended to the south and north. Of the gates but little is mentioned we only find in 2 Kings 14.13, that "Jehoash, king of Israel, broke down the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim to the corner gate, four hundred cubits." It is probable that this breach remained open till the time of Uzziah (2 Chron. 26:9), and Hezekiah (ibid. 32:5). We also find mention made of a gate between the two walls near the king's garden (ibid. 25:4) but beyond these data we know nothing.

But at the rebuilding of the city by Nehemiah, we have a more particular description of the walls and the gates, which probably, therefore, existed previously since it appears likely that everything was built on the former site, to the former extent, and after the ancient dimensions I will, therefore, investigate the probable previous position of the gates enumerated by Nehemiah.

Zion, from the North.

The Burial Place of the Kings of the House of David.

He tells, in chap. 2:13-15, "And I went out by night by the Gate of the Valley, even before the Dragon Spring, and to the Dung Gate, &c., then to the Gate of the Spring (fountain, English version), and to the King's Pool, &c., and then I went up in the night by the brook, &c., and turned back and entered by the Gate of the Valley."

He tells, in chap. 2:13-15, "And I went out by night by the Gate of the Valley, even before the Dragon Spring, and to the Dung Gate, &c., then to the Gate of the Spring (fountain, English version), and to the King's Pool, &c., and then I went up in the night by the brook, &c., and turned back and entered by the Gate of the Valley."

I scarcely doubt but that the Dung Gate was at the south, near the valley of Hinnom, or the Tyropoeon* so we read also in Jeremiah 19:2, "Go out into the valley of Ben-Hinnom, which is before the gate Charsith" (East Gate, English version). Jonathan [ben-Uzziel] renders חרסית with Kikaltha קיקלתא the Chaldean for "dung," which clearly proves that the Dung Gate was near the valley of Ben-Hinnom. We are also told that the Valley Gate was one thousand cubits distance from the former (Neh. 3:13), consequently the Valley Gate must have stood in a northwest direction from the other, for to the east we find no other valley at the distance of one thousand cubits (two thousand feet). I consider the Valley Gate to have led to the valley of Rephaim, which encompassed Mount Zion altogether at the south and partly at the west. Between the two gates just described, was the Dragon's Spring, which is now totally unknown. Southeast from the Dung Gate, stood the Gate of the Spring or Fountain, probably not far from the Lower Spring of Siloah. There also was the King's Pool, which exists at this day, as will be farther mentioned at the explanation of the pools of Jerusalem. There was farther, in this vicinity, the Gate between the two Walls by the king's gardens, of 2 Kings 25:4. Even at the present time, are found in that neighbourhood, near the village Selivan, several gardens, which are abundantly watered from Siloah. There were also the steps which led to the temple, as I have stated above, when speaking of the Millo.

* This Greek name of Josephus can also be explained, since this Dung Gate is called in Nehemiah 3:13, ש׳ השפות , the Gate Shephoth instead of האשפות Ashpoth, of 2:13. Now the word שפות Shephoth is used in 2 Samuel 17:29 to signify "cheese," whence we can conclude that the gate was also called "the cheese gate," or the gate of the cheesemakers, whence again we may assert that the name Tyropoeon, "valley of the cheesemakers" of Josephus, finds it origin in the Scriptures.--[The English version of Charsith with "east," is probably derived from חרס "the sun," thus the gate of "sunrise." --TRANSLATOR.]

I will next describe the supposed situation of all the gates mentioned by Nehemiah:

At the south there were,
1. The Dung Gate, also called the Gate between the two Walls east of the same was
2. The Gate of the Fountain.

At the west,
3. The Valley Gate
4. The Corner Gate, properly northwest from the first, at a distance of four hundred cubits.

At the north,
5. The Gate of Ephraim, also called the Gate of Benjamin, in Jeremiah 37:13, since it led into the territory of both Ephraim and Benjamin.
6. The Prison Gate (Neh. 12:39), the site of which can be accurately determined even at present by means of a tradition which defines the position of the prison, the grotto of Jeremiah, or otherwise called the Archer's Court חצר המטרה : it was situated near the Bab al Amud (which see). To the east of this gate were the towers Meah and Chananel מאה וחננאל of Nehemiah 12:39.

At the east were,
7. The Sheep Gate (properly at the northeast).
8. The Old Gate, also called the Middle Gate (Jer. 39:3), since, according to the assertion of Yerushalmi Erubin, 5., it bore different names, to wit, שער העליון the Upper Gate the East Gate שער המזרח the Middle Gate שער התוך and the Old Gate
שער איתן .
9. The Water Gate (Neh. 8:1, "Upon the broad street, before the Water Gate," is explained by the Talmud to mean "the Temple Mount"
הוא הר הבית ) .10) The Fish Gate (at the southeast), of 2 Chronicles 33:14, is explained in the Chaldean translation of Rab Joseph with מזבני כוורי "where fish are sold, or the fish market," and was probably near the pool of Shiloach and
11. The Horse Gate, of Jer. 31:40, and 2 Kings 11:16, and 21:11.

Ophel,* of Neh. 3:26, was quite at the southeast, above the lower spring of Shiloach. It was an uncommonly strong fort, the former position of which is still known from tradition. The following statement is extracted from the travels of Rabbi Benjamin, of Tudela: "There is found a large spring, the one called Shiloach, in the valley of Kidron over this spring stands a large building ( בנין גדול ), which dates from the days of our forefathers," מימי אבותינו . The Italian Itinerary of the year 5282, of which I shall speak more hereafter, says: "On the summit of the mount, at the foot of which is the source of the Shiloach, stands a building, where formerly was a village with houses having cupolas. It is said that here stood the mint of King Solomon." At present this spot is called Ophel, and is done so, without doubt, according to a correct and true tradition.

* The passage in Zephaniah 1:10, ויללה מן המשנה "A lamentation from the other gate," is given by Jonathan with מן עופא In Opha wherefore Rashi expounds it with משער העופות "from the poultry gate," a most singular name, since I could not find any trace of a gate so called in any position. I hold it, therefore, as certain that here is an orthographical error, and that עופא should read עופלא Ophla, or the Ophel described above and it actually well suits to the description, Mishneh, or "the double," which signifies then the two walls (2 Kings 22:14), or the double wall החומתים , as also Rashi states to the passage cited, and as I shall describe more fully hereafter. This certainly does not confirm Rashi's explanation of poultry gate but my hypothesis is confirmed from the fact that several editions of Jonathan have the correct reading מן עופלא , instead of מן עופא . From Yerushalmi Taanith, 3., it appears plainly that Ophel was in the valley of Kidron. See also Taanith, 22b. The commentary of Rashi and Tosephoth to this passage, however, concerning "Ophel," does not appear very clear to me.

The number of the gates just given, as also the course and circuit of the walls of Jerusalem as they were in the time of Nehemiah, continued thus till, as Josephus relates, the city was enlarged towards the north, and supplied with new walls. When it was rebuilt, after the destruction in the reign of Hadrian, it was done on a much diminished scale, and with less gates. I could find nowhere any reliable accounts of that period, which give us any information respecting the then size, gates, and wall of Jerusalem. Only of a much later time, the year 4930 A. M., (1170), Rabbi Benjamin, who then travelled through Palestine, relates "that Jerusalem had four gates, the gates of Abraham, David, Zion, and Jehoshaphat, which is east of the temple." The Gate of Abraham probably denotes the one leading to Hebron, "the city of Abraham," as at this day they call the gate leading to Hebron Bab al Chalil, "the gate of the beloved," as Hebron itself is termed Beth al Chalil, "the house of the beloved," referring to Abraham,* the man universally beloved. The Gate of David appears to be the western one, which stands near the Kallai, that is, the so-called fort of David מגדל דוד . The Zion's Gate is the modern one of the same name and the Gate of Jehoshaphat is the eastern entrance, which is near the valley of Jehoshaphat, i. e. the valley of Kidron. It would thence appear that, at the time of Rabbi Benjamin's visit, Jerusalem had no gate on the north side.

* After careful investigation, however, I found that the Arabs do not apply the name of Chalil to Abraham, but to Isaac, since they call so every one whose name is Isaac and I believe that this epithet is given solely to Isaac, and only denotes him, as in Gen. 22:2,. את בנך יחידך אשר אהבת "Thy son, thy only one, whom thou lovest." He lived, as his father had done, in Hebron whence it may properly be called Beth-Chalil, "the house of Isaac" (the beloved).

In the year 5282, an Italian of Leghorn, whose name is unknown, travelled through Palestine. His investigations and remarks are, it is true, but briefly and simply given, but are nevertheless here and there interesting, and are attached as an appendix to the small work, שבחי ירושלים "The Praises of Jerusalem." The traveller relates, "Jerusalem has six gates: 1, Bab al Sebat, the Gate of the Tribes, i. e. the one through which the pilgrims entered when they went three times a year to Jerusalem, on the festivals of Passover, Weeks, and Tabernacles 2, Bab al Amud 3, Bab al Katun, since in its neighbourhood much cotton was spun and worked up and three other gates, not far from Zion." Even at the present day the eastern gate is called Bab al Sebat the northern one is called Bab al Amud and the three near Zion are termed the small southern gate, not far from the ancient Dung Gate, the Zion's Gate, and the Western Gate, which opens on the road to Jaffa. But the Bab al Katun is unknown yet it may perhaps be the one now walled up, somewhat to the east of Bab al Amud. This then proves that, before Sultan Soliman erected the present wall of the city, in the year 5287 (1527), it had the gates of the present day. At present Jerusalem has five gates: 1, at the south, on Mount Zion, the Zion Gate, also called Bab al Chalil, and Bab Nebi David, gate of the prophet David, from the fact that King David lived at Zion, and is entombed there also 2, the gate situated to the east of the first, at the foot of Mount Zion, the so-called Little Gate, near the site of the ancient Dung Gate, and also named Bab al Megarbi, for מערבי , by changing Ain into Gain, because the interior of the city, in the vicinity of this gate, is occupied only by Mahomedans, who have emigrated hither from Africa (i. e. the western country, hence "the gate of the westerns"). When the Arabs and Bedouins rebelled against Abraim Pacha in 5594 (1834), he had this gate closed and walled up but it was again opened when, in 5601, Palestine reverted to the Sultan of Constantinople. 3, At the east, the Bab al Sebat 4, at the north, the Bab al Amud, "the column gate," because it has a colonnade attached to it 300 paces to the east is a small walled up gate, but it is not known when and why it was closed and 5, at the west, the Bab al Jaffa, which opens on the Jaffa road.

On the eastern side of the city wall, just opposite the great mosque on the temple mount, called Al Sachara [Al Aqsa], can be seen two large gates, close to each other, which are walled up they are called by our brethren שערי הרחמים "the gates of mercy." They are already mentioned in Massecheth Soferim, 19, and are said to have been built by King Solomon, as is also believed by Astori and Rabbi Emanuel Riki, authors of the book עטרת אליהו "the Crown of Elijah." But I have no doubt that they belong to a much later period, since we perceive on the stones figures, drawings, and ornaments, of the Arabic fashion and their style and character is such that they must to a surety have been erected by the Arabs. The tradition may perhaps be owing to an idea that here once stood the "gates of mercy," erected by Solomon, but they can by no means be themselves the remains of that high antiquity. I moreover found traces of the oldest period only on the following places: the Mourning Wall, or the כותל המעבי the west wall of the temple, of which I shall speak more circumstantially hereafter the southwestern corner of the city wall and the lower portion of David's Tower מגדל דוד Kallai. These three are actual remains of that high antiquity, on which is impressed the seal of truth but all the other remains are the works of later periods.


Why did Shang Yang set up the wood at the south gate before the Change of Law?

In order to win the trust of the people, Shang Yang had a three-foot-tall log erected at the south gate of the capital and gave an order that “whoever could carry this log to the north gate would be rewarded ten taels of gold. “But no one did it. Shang Yang knew that the people did not believe his order, so he raised the reward to fifty taels. At that moment a man in the crowd said, “I’ll try. He said, “Let me try.” He really picked up the wood and carried it all the way to the north gate. Immediately, Shang Yang sent someone to reward the wood-carrier with fifty taels of gold. This story immediately spread and became a sensation in the Qin state. Later, Shang Yang’s law change gained the trust of the public.

Shang Yang’s Change of Law

In order to further consolidate the rule of Qin and strengthen the centralization of power, Shang Yang implemented the Change of Law in 350 BC. The main contents were: the well field system was formally abolished in the state of Qin, and the land ownership of landowners and subsistence farmers was confirmed the sale of land was openly allowed by law to facilitate the development of the landowners’ economy and increase the land tax revenue of landowners the county system was generally implemented, and the local power and military power were centralized to strengthen the centralized feudal rule the system of weights and measures was unified, and the levy of military duties by household and population was started. Shang Yang also reformed the social customs of Qin according to the customs and traditions of the Middle Kingdom. This change of law was a great success.


Lesson 21: Narrative

Fortifications

Methods and Materials

Mycenaean fortification walls tend to be built along the edge of a sharp change in elevation in the local topography so that the masonry of the wall combines with the natural contours of the site to create an even more formidable obstacle for would-be attackers. The walls are usually founded in extremely shallow beddings carved out of the bedrock. "", the term normally applied to the masonry style characteristic of Mycenaean fortification systems, describes walls built of huge, unworked limestone boulders which are roughly fitted together. Between these boulders, smaller hunks of limestone fill the interstices. The exterior faces of the large boulders may be roughly hammer-dressed, but the boulders themselves are never carefully cut blocks. Very large boulders are typical of the Mycenaean walls at Mycenae, Tiryns, Argos, Krisa (in Phocis), and the Athenian Acropolis. Somewhat smaller boulders occur in the walls of Midea, whereas large limestone slabs are characteristic of the walls at Gla. Cut stone masonry is used only in and around gateways, conglomerate at Mycenae and Tiryns and perhaps both conglomerate and limestone at Argos.

Dates and Building Programs

Three-part building programs have been detected at both Mycenae and Tiryns, although it is unclear whether the various stages of building at the two sites are contemporary. At both sites, the earliest fortification systems are dated to the later LH IIIA period, while the final fortification networks (including water-supply systems at both sites) are dated to the advanced LH IIIB period, ca. 1250 B.C. The Mycenaean fortifications of the Athenian Acropolis are said to be of LH IIIB date, although the evidence for such a dating is not very abundant. The water-supply system at Athens can, however, be dated quite confidently to the end of the LH IIIB period, this system being in all probability an imitation of the functionally similar arrangements at Mycenae and Tiryns. Gla's fortifications were apparently built all at once in the early LH IIIB period. The walls at Midea, Argos, and Krisa have yet to be dated accurately.

The major extension of the Tirynthian fortification system to the north in that site's third phase of fortification building used to be considered as the enclosure of a large open space in which herds of animals might be kept during times of siege, but the German excavations directed by K. Kilian in the late 1970's and early 1980's within this [i.e. Lower Citadel] have shown that the space in question was fairly densely occupied by houses. Both at Mycenae and at Tiryns, a major feature of the extensions built in the third phase of fortification at these sites was the inclusion of tunnels leading from within the walls of these extensions to underground water sources outside the walls. In both cases, the water sources in question lay at relatively low levels beneath the hilltops which were enclosed within the walls, and the builders of these fortifications evidently rejected the option of weakening the fortification circuit as a whole (or perhaps simply of marring its visual impact) by including the water sources within the walls. Sally ports were located fairly close to the tunnels leading to the water sources in order to provide defense of these water supply systems in case a besieging enemy tried to foul the water or destroy the tunnels themselves. The tunnels leading to the water sources were cunningly camouflaged where they extended beyond the area actually enclosed within the fortification walls. The water supply systems at Mycenae, Tiryns, and Athens are clear evidence for a concern with siege warfare never before attested during the Aegean Bronze Age except in the form of an apparently earlier (and possibly ancestral?) LH II or IIIA underground water source just outside the fortification wall at Ayia Irini on Keos. The construction of the large south and east galleries at Tiryns, presumably facilities for the storage in quantity of surplus agricultural produce, can be viewed as reflecting the same concern on the part of their builders.

A feature peculiar to Mycenae and Tiryns is the construction of a number of rather small, corbel-vaulted chambers within the thickness of their fortification walls. At Mycenae, these are located in a stretch of the north wall, while at Tiryns they occur frequently in the walls of the "Unterburg". The function of these chambers is not always clear, nor need it have been one and the same for all. Some were simply storage spaces like the somewhat similar but much larger chambers which comprise the bulk of the south and east galleries at Tiryns. Others may have functioned as guardposts. Yet others, furnished with arrow slits, seemingly served as archers' watchports.

Entrances

At both Tiryns and Gla, access to major gates in the fortifications is by way of a long, fairly steep, and artificially constructed ramp. At Mycenae, such a ramp leading up to the Lion Gate is a natural feature of the local topography at the site. In general, Mycenaean gateways are so designed that an attacker would have to present the side on which he would normally carry his offensive weapons (the right side, unshielded if he wanted to wield these weapons effectively) toward the defenders in approaching the gate. The second, or inner, gate leading to the palace area at Tiryns in that site's third phase of fortification is virtually identical in its plan and elevation to the Lion Gate at Mycenae, and most scholars view one as a conscious imitation of the other, although it is impossible to state with any degree of certainty which was the first to be built. Both Mycenae and Tiryns have one major entrance and one minor (or postern) gate, as well as one or more "sally ports" in the extensions representing their third phase of fortification construction. Gla is unusual in having four major gates located at roughly the cardinal points of the compass. This peculiarity is a further indication of a specialized function for this Boeotian citadel that distinguishes it from the standard Mycenaean fortress. Athens and Midea appear to have been normal in having one major gate and a postern.

Distribution of Fortified Sites

The distribution of Mycenaean citadels in the late Mycenaean period is a peculiar one. Such fortresses are common in the Argolid (Mycenae, Tiryns, Midea, Argos, Asine, and possibly Nauplion) and in Boeotia (Gla, Eutresis, Haliartos and several other minor sites around the Copaïc basin, possibly Thebes and Orchomenos). In Attica there is only the Athenian Acropolis, while in Messenia and Laconia there are no known LH IIIB fortification systems of any importance. One question which immediately arises is against whom were such fortifications intended as a form of protection. At least two possible varieties of response suggest themselves: (a) against attackers from other Mycenaean political entities (b) against attackers from outside the Mycenaean cultural sphere. Since the Argolid has most often been considered to have been ruled by a single Mycenaean monarch in the later 14th and 13th centuries B.C., the second answer has normally been the preferred one, and support for the notion of an external, non-Mycenaean threat to the Argolid has been seen in the trans-Isthmian fortification wall of the LH IIIB period discovered and partially cleared by Broneer. However, it is by no means impossible that the major Mycenaean centers in the Argolid were each ruled by independent princes. Greek legend suggests that there were at one time independent kingdoms based on Thebes and Orchomenos in Boeotia, while in the Argolid we know of mythical kings at Mycenae (e.g. Atreus, Agamemnon), Tiryns (e.g. Heracles, Diomedes), and Argos (e.g. Acrisios). The paramount importance of Agamemnon in Homer's Iliad has led most scholars to assume that the king of Mycenae dominated the Argolid, and this view has received support from the wealth of the Shaft Graves and the large number of tholoi (including the magnificent Treasury of Atreus see handout on Mycenaean Tholos Tombs) at that site. Nevertheless, few scholars are now willing to consider Homer a reliable historical source for the Mycenaean period, and the Shaft Graves and most of the tholoi are in any case features of the early Mycenaean era and not of the 13th century B.C. The fortifications and palatial architecture of Tiryns are at least as impressive as those of Mycenae in the later Mycenaean period. Now that Linear B tablets have been discovered at both sites, a fact suggesting that the two may well have maintained independent administrative archives, there seems to be no compelling reason to assume that Tiryns was controlled by Mycenae at this time. If the two were in competition, their similarities in defensive architecture may even be viewed as evidence for a 13th century B.C. "arms race"! At the same time, in Messenia where the Linear B tablets from Pylos suggest that the entire province was controlled by a single monarch, there is no evidence at all for LH IIIB fortified citadels. Should we not interpret this fact as indicating the absence of inter-Mycenaean rivalries and competition in this region? Presumably, the king of Messenia was confident of his ability to protect his capital by keeping his enemies, whether Mycenaean or non-Mycenaean, far from Pylos itself, whereas the monarchs at Tiryns, Mycenae, Midea, Argos, Asine, Eutresis, Thebes (?), Orchomenos (?), etc., controlling significantly smaller kingdoms and lacking significant buffer zones with which to protect their capitals, felt forced to invest in defensive architecture on a grand scale.

The Source of Inspiration for Mycenaean Fortification Systems

Mycenaean fortification architecture clearly owes nothing to Minoan inspiration. Not only are Minoan fortifications virtually unknown after the end of the Protopalatial period but all Mycenaean fortification systems date from a period well after the collapse of Minoan power in the southern Aegean. It is possible that the idea of fortification programs on a grand scale was adopted from the Hittite sphere of influence in central Anatolia. However, in terms both of scale and of architectural details, Hittite fortifications are quite different from those of the Mycenaean citadels. Perhaps the most likely sources of inspiration for Mycenaean defensive circuits are the fortification systems at such Cycladic sites as Phylakopi and Ayia Irini or even closer island centers such as Kolonna on Aegina. On the other hand, much of what is most distinctive about Mycenaean fortification architecture may in the end prove to be the product of purely indigenous developments from humble Middle Helladic antecedents.

Drainage Projects

The Copaïs of Boeotia

The Copaïc basin was a seasonal lake, never very deep, until the late 19th century A.D. when it was permanently drained and converted into the well-irrigated plain which is now one of central Greece's most fertile agricultural areas. From inscriptional evidence, it is known that drainage programs were undertaken in the Copaïs in Classical Greek and Roman times as well. The modern drainage of the Copaïs has also revealed that the basin was drained in late Mycenaean times, only to become reflooded sometime near or shortly after the end of the Mycenaean period due to the plugging, whether natural or artificial, of the sinkholes (or katavothroi) at the northeast end of the basin. The Mycenaean drainage of the Copaïs, a massive hydraulic engineering project, provides the only reasonable explanation for the existence of a major Mycenaean palatial site at Gla on a low limestone island rising up from the floor of the basin near its northeast corner. This site is now normally interpreted as a fortified administrative center and military strongpoint designed to protect the drainage network whose focus lies not far to the northeast of the site. In addition to Gla itself, a number of other fortified sites sprinkled around the natural wall of limestone which encircles tne Copaïs on the north, east, and south are interpreted as fortresses designed to ensure the drainage system's continued, successful operation. The drainage of the Copaïs would clearly have been of immense profit to all those who lived around the former lake. The major site in this area is Orchomenos at the basin's west end, but Haliartos to the south is also an important site and it is not unlikely that even Thebes, lying at quite some distance to the east of the Copaïs' east end, would have stood to gain from the vast increase in rich arable land available for cultivation once streams draining into the basin had been channeled into canals leading directly to the katavothroi.

Huge earthen dykes furnished with Cyclopean retaining or facing walls were built along the north and south sides of the Copaïs. Water entering the basin from the south and southwest was channeled between the south dyke and the natural limestone rim of the basin on the south side. At the southeast corner of the Copaïs, this single dyke was doubled across the Bay of Daulos to form a channel 41 meters wide, the inner dyke being some 19 meters thick at this point. A similar canal was created further north where the southern arm of the drainage network crossed the Bay of Karditsa. Along the northern edge of the Copaïs, a much larger dyke was constructed just south of the limestone rim of the basin on this side to channel the much larger amount of water entering the basin from the northwest in the Melas and Kephissos Rivers. This northern dyke is up to 66 meters thick and incorporates within its thickness two parallel walls each a full two meters thick. To the north of Gla, the northern branch of the system is carried across the Bay of Topolia in a large canal framed by two dykes to meet the southern branch at a point northeast of Gla. The combined canal, varying from sixty to eighty meters wide, then extends east to the large Vinia katavothros through which the water flows down to lower-lying lakes to the east. The dykes lining the combined canal measure up to forty and fifty meters across and are lined on the interior with solid stone walls three meters thick.

The scale of this vast undertaking, which includes the construction of the enormous citadel at Gla, dwarfs any other Mycenaean building project yet known. The Treasury of Atreus, even the walls of Tiryns, seem trivial by comparison. The evidence from Gla suggests that the project was initiated and completed early in the LH IIIB period (ca. 1350-1300 B.C.?). Gla was destroyed, and presumably the drainage system along with it, well before the end of the 13th century B.C. Myth, in the form of a story about Heracles and his Theban followers destroying Orchomenos and flooding its basin, suggests that intra-Mycenaean rivalry between Thebes and Orchomenos may have led to the collapse of the system within such a short time of its completion. Thebes itself was destroyed not long afterwards, perhaps, as legend suggests, by a coalition of "Argive" princes (the so-called Epigonoi, or sons of the famous Seven Against Thebes) whom Drews has suggested were in fact Thessalians, a conjecture which makes far better geographical and political sense.

The Tiryns Dam

Located about four kilometers east of Tiryns near the modern village of Ayios Adrianos, the dam was designed to divert the periodic floods running down a streambed directly to the lower town of Tiryns by redirecting these floodwaters into a newly dug channel leading south-southwest around the south, rather than the north, end of Prophitis Ilias, a prominent hill about one kilometer east of Tiryns and the site of its cemetery of tholos (on the west side) and chamber (on the east side) tombs. The new channel, by running around the end of Prophitis Ilias furthest from the site of Tiryns itself, conducted the formerly destructive floodwaters to the sea in a non-destructive path further to the east of the original streambed. The dam project involved not only the construction of a huge earthen embankment lined with Cyclopean masonry across the earlier western streambed but also the digging of a deep channel to the east across the natural contour lines of the Argive Plain. Although not comparable in size to the Copaïs earthworks, this dam was nevertheless an immense undertaking which had as its goal not the creation of new agricultural land but simply the protection of a town from the dangers of periodic flooding. Geomorphological studies in the Argive Plain by E. Finke (now Zangger) have revealed that the dam's construction can be dated quite closely to the LH IIIB2 period.

Roadbuilding

Within the Argolid, there is good evidence for a fairly sophisticated road network which linked the major Mycenaean sites in the Argive Plain and even extended beyond that plain proper, north to the Corinthia and east to the eastern Argolid. The evidence consists of bridges across ravines (e.g. at Kazarma in the eastern Argolid just south of Mycenae itself across the so-called Chaos Ravine) and of drainage culverts built of limestone boulders with corbel-vaulted channels running underneath the roadbed (e.g. several examples on the road from Mycenae to Berbati). The only rationale for such constructions is that they were designed to accommodate vehicular traffic in the form of chariots and wagons. Traces of similar road networks have been found in Messenia (between Pylos and Nichoria), in Attica (between the Attic and Thriasian plains dominated by Athens and Eleusis, respectively) and, it is claimed, in Phocis (between Amphissa and the Maliac Gulf). It is worth noting that carefully constructed roads are not a feature of later Classical Greek civilization until the 5th century B.C. at the earliest.

Chamber Tombs

Unlike tholos tombs with their corbel-vaulted burial chambers, neatly circular or, exceptionally, elliptical in plan, chamber tombs are typically rock-cut rather than built, have irregularly shaped but roughly quadrangular plans, and feature dromoi with unlined side walls that incline inward noticeably toward the top. Because of the multiple inhumation burials which they normally contain, chamber tombs are generally considered to have been family tombs, although there is no particularly strong evidence for their having been designed to hold the members of a family as opposed to some other form of social group.

At some sites, chamber tombs of the normal type (dromos, stomion, and chamber cut out of bedrock) are rare, most probably because the appropriate geological conditions promoting the creation of such tombs - the existence of relatively soft rock under a cap of harder stone - are not available in the immediate vicinity of a site. At Eleusis and Thorikos, for example, the limestone bedrock of the hills on which the sites are located was evidently just too hard for the excavation of chamber tombs. Instead, the Mycenaeans built underground chambers of rubble limestone masonry and employed huge schist slabs to roof them. Short passages approaching these chambers near the end of one long side substitute for the longer dromoi of regular rock-cut chamber tombs and make these built chambers L-shaped in plan. At Vrana near Marathon, burial in built chambers or large cists within circular tumuli continues a local Middle Helladic tradition of burial throughout the Mycenaean period, a tradition also attested in the LH I Tomb V at Thorikos (see handout on Mycenaean Tholos Tombs).

At Tanagra in Boeotia, burials are made in painted larnakes placed within normal chamber tombs, a practice identical to burial habits in Late Minoan Crete but unique to this one site on the Greek Mainland. At Thebes in Boeotia, where a palace existed but tholoi did not serve as an elite burial form, royal burials appear to have been made in gigantic chamber tombs such as the "Painted Chamber" discovered in the early 1970's. This imposing tomb has two roughly parallel dromoi on a scale comparable to the dromoi of the tholos tombs at Mycenae. In plan, it consisted of two large chambers, placed side by side and linked by an internal doorway. Each chamber was approached by its own dromos, and large portions of the chambers as well as of the stomia leading into the chambers were coated with plaster and decorated with frescoes. The right-hand chamber had benches along some of its walls, also plastered and painted. The chambers were found robbed and the only find reported from within this monumental construction is an ivory pyxis decorated with griffins. Because of its peculiar architectural and decorative features and the lack of any skeletal material within it, Schachermeyr theorized that this complex was not a tomb at all but rather a shrine or mortuary chapel designed to serve some cult of the dead.

Shaft graves of one sort or another, as well as simple pits and cists, continue throughout the Mycenaean period at a number of sites, but single burial, except for children, is the exception rather than the rule. Inhumation is standard. Cremation is very rare until the LH IIIC period, at which time it appears sporadically throughout the Mycenaean world, possibly a fashion imported from the east (Anatolia?) which, however, does not become common until the Protogeometric period of the Early Iron Age.


THE GATES OF JERUSALEM

THE ZION GATE

The third of the four major gates of Jerusalem is the Zion Gate. This gate faces the cardinal direction south, and is located along the southwestern walls of the Old city. It is named such because the gate faces, and provides access, to Mount Zion. As it stands today, the gate was built by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1540. The Ottoman sultan built many of the gates of Jerusalem which stand today.

It is one of the gates of Jerusalem that lead into the Jewish Quarter of the Old City. Walls near the Zion Gate date from the Hasmonean and Herodian periods of the history of Jerusalem. Similar to the previously mentioned gates of Jerusalem, the Zion Gate was built with an L-shaped internal structure. One window on each side of the gate lent its distinguishable characteristic. It, like the Jaffa Gate, can support both foot and vehicle traffic. However, vehicles are only allowed to exit through the gate, not enter.

Other names of the Zion Gate are the Gate of the Prophet David, and the Gate to the Jewish Quarter. The Hebrew for the Zion Gate is Sha'ar Tzion. Muslim tradition places the tomb of king David on Mount Zion, hence the name the Gate of the Prophet David.

During the Crusader conquest under Godfrey in 1099 AD, Raymond the Count of Toulouse, the richest of the Crusader commanders, led a force that laid siege to the Zion Gate. During the Ottoman Husseinis dynasty (1705 - 1794 AD), the murder of every dog in Jerusalem was ordered by the ruling authority when a single stray dog wandered onto the Temple Mount. Further cruelty and insult was added when every Jew and Christian in the city was ordered to bring dead stray dogs to a collection point at the Zion Gate.

As this was one of the gates of Jerusalem which led into the Jewish Quarter, certain responsibilities fell to the Jewish community. A fifteenth century traveler recorded that a certain Jewish family within the Jewish Quarter held the key to the Zion Gate. A Jewish watchman was in charge of opening and closing the gate each morning and night.

At 8:45 a.m. on December 9, 1917 British forces closed on the Zion Gate. At the same time German forces were withdrawing from various of the gates of Jerusalem. In an interesting twist of fate, the day was also the first day of Hannukah, the Jewish festival of lights celebrating the Maccabean revolt and liberation of Jerusalem. The Zion Gate would continue to see its share of historical events in the twentieth century, as would the other gates of Jerusalem.

In February of 1948 Arab forces blocked off the Zion Gate, cutting off access to the New City. This was done in direct violation of an earlier United Nations Security Council declaration that the Old City was to remain an open, demilitarized zone. The UN has always taken anti-Jewish stances on such matters, and was as ineffective an organization at its inception as it is in its current inept and powerless state.

On May 17th the Harel Brigade of the Palmach, an elite Jewish fighting force, launched an attack on the Zion Gate, breaking through two days later. This would not prove to be enough, however. On May 28, two rabbis exited the Zion Gate holding white flags of surrender. The Jewish Quarter had surrendered to the Arab forces. The Zion Gate would remain closed and under Jordanian guard from 1948 to 1967.

However, during the Six Day War of 1967, Israeli troops erupted through the Zion Gate, dashing through the Armenian Quarter on their way to the Jewish Quarter. At the same time Israelite forces flooded through the other gates of Jerusalem converging on the Wall. A plague rests above the Zion Gate today commemorating its role in the Six Day War and liberation of the Old City of Jerusalem.

The Zion Gate was renovated by Israeli authorities in 2008. However, bullet holes bearing evidence of its participation in the 1948 War of Independence were preserved. The Zion Gate certainly has its unique place within the order of the gates of Jerusalem and overall history of the ancient city.

THE GOLDEN GATE

Perhaps the most intriguing of the gates of Jerusalem faces the cardinal direction of the rising sun, East. East was the direction the Jewish Temple faced and opened up to. The Golden Gate was located along the eastern walls of Jerusalem, facing east towards the Kidron Valley and Mount of Olives. It is the closest of the gates of Jerusalem to the Temple Mount, and as such would take on special significance throughout the history of Jerusalem. The Golden Gate is the oldest of the gates of Jerusalem, with its exact timeline debated by scholars and archaeologists. Scholars debate whether the gate, in its present form, was built in the 6th or 7th century AD, and whether the architects were the last of the Byzantine emperors, or the first of the Arab conquerors, perhaps the Ummayid caliphs.

Some believe the Golden Gate may have been built in 520 AD as part of Justinian I's building projects in Jerusalem. Like the other gates of Jerusalem, the Golden Gate is known by a number of different names. The Christian name is The Golden Gate. In Hebrew it is Sha'ar Harahamim, or the Gate of Mercy. The Arabs call it The Gate of Eternal Life, for reasons soon to be discussed. This gate is believed by many to have been built on top of remains from the East Gate of Solomon's First Temple, and from Nehemiah's rebuilt Jerusalem, and of Herodian Jerusalem in the Second Temple period.

The gate has been in its present form since at least ca. 630 AD, when the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius entered Jerusalem via the Golden Gate. It is said Heraclius entered the Golden Gate with remains of the true Cross, recovered from the Persians and placed in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The Golden Gate actually has two doorways. The southern gate is called the Gate of Mery. The northern gate is the Gate of Repentance.

Double-arched doorways supported by wide columns characterize the Golden Gate. A unique feature compared to the other gates of Jerusalem are the two massive pillars which stand within the gatehouse of the Golden Gate.

Muslim tradition claims these pillars were given to Solomon as a gift from the Queen of Sheba. Another unique aspect of the Golden Gate is that it is sealed shut.

Monolithic stones in the walls nearby date back to the time of Nehemiah. In fact, Josephus states in his volume titled Wars, that the eastern wall is the only wall that king Herod did not rebuild during his massive construction projects and building of the Second Temple. This is a fascinating bit of information, for in 1969 a remarkable discovery was made only to be buried by the Muslim authorities and forgotten.

In 1969 James Fleming, an Israeli archaeologist, was standing in front of the Golden Gate both studying and admiring its remarkable beauty. Suddenly the ground collapsed underneath him. Rattled but unhurt, Fleming gathered his wits as he realized he had fallen into a sinkhole. Astonished, Fleming found himself gazing at five large, wedge-shaped stones set into a massive arch. This structure was underneath the Golden Gate and adjoining walls. Unfortunately, before Fleming could further investigate the Muslim authorities sealed the hole and poured concrete over the opening.

Fleming had discovered an ancient gate underneath the Golden Gate. Many scholars believe Fleming's gate may actually date from the time of king Solomon and the First Temple period! Or, perhaps, at least date from the time of Nehemiah. Based on the trend to build gates on top of previous gates, as seen with both Hadrian and Suleiman, it is not unlikely the gate underneath the Golden Gate was Nehemiah's East Gate mentioned in Nehemiah 3:29.

"After them Zadok the son of Immer carried out repairs in front of his house. And after him Shemaiah the son of Shecaniah, the keeper of the East Gate, carried out repairs."

Nehemiah's construction took place in the 5th century B.C., when Jews answered Cyrus' decree to return and rebuild Jerusalem. Nehemiah's East Gate was called Shushan, or Susa, after the Persian capital city. The Shushan Gate's construction was financed by the Jewish community in Persia. It was destroyed by the Romans during their siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD.

Thus, it is not stretching to hypothesize that Nehemiah built the Shushan Gate upon the foundations of an earlier gate Solomon built along with the First Temple. Fleming may have uncovered structures that can absolutely verify the authenticity of Solomon and his First Temple constructed to honor the God of Israel! It is no wonder the Muslim authorities were so quick to close the pit and cement over its opening.

In II Chronicles 31:14 the Bible speaks of an eastern gate during the reign of Hezekiah.

"And Kore the son of Imnah the Levite, the Keeper of the eastern gate. "

Biblical Arhaeologial Review (BAR) printed an article by Asher Kaufman in which the author argues that the First and Second Temples were built in the immediate vicinity of the Dome of the Rock. Thus it is possible the East Gate of the First Temple, and the Shushah Gate spoken of by Nehemiah, were likely located within the vicinity of the current Golden Gate. Fleming's buried gate certainly takes front stage as the most probable candidate for the East Gate of the First and Second Temple periods.

The gate is steeped in religious tradition more so than any of the other gates of Jerusalem. The prophet Ezekiel had much to say about the East Gate. This gate, according to Ezekiel, is the Lord's gate thus separating it from the other gates of Jerusalem in its significance. Ezekiel describes in-depth the vision God gave him on the banks of the Chebar River. In this vision Ezekiel saw the glory of the Lord departing Israel through the eastern gate.

Ezekiel 10:18-19 speaks of the glory of the Lord.

"Then the glory of the Lord departed from the threshold of the temple and stood over the cherubim. When the cherubim departed, they lifted their wings and rose up from the earth in my sight with the wheels beside them and they stood still at the entrance of the east gate of the Lord's house. And the glory of the God of Israel hovered over them."

Again in Ezekiel 11:22-23 Ezekiel speaks of the Lord departing Jerusalem in the east.

"Then the cherubim lifted up their wings and the wheels beside them, and the glory of the God of Israel hovered over them. And the glory of the Lord went up from the midst of the city, and stood over the mountain which is east of the city."

The Golden Gate also holds a special place in regards to the future of Jerusalem. Whereas the other gates of Jerusalem are mentioned as simply being rebuilt in the New Jerusalem, the Golden Gate takes an active role in ushering in the New Heaven and New Earth. Again, we can turn to the prophet Ezekiel for a description of these end days.

Ezekiel 43:1-2, 4-5 describes the return of God's glory to Jerusalem from the same direction He once departed, the east.

"Then he led me toward the gate, the gate facing toward the east and behold, the glory of the God of Israel was coming from the way of the east. And His voice was like the sound of many waters and the earth shone with His glory. And the glory of the Lord came into the house by the way of the gate facing toward the east. And the Spirit lifted me up and brought me into the inner court and behold, the glory of the Lord filled the house."

Ezekiel 44:1-3 is even more clear on the role of this eastern gate in the upcoming days.

"Then He brought me back by the way of the outer gate of the sanctuary, which faces the east and it was shut. And the Lord said to me, 'This gate shall be shut it shall not be opened, and no one shall enter by it, for the Lord God of Israel has entered by it therefore it shall be shut. As for the Prince, he shall sit in it as prince to eat bread before the Lord he shall enter by way of the porch of the gate, and shall go out by the same way.' "

In other words, the Prince who is the One to Come shall one day enter Jerusalem through this eastern gate, which is to be shut until that time. The Messiah will return to rule over Jerusalem and the world by entering the city from the direction of the Mountain of Olives, and entering through the shut eastern gate. Interestingly enough, the Golden Gate is the only sealed gate of the Old City of Jerusalem, and has been that way for nearly five hundred years.

To the Jew, the Golden Gate was to be the sight of the Messiah's return to establish His kingdom on earth and free the Jewish people from the nations of the world. The Golden Gate was to be the entry point for the Jewish Messiah into Jerusalem. Christian tradition places the Golden Gate as the site of the Triumphal Entry by Jesus into Jerusalem. By entering the eastern gate Jesus knew all too well what He was doing. As stated in Ezekiel, and believed by Jews of Jesus' time and today, the Messiah would return to rule Jerusalem through the East Gate.

Mark 11 captures the Triumphal Entry of Jesus into Jerusalem.

"And those who went before, and those who followed after, were crying out, 'Hosanna! Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord Blessed is the coming kingdom of our father David Hosanna in the highest!"

Thus, when Jesus performed His Triumphal Entry He was proclaiming Himself as Messiah by entering Jerusalem from the east. He fulfilled the passage in Ezekiel about the Prince returning and entering by the eastern gate. This bold and daring move on His part set the stage for the showdown with the scribes and Pharisees, led to His arrest and ultimately to His crucifixion. Thus Christian tradition placed the Triumphal Entry by way of the Golden Gate. It is a tantalizing thought to think Fleming's buried gate may also be the gate through which Jesus passed the week before His death and resurrection.

Suleiman the Magnificent was determined to thwart the Jewish tradition of the Messiah returning via the Golden Gate. Thus in 1540-41 AD he sealed the gate shut. Moslem tradition places the resurrection in the end days occurring in front of the eastern gate. Consequently, a Muslim cemetery was also built in front of the Golden Gate, which stands today. It was this cemetery which Allenby refused to pass through, thus he entered Jerusalem via the Jaffa Gate instead. This cemetery, coupled with the gate being sealed shut, were Islamic attempts to dissuade the Messiah from returning to Jerusalem.

Adherents to Islam, Judaism and Christianity all desire to be buried here. As a result, cemeteries dominate the immediate vicinity surrounding the Golden Gate. Jew and Christian are buried side by side with the Muslim, all in hopes of getting a front row seat to the resurrection. Cemeteries dot the nearby Kidron Valley, and blanket the slopes of the Mount of Olives. To the Jew and Christian, it is the site of Messiah's appearance. To the Muslim, Allah's final judgement takes place at the Golden Gate.

Below is an excerpt from Simon Sebag Montefiore's excellent book entitled, Jerusalem. In it he describes the Islamic view of the final judgement and the role of the Golden Gate. This gate, undoubtebly, stands as the most religiously charged of the gates of Jerusalem.

"The Muslims created a geography of Apocalypse around Jerusalem. The forces of evil perish at the Golden Gate. The Mahdi - the Chosen - dies when the Ark of the Covenant is placed before him. At the sight of the Ark, the Jews convert to Islam. The Kaaba of Mecca comes to Jerusalem with all those who ever made pilgrimmage to Mecca. Heaven descends on the Temple Mount with Hell in the Valley of Hinnom. The people assemble outside the Golden Gate on the Plain- al-Sahira. Israfil the Archangle of Death blows his trumpet the dead (especially those buried around the Golden Gate) are resurrected and pass through the gate, the portal to the End of Days. "

It is also a possibility that the Golden Gate is the same as the Beautiful Gate mentioned in Acts 3:2,10.

"And a certain man who had been lame from his mother's womb was being carried along, whom they used to set down every day at the gate of the temple which is called Beautiful. and they were taking note of him as being the one who used to sit at the Beautiful Gate of the temple to beg alms. "

BAR ran an article in which they argued Jerome may have mistranslated the Greek text as he wrote the Latin Vulgate. It was from the Latin Vulgate that the King James Bible, the first English version, was translated. The Latin Vulgate read "Golden Gate", whereas the Greek New Testament read "Beautiful Gate".

"In the earliest Greek New Testament, the word for 'beautiful' is oraia. When Jerome translated the New Testament into Latin in the 4th Century he changed the Greek oraia into the similar sounding Latin aurea, rather than to the Latin word for 'beautiful.' So the Latin Vulgate text read 'Golden Gate' instead of 'Beautiful Gate.'" (BAR, Jan/Feb 1983, p.27)

It is plain the Golden Gate holds special significance for Muslims, Christians and Jews. During the Fatimid period stretching from 969 - 1099 AD, Paltiel, a Jewish doctor, secured the right for Jews to pray at the Golden Gate. During the Crusader years between 1131 - 1142 AD a procession was led through the Golden Gate every July 15 to commemorate the Emperor Heraclius entrance in 630 AD. This ceremony was known as the Elevation of the Holy Cross.

The Elevation of the Holy Cross celebrated the return of the True Cross to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre by Heraclius. Supposedly the two gates of the Golden Gate align precisely with the tomb of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The Crusaders opened the Golden Gate twice a year. Once for the ceremony of the Elevation of the Holy Cross, and the second time being to celebrate Easter and Christ's Triumphal Entry through the East Gate. Dead Crusaders were buried in the nearby Cemetery of the Lion, ironically alongside Muslim warriors.

After the Crusader defeat by Saladin in 1187 AD the Golden Gate was closed. Suleiman then sealed it shut some two and half centuries later. Today, access to the gate remains restricted. However, the Golden Gate remains as one of the most interesting and mysterious of the gates of Jerusalem, with still more secrets left to be uncovered.

HERODS GATE / FLOWERS GATE

Herods Gate was named so because it was once believed to have led to a structure erroneously identified by Christians as king Herod's Palace. The Jewish and Muslims know the gate as the Flower Gate. This name derives from the floral designs in its architecture. It is located in the northern wall, to the east of the Damascus Gate. Herods Gate leads into the Muslim Quarter and is one of the newest gates of Jerusalem.

The gate as it stands today was built in 1875. During the years of Suleiman it was a small wicket opening, hardly a gate at all. Its main purpose, pre-1875, was to relieve the flow of traffic in the northern part of the city. During construction in 1875 the gate was closed. Herods Gate was built with an internal L-shaped structure, like many of the other gates of Jerusalem. It sits 755 meters above sea-level.

Other names include Sha-ar Haprahim, the Hebrew equivalent of the Flower Gate. It is also known as the Sheep Gate. This appellation stems from the weekly sheep market which used to be held in the plaza outside the gate. The Muslims called it Bab a-Sahairad, or the Cemetery Gate. This name takes its root from the Moslem Cemetery which rests outside the modern gate on a nearby hilltop.

The area has long been associated with the weakest part of Jerusalem's defenses. The great Crusader Godfrey of Bouillon exploited the weakest part of the Muslim defense just east of Herods Gate during the Crusader victory in 1099.

In 1998 excavations near the eastern parts of the Flower Gate uncovered 9 archaeological layers. Structures were found dating back to the Second Temple Period of Herodian Jerusalem. An intact segment of a Roman-Byzantine era wall was also uncovered. Though the gate today is a newer gate, the wicket opening and surrounding walls reach back to at least the time of Herod, including the time period of Jesus in Jerusalem.

THE LIONS GATE

The Lions Gate is the eastern entrance into the Old City of Jerusalem. This gate, like many of the gates of Jerusalem, was built by the Ottomans in 1538-39 AD along the same stretch of walls as the Golden Gate. As mentioned above, the Ottomans also sealed the Golden Gate shut. The Lions Gate also faces the Kidron Valley and Mount of Olives.

The gate was originally built with an L-shaped structure, similar to the other Ottoman gates of Jerusalem. However, this L-shaped structure was later altered in order to allow vehicle access. The gate was tabbed St. Stephen's Gate as well, though the Damascus Gate is the likeliest site of Stephen's martyrdom.

Other names of the Lions Gate include The Gate of Jehoshafat, in Arabic Bab sitt Miriam, the Gate of the Tribes, and St. Anna's Gate. Muslim tradition holds that the virgin Mary was born inside the gatehouse. Hence the name Bab sitt Miriam, which translates in English as The Gate of Mary. As one enters the gate, the road to St. Anna is on the right, thus the name St. Anna's Gate.

In Hebrew the gate is called Sha'ar Ha'araiot, which also translates as the Gate of the Lions. The Lion is the symbol of Jerusalem. In Genesis 49:9 Jacob compares his son Judah to a lion. The Tribe of Judah became the royal tribe of Jerusalem with the ascension of David to the throne ca 1000 B.C. Thus, the lion became the symbol for the tribe of Judah, and eventually all of Jerusalem. Jerusalem was the Southern Kingdom's capital city.

Four lions decorate the facade of the gate lending the gate its name. These lions were said to have been built by Suleiman under the influence of a dream. The legend goes that Suleiman had desired to punish the Jews of Jerusalem. However, he had a dream in which he was devoured by lions, thus his mind was swayed. Instead, he built the Lions Gate adding the lions to commemorate the occasion.

Yet another legend credits the lions as being built to honor the Mameluke Sultan Baibars. Baibars was known as "The Lion of Egypt and Syria". In the years spanning 1223 - 1277 AD Baibars defeated the Crusaders and the Mongols enroute to conquering all of the Middle East. Still others claim the lions are not lions at all, but rather leopards. Some claim them to be panthers. As with just about everything in Jerusalem, agreement is hard to come by.

As one enters The Lions Gate he finds himself on Lions Gate Road. The gate also leads to the Via Dolorosa. The northern edge of the Temple Mount is on the left hand side, and the road to St. Anna's is on the right. The Pools of Bethesda are also nearby. Here the apostle John portrayed Jesus as healing a paralytic man. On Easter the Christians set out in a procession from the Lions Gate along the Via Dolorosa.

During the Six Day War of 1967 Israeli paratroopers from the 55th Paratrooper Brigade entered the city through the Lions Gate. Simultaneously, Israeli forces flooded through the other gates of Jerusalem as they all converged on the Western Wall. The Old City of Jerusalem was back in Israelite hands and the gates of Jerusalem were now under full Jewish control.

THE GATES OF JERUSALEM

THE DUNG GATE

Of all the gates of Jerusalem, unquestionably the most interesting name belongs to the Dung Gate, and for obvious reasons. The Dung Gate is the smallest of the gates of Jerusalem, possessing the lowest archway and built into the south walls. The present gate was built by Suleiman, along with most of the other gates of Jerusalem, around 1538 AD. The Dung Gate only allows foot traffic.

It derives its name from the fact that refuse and ash were escorted out of the city through this gate and dumped in the Hinnom Valley. The Dung Gate was a gate for trash from not only the Old City but the Temple Mount as well. In fact, the Dung Gate is the closest gate to the Western Wall. Today it stands as the main entrance to the Western Wall.

Other names of the gate include the Gate of Silwan, after the nearby Silwani village and its villagers that regularly use the gate. The Dung Gate has also been called The Gate of Moors, after the 16th century North African immigrant neighborhood located next to the gate. It has also been called the Mograbi Gate after the Mograbi-Arab Quarter nearby.

A distinctive feature of the Dung Gate are the two triangles engraved in the stone artwork. The Gate is also topped by an engraved flower. The modern day Dung Gate faces the Kidron Valley close to the Gihon Spring. The original Dung Gate existed also on the south walls, however closer to the Kidron Valley than the present day gate.

An Islamic tradition from around 638 AD claims the name originated during the Omar's conquest, when trash and refuse from the city were removed through the gate. However, Jewish traditions from as early as the second century AD and before attest to the use of the Dung Gate to remove trash and Temple ash from the Old City.

The Dung Gate has been in use since the First Temple Period, during the days of king Solomon in the tenth century B.C. The First Temple Dung Gate was southeast of the current gate, on the walls of the City of David. This makes the Dung Gate the oldest of the gates of Jerusalem still in use, though in a slightly modified location. Nehemiah makes an interesting comment on the Dung Gate in Nehemiah 2:13.

"So I went out at night by the Valley Gate in the direction of the Dragon's Well and on to the Refuse Gate, inspecting the walls of Jerusalem which were broken down and its gates which were consumed by fire."

The Refuse Gate literally translates as Gate of Ash-heaps. Ash from the Temple incense was collected and eventually thrown away. What is interesting is that the gate was in a state of disrepair. Thus, things had not been touched since the destruction of the First Temple by the Babylonians in 586 B.C. The Dung Gate was rebuilt by Nehemiah.

During the days of Nehemiah the Dung Gate was repaired by an individual named Malchijah, the son of Rechab. His exploit is recorded in Nehemiah 3:14.

"And Malchijah the son of Rechab, the official of the district of Beth-haccherem repaired the Refuse Gate. He built and hung its doors with its bolts and its bars."

The Dung Gate during the Second Temple Period (538 B.c. - 70 AD) was located near the Siloam Pool, which provided water for the city via a network of tunnels and shafts. Trash was thrown from the Dung Gate into the Hinnom Valley below. The earlier Dung Gates of the previous two Temple periods were within close vicinity to the gate today. Each gate has been used for the same purpose - the disposal of trash and refuse from the city dumped into the Hinnom Valley below.

As mentioned with the previous gates of Jerusalem, the last two hundred or so years have witnessed a lot of conflict in Jerusalem. The Peasant Revolt took place in 1834, during the Albanian conquest which stretched the decade from 1830-1840. The Dung Gate played a significant role in the revolt. Villagers from the nearby Silwan village opened the Dung Gate for rebel forces, after showing them a hidden tunnel. The rebels pinned the Egyptian forces inside the citadel for a short, but bloody, five days.

During the 1948 War of Independence, the Jordanian army controlled the Dung Gate. They widened the gate in 1952 to allow for vehicle traffic. Today, another gate stands nearby the Dung Gate. This gate, however, was built in medieval times and is called The Tanner's Gate.

During the Six Day War of 1967 the Jerusalem Brigade smashed through the Dung Gate and the Zion Gate simultaneously and headed for the Western Wall. The other gates of Jerusalem surrounding the Old City were taken in similar fashion as Israel recaptured the Old City of Jerusalem. The Six Day War came to end with three different companies of Israeli Defense Forces converging together at the Wailing Wall. As the Israelites occupied the Old City, the Dung Gate was intentionally left unguarded, allowing many of the Jordanian soldiers that abandoned their positions to exit through the Dung Gate.

THE NEW GATE

The New Gate is one of the newer gates of Jerusalem, built in 1889 with the permission of the the Turkish Sultan Abdul Hammid II. Thus the Sultan provided its alternative name of The Gate of Hammid. The New Gate is located in the northwest corner of the city. This is the only one of the gates of Jerusalem which leads to the Christian Quarter, located immediately within.

The Gate was built to allow easy access from the many Christian monasteries outside the walls to the Christian Quarter within. Thus, the French ambassador in Turkey asked the Sultan Abdul Hammid II if he would consider building a gate to bridge the two communities. The Sultan kindly agreed, and yet another of the gates of Jerusalem surrounding the Old City was built.

The New Gate is the simplest and least adorned of the gates of Jerusalem. Its distinctive feature is found in the crenelated stonework which surrounds the arched doorway. A shield of David is also embedded in the wall of the gate. Different sources suggest a previous gate existed either where the New Gate is currently, or in the nearby vicinity. However, depending on which article or source one reads, this older gate was sealed following Saladin's capture of Jerusalem in 1187, or by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1516 AD.

In the 1920s and '30s the New Gate had a iron gate operated by the Police. It saw much action during the 1948 War of Independence. Israeli soldiers breached the Old City of Jerusalem through this gate and established a bridge-head. However, their advance was short-lived, as the Jordanian and Arab forces forced their retreat back through the New Gate.

As the Old City remained in Jordanian control after 1948 the gate found itself the border between Jordan and Israel, called No Man's Land. The Jordanians closed the gate, and it remained closed until the Six Day War in 1967. Today, the New Gate is maintained by the Israeli Antiquities Authority. The land nearby and surrounding the gate is owned by the Latin Patriarchs and the Franciscan Order.

THE HULDAH GATES / THE DOUBLE & TRIPLE GATES

The Huldah Gates of Jerusalem consist of a set of two separate gates, both located in the southern wall of the Old City of Jerusalem. Both of these gates are now sealed shut. The exact date of construction is unknown, however The Triple Gate believed to have originated during the Herodian period. The western gate is a double-arched gateway called The Double Gate. The eastern gate is a triple-arched gateway named The Triple Gate.

The origin of the name Huldah is debated. It comes from the Mishnah's description of the Temple Mount, yet from where or who the Mishnah took it remains a debate. Most scholars agree the term Huldah in the Mishnah describes the sanctified area of the Temple Mount during the Hasmonean period. However, the etymology of the name is a mystery. The most interesting opinion amongst scholars is that the name derives from the First Temple period prophetess, Huldah. II Kings 22:14-20 describes her presence on the Temple Mount. Verse 14 speaks of her residence in Jerusalem.

"So Hilkiah the priest, Ahikam, Achbor, Shaphan, and Asaiah went to Huldah the prophetess, the wife of Shallum the son of Tikvah, the son of Harhas, keeper of the wardrobe (now she lived in Jerusalem in the Second Quarter) and they spoke to her."

Some believe Huldah held court in the area near the Huldah Gates, hence the name, and in fact many place her tomb nearby as well.

The Triple Gate pre-dates the Ottoman period, and thus the gates of Jerusalem built by the Ottomans. However, the exact date of its construction, as stated above, is unknown. Many believe the gate originates from the Herodian period of ancient Jerusalem. It is located on the south wall and possesses three arches. The Triple Gate is one of four gates of Jerusalem which is sealed shut.

Though stated above that The Double Gate is part of what is known as the Huldah Gates, its date of construction is unknown. Some sources may suggest it was constructed during Herodian Jerusalem, however, evidence exists which clearly states otherwise. A piece of stone used in the construction of The Double Gate, located on the top part above the gate, contained an inscription to the Roman Emperor Titus.

As stated previously in the article, stones were often taken from existing buildings and used in construction of other buildings, gates, etc. A stone from Hadrian's era was used in the construction of The Double Gate, which explains the upside-down inscription to Titus. Montefiore suggested that al-Malik and his son built The Double Gate to allow access to the Temple Mount from the south.

The Double Gate, according to Montefiore, matches the Golden Gate in style and elegance. The Double Gate, too, is one of the sealed gates of Jerusalem.

CONCLUSION

Though other gates of Jerusalem exist, and have existed in the past, these are the primary gates of Jerusalem in existence and use today. The Old City of Jerusalem has been constantly evolving and changing since before the days of king David. Abraham encountered the mysterious priest-king Melchizedek in, or just outside, the ancient town of Salem.

Wars, sieges, destruction and rebuilding have changed the face and landscape around Jerusalem numerous times. Trash and debris collected over the millennia have filled in many of the valleys that once divided and defined the city. However, since the Ottomans of the sixteenth century, these primary gates of Jerusalem have remained unchanged. As has been shown as well, it is likely these gates were built on prior gates, perhaps even dating back to the times of Solomon, and later Nehemiah. Mysteries remain to be discovered in this holiest of city. These mysteries, for the time, remained guarded by the famous gates of Jerusalem.


Area History

Friday July 19, 1805, the Lewis and Clark expedition passed through the area naming the canyon the “Gates of the Rocky Mountains”.

“The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition”

(Lewis) Friday July 19, 1805

Volume 4

Gary E. Moulton, Editor

The Musquetoes are very troublesome to us as usual. this morning we set out early and proceeded on very well tho’ the water appears to encrease in volocity as we advance. the current has been strong all day and obstructed with some rapids, tho’ these are but little broken by rocks and are perfectly safe. the river deep and from 100 to 150 yds. wide. i walked along shore today and killed an Antelope. whever we get a view of the lofty summits of the mountains the snow presents itself, altho’ we are almost suffocated in this confined vally with heat. the pine cedar and balsum fir grow on the mountains in irregular assemleages or spots mostly high up on their sides and summits.this evening we entered much the most remarkable clifts that we have yet seen.

These clifts rise from the waters edge on either side perpendicularly to the hight of 1200 feet. every object here wears a dark and gloomy aspect. the tow(er)ing and projecting rocks in many places seem ready to tumble on us. the river appears to have forced it’s way through this immence body of solid rock for the distance of 5 ¾ miles and where it makes it’s exit below has thrown on either side vast collumns of rocks mountains high. the river appears to have woarn a passage just the width of it’s channel or 150 yds. it is deep from side to side nor is ther in the 1st 3 miles of this distance a spot except one of a few yards in extent on which a man could rest the soal of his foot. several fine springs burst out at the waters edge from the interstices of the rocks. it happens fortunately that altho’ the current is strong it is not so much so but what it may be overcome with the oars for there is hear no possibility of using the cord or Setting pole. it was late in the evening before I entered this place and was obliged to continue my rout untill sometime after dark before I found a place suffieciently large to encamp my small party at length such an one occurred on the lard. side where we found plenty of lightwood and pichpine. this rock is a black grannite below and appears to be of a much lighter colour above and from the fragments I take it to be flint of a yelloish brown and light creemcolourd yellow.— from the singular appearance of this place I called it the gates of the rocky mountains.

The Mann Gulch Fire

Contact Information

History

“The Mann Gulch fire was spotted at 12:25 p.m. on August 5, 1949, a very hot and windy day. The fire was in the Gates of the Mountains Wild Area (now the Gates of the Mountains Wilderness) just east of the Missouri river, 20 miles north of Helena, MT. Temperatures that day reached 97 degrees in Helena. The fire started near the top of the ridge between Mann Gulch and Meriwether Canyon. Mann Gulch is a minor drainage, leading into the Missouri River from the east. It is funnel shaped, narrowing to a width of ¼ mile at the river. The highest flanking ridge, where the fire started, is on the south side of the drainage between Mann Gulch and Meriwether Canyon . The ridge on the north side of the drainage, where the fire overran the crew, is not as high as the ridge to the south. Vegetation on the north side of Mann gulch was mature 60-to more than 100 year old ponderosa pine. The south side was covered with 15- to 50 year old Douglas Firm mixed with mature ponderosa and some mature juniper. Fronting the river was a stand of 60- to more than 80- year old Douglas-fir… Access to this roadless area is difficult. Therefore, smokejumpers were called when the fire was discovered. One of the basic tenets of fire fighting is to reach a fire quickly. Then it can be attacked while it is still small. Smokejumpers are very effective at reaching a fire quickly because they travel by airplane and use parachutes to lane near the fire.” Mann Gulch Fire: A Race That Couldn’t Be Won by Richard C. Rothermel

“On August 5, 1949, at 1:50 p.m., Jack Nash, our loft dispatcher at Hale Field, received a smokejumper request from the Helena National Forest. The fire was believed to be a 50-man fire at the time. The order was for 25 smokejumpers. The only plane available was a DC-3 (others report is was a C-47), with a payload of 16 jumpers and gear. It was decide to send 16 jumpers immediately. Fred Stillings, our air operations officer, requested that I go along as spotter and bring back information on the fire. We were instructed to land at the Helena airport if we could not jump, so our crew cold be used as overhead on the fire. Fred Brauer, our project foreman, go the crew together, and the squad leaders on duty loaded jumpgear and equipment on the plane.

We took off from Hale Filed at 2:30 p.m. with the following crew: R. Wagoner dodge as foeman, William Hellman as squad leader, and jumpers Robert Bennett, Eldon Diettert, Philip McVey, David Navon, Leonard Piper, Stanley Reba, Marvin Sherman, Joseph Sylvia, Henry Thol, Jr., Newrton Thompson, Silas Thompson, robert Sallee, Walt Rumsey and Merle Stratton…

As I was helping Diettert on with his gear, he mentioned that this was his 19th birthday. He had been called away from a birthday dinner at home.” Trimotor and Trail by Earl Cooley

“At 3:35 p.m., after dropping colored streamers to determine how wind speed and direction would effect the drift of the men and cargo parachutes, the first group of four men jump from the C-47. As is custom with smokejumpers, crew foreman Wag dodge is the first out of the plane. The pilot takes the C-47 around in a large lazy circle and the next group of four men jump into the head of the gulch. He makes another round, heads down gulch and four more smokejumpers step from the plane. Another turn and the last group of three men step out into space.

Now, on a routine drop of men and supplies, at his point the pilot would normally lose some elevation before dropping the cargo packs containing the hand tools, water, food, radio, first aid kits and other supplies. The reason for the low altitude drop is the cargo chutes are uncontrolled and making the drop from tree-top level insures the supplies will come down reasonable near the jumpers. But perhaps as an inkling of things to come, the air in Mann Gulch has become turbulent, too, and Huber is force to maintain the same altitude from which he has just dropped the smokejumpers…

All the cargo is dropped by 4:08 p.m. The C-47 makes another two passes over Mann Gulch and at 4:12 Cooley and Nash spot the orange streamers the crew has laid out in a double “L” indicating everyone’s landed safely.” The Thirteenth Fire by Dave Turner

“Twenty –one year old Marvin Lester “Dick” Sherman stretched the leather straps of his helmet under his chin and threaded the buckles on the collar of his jump jacket. From his seat along the side of the Doug, he nervously glanced at the open door. He’d never gotten used to parachuting. “ I nearly die every time I jump,” he had once confided to his friend, Ross Middlemist, at the Lolo Ranger Station. In the doorway, Earl Colley, goggles on, sprawled on his belly peering at the ground. Every few moments he shouted instructions into his microphone to help pilot Ken Huber position the plane over the jump site. Foreman Wag Dodge crouched just inside the door above Cooley, looking back at the men. When Dodge gave the signal for the first stick to line up behind him, Marvin scrambled to his feet and bumped into Walt Rumsey, who had been sitting in the seat opposite him. David Navon and Bill Hellman stood in front of them. With

Wag Dodge the first man out, the first stick needed only three more jumpers.

“Go ahead”. Marvin gestured with his hand. “Age before beauty”.

“Any day,” Rumsey said. “I’ll save you a good seat below.”

Marvin Sherman, a shy freckle-faced kid from Darby, Montana, sat back down. He wasn’t in any hurry. In fact, he almost wished he could fly back to the base with Merle Stratton, who lay in a fetal position just outside the cockpit (air-sick)…

The third stick delivered Joe Sylvia, Marvin Sherman, Henry Thol and Silas Thompson. And the last, robert Bennett, Phil McVey and Leonard Piper.

When all had reached the ground safely, dodge laid out orange steamers in a double “L” pattern. On the next run Earl Cooley and jack Nash kicked out the cargo chutes and the freefalling gear. The Doug, now lightened of its burden, circled one last time to check for a distress signal before heading back to Missoula at about twice the speed it had arrived. “It’s a great day to fight fire,” someone said as the men scattered to retrieve the supplies.” “A Great Day to Fight Fire by Mark Mathews

“When at approximately four o’clock that afternoon the parachute on the radio had failed to open, the world had been immediately reduced to a two-and-a-half-mile gulch, and of this small, steep world sixty acres had been occupied by fire. Now, a little less than two hours later, the world was drastically reduced from that-to the 150 yards between Smokejumpers and the fire that in minutes would catch up to them, to the roar below them that was all there was left of the bottom of the gulch, and to the head of the gulch that at the moment was smoke about to roar….(Ranger) Jansson walked up the bottom of Mann Gulch for almost half a mile, noting that the fire was picking up momentum and still throwing smoke over his head to the north side of the gulch where farther up Dodge had rejoined his crew and was now leading them toward the river. Then right behind Jansson at the bottom of the gulch a spot fire flowered. Then several more flowered just below the main fire. Then a few tossed themselves as bouquets across the gulch, grew rapidly into each other’s flames, and became a garden of wildfire.

What the ranger was about to see was the beginning of the blowup. Seemingly without relation to reality or to the workings of the imagination, the flowers that had grown into a garden distended themselves into an enormous light bulb and a great mixed metaphor. Flowers and light bulbs don’t seem to mix, but the light bulb of the mind strung itself inside with the filaments of flame and flowers, bloated and rounded itself at its top with gases, then swirled upgulch to meet the Smokejumpers trying to escape downgulch. In a few minutes they met. Then only a few minutes later the blowup passed out of the gulch, blew its fuse, and left a world that is still burned out.”…

“Although Jansson thought he had put out of mind the possibility that the jumpers or anything human besides himself could be in Mann Gulch, he began to hear metallic noises that sounded like men working. That’s the sound of flames heard by those alive after the flames go by. It is the thinking of those living who think they can hear the dead men still at work….

“In this story of the outside world and the inside world with the fire between, the outside world of little screwups recedes now for a few hours to be taken over by the inside world of blowups, this time by a colossal blowup but shaped by the little screwups that fitted together tighter and tighter until all became one and the same thing-the fateful blowup. ..

This story some time ago left the inside world at its very center-Dodge had come out of th timber ahead of his crew, with the fire just behind. He saw that in front was high dry grass that would burn very fast, saw for the first time the top of the ridge at what he judged to be about two hundred yards above, put tow and two together and decided that he and his crew couldn’t make the two hundred yards, and almost instantly invented what was to become known as the “escape fire” by lighting a patch of bunch grass with a gofer match. In so doing, he started an argument that would remain hot long after the fire.” “Young Men and Fire” Norman Maclean

On January 16, 2008 there will be a meeting of the USFS, National Smokejumpers Association, local land owners, Dave Turner, and the management of the Gates of the Mountains. The forest service is preparing a historic preservation plan to guide the protection and management of the Mann Gulch Wildfire Historic District. Right now anyone can visit Mann Gulch but the trail from Meriwether to Mann recently burned so will be difficult to use. In the past we have provide transportation of small groups to the bottom of Mann Gulch by small boat for a reasonable fee. We have also provided access to large groups using the tour boats. If you wish to visit Mann Gulch e-mail or call me. Tim Crawford, Manger


The South Gate at Gla - History

Building History

Firestone Tire and Rubber Company's founder, Harvey S. Firestone (1868-1938), officially opened this factory in late 1928, although construction was actually completed on 06/15/1928 Firestone was headquartered in Akron, OH, but operated the South Gate plant to produce tires between 3.5-18 inches in diameter (tires larger than 18 inches were produced in Akron.) In addition to these manufacturing plants, Firestone also had facilities in Liberia and Singapore to produce raw rubber for export. In 1936, General Motors built one of its automobile assembly plants here, providing the City of South Gate with a sizable tax base.

Writing in Los Angeles Magazine, historian Chris Nichols said of the Firestone Factory: "The tiny community southeast of Downtown was mostly agriculture at the time and Firestone found 40 acres of beanfield to house his new manufacturing plant. Architects Curlett and Beelman created a spectacular four-story Italianate complex, with its own power plant and gorgeous polychrome murals by Gladding McBean depicting the tire and rubber-making process. A year after the plant opened in 1928 it doubled in size. By 1954, when they added the Corporal guided missile to their offerings, the plant was nearly a million square feet. The town grew around Firestone, they named the main boulevard through town after Harvey, and Los Angeles became the number one tire market in the country." (See Chris Nichols, Los Angeles Magazine.com, "DispL.A. Case #52: L.A.’s First Firestone Tire," published 03/01/2013, accessed 10/01/2018.)

Building Notes

The South Gate Firestone complex occupied 40 acres, including the factory, administration building and a power plant.

Three large additions were made to the factory during the 1920s-1940s, giving the plant 963,682 square feet by World War II.


Navy Investigation

Find Nezumi between Island of Rare Animals and another small island in the south.

Once you get there you will be transported to an instance where you will have to survive Nezumi's ambush.

Defeating Nezumi and his sailors will reward you with materials and a Ship Technology Project III, with which you will be able to upgrade your ship to level 3.


Watch the video: Διαμαρτυρία υγειονομικών στην πύλη του νοσοκομείου Καρδίτσας