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Daughter of Cronos and Rhea, Demeter was one of the twelve Olympic Divinities, sister of Zeus, Hera, Hestia, Poseidon and Hades.
Successor in third generation of the Mother and Earth Goddess (First it had been Gea, and second Rea), it represented the Earth in its fertile aspect, protector of agriculture and civilization; confused in its attributions with the Goddess Cybele that they worshiped in Asia Minor.
He was a peaceful deity although he condemned Erisicton to unquenchable hunger. Yes, it produced a catastrophe making the land barren when it looked for its daughter Persephone.
Demeter and the abduction of Persephone
This one was playing when the earth opened and appeared Hades, the God of the Underworld, who kidnapped her (see Myth the Rapture of Persephone). Not knowing what had happened to his daughter, Demeter began a desperate search until she was informed by Helios of what happened.
He tried to rescue his daughter, but Persephone, having eaten grains from a pomegranate, could not definitively leave Hell.
They then reached an agreement with Hades whereby a third of the year he would live in the Underworld, another third with his mother, and the rest on Olympus.
As well as Demeter represents the fertile land, Persephone represents the moment when the seed sprouts and leaves the underworld (spring) and when he sows it and the seed is buried (autumn).
Demeter presided over the mysteries of Eleusis, which had an exoteric part related to harvests, and an esoteric part related to death and resurrection of which nothing is known.
He had with Zeus the Goddess Cora or Persephone and with Poseidon the horse Arion. The Goddess loved the mortal Iasion who was struck down by Zeus.
Taught the Triptolemus hero the mysteries of the sowing and harvesting of wheat and barley, providing him with a winged chariot so that he could reveal them in distant lands.
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