18 November 1943

18 November 1943


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18 November 1943

War in the Air

Eighth Air Force Heavy Bomber Mission No. 132: 102 aircraft sen to attack the airfield at Oslo/ Kjeller and industrial areas at Oslo. Nine aircraft lost.

Heaviest RAF Bomber Command raid over Germany to date sees 350 4,000lb bombs dropped on Berlin

War at Sea

German submarine U-718 sunk after a collision with U-476 off Bornholm



[Letter from Cornelia Yerkes, November 18, 1943?]

Letter from WASP Cornelia Yerkes discussing flying across Texas, including issues with weather, lodging, and related events. Written on Alberts Hotels stationary.

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This letter is part of the collection entitled: National WASP WWII Museum and was provided by the National WASP WWII Museum to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. More information about this letter can be viewed below.

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National WASP WWII Museum

Located at Avenger Field in Nolan County Texas, the WASP World War II Museum commits to preserving the legacy of the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) of WWII. As a teaching museum, it features archives, exhibits, and oral histories that record a significant period in history when women dared to break barriers and contribute to victory.

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  • Main Title: [Letter from Cornelia Yerkes, November 18, 1943?]
  • Series Title:Kafka Collection

Description

Letter from WASP Cornelia Yerkes discussing flying across Texas, including issues with weather, lodging, and related events. Written on Alberts Hotels stationary.

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  • Accession or Local Control No: WASP_05-2016-014-456
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metapth1296909

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This letter is part of the following collections of related materials.

National WASP WWII Museum

Bringing the history of the Women Airforce Service Pilots to life, these archives represent the role of the flight school in training women pilots to fly military planes and show how WASPs responded socially and professionally to new challenges brought by war. Included are financial documents, photographs, scrapbooks, correspondence, pilots' logs, and flight manuals.

Abilene Library Consortium

Featuring thousands of newspapers, photographs, sound recordings, technical drawings, and much more, this diverse collection tells the story of Texas through the preservation and exhibition of valuable resources.

World War Two Collection

These materials focus on WWII and the immediate postwar period of the late 1940s. In addition to materials created during the time period, materials may include modern studies and commemorative works about the era.


Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC09611.158 Author/Creator: Great Lakes Naval Training Station Place Written: Great Lakes, Illinois Type: Newspaper Date: 19 November 1943 Pagination: 8 p. : envelope 43.2 x 29 cm.

One newspaper entitled "Great Lakes Bulletin" dated November 19, 1943. The newspaper covers events at the Great Lakes Naval Training Station, comics, ads, and information on insurance. On the first page there is a menu for a Thanksgiving meal that will be served a list of educational classes being offered free of charge for the recruits a report on the sit-up championship and a picture of Company 1364 and Company 1388. Both companies are in the "Hall of Fame" for having received the "Rooster Award" multiple times. Company 1364 received the award 3 times, and Company 1388 received it five times. There is also an article that concerns a new cream used to prevent flash burns.

Flash burns occurred when the heat and light of an explosion was intense enough to burn exposed skin. The anti-flash burn cream was applied to skin to mimic a layer of clothing and protect from the flash burn.

Copyright Notice The copyright law of the United States (title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. One of these specific conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be “used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research.” If a user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of “fair use,” that user may be liable for copyright infringement. This institution reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying order if, in its judgment, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of copyright law.

(646) 366-9666

Headquarters: 49 W. 45th Street 2nd Floor New York, NY 10036

Our Collection: 170 Central Park West New York, NY 10024 Located on the lower level of the New-York Historical Society


Commanders [ edit | edit source ]

  • Source of Commanders: 18th Infantry Regiment Association Η]
  • Names marked by an @ indicate actual commanders in the absence of the colonel
  • an asterisk (*) = Commanders of the 18th Battle Group
  • 1–18 = 1st Battalion, 18th Infantry 2–18 = 2d Battalion, 18th Infantry
  • and so forth. (1) following a name indicates future commander of 1st Infantry Division
    1861–1869 1869–1886
  1. John E. Yard (died in command) 1886–1889 1889–1894
  2. Daingerfield Parker 1894–1896
  3. David D. Van Valzah 1896–1899
  4. Gilbert S. Carpenter 1899-1899
  5. James M. J. Sanno 1899–1903
  6. Charles B. Hall 1903–1907
  7. Thomas F. Davis 1907–1913
  8. James S. Rogers 1913–1916
  9. Howard F. Glenn 1916–1916
  10. Samuel E. Smiley 1916–1917
  11. James W. McAndrew 1917–1917
  12. Ulysses G. McAlexander 1917–1917
  13. James W. McAndrew 1917–1917
  14. Ulysses G. McAlexander 1917–1917
  15. Frank Parker (1) (BRO – 18 Oct – 20 Nov 1918)
  16. Charles A. Hunt 1918–1919
  17. Stateside Duty between World War I and World War II 1919–1941
  18. Orrin R. Wolfe 1919–1923
  19. John J. Bradley (Bradlay) 1923–1927
  20. Charles F. Humphrey, Jr. 1927–1929
  21. William B. Graham 1929–1931
  22. John N. Hughes 1931-1931
  23. Claude H. Miller 1931–1933
  24. Noble J. Wiley 1933–1935
  25. Royden E. Beebe(1–18 = MAJ "Cappy" Wells) 1935–1937
  26. Ray W. Brabsen 1937–1939
  27. Eley P Denson 1939–1941
  • 1–18 = LTC John N. Hopkins
  • 2–18 = LTC Charles W. Yuill
  • 3–18 = LTC John C. Blizzard, Jr.
  1. Edward G. Sherburn 1941–1942
  2. Frank U. Greer 1 Jul 1942 – 23 May 1943
  • 1–18 = MAJ Richard C. Parker
  • 2–18 = MAJ John L. Powers
  • 3–18 = LTC Courtney P. Brown
  • 1–18 = LTC Robert H. York
  • 1–18 = LTC Joseph W. Sisson, III
  • 2–18 = LTC Ben Sternberg
  • 3–18 = LTC Joseph W. Sisson, III
  1. George A. Smith, Jr. 23 May 1943 – 25 Feb 1945
  • 1–18 = LTC Henry G. Learnard, Jr.
  • 2–18 = LTC John Williamson
  • 3–18 = LTC Courtney P. Brown
  • 3–18 = LTC Elisha O. Peckham
  1. John Williamson 25 Feb 1945 – Oct 1945
  • 1–18 = LTC Henry G. Learnard Feb 1945 – Oct 1945
  • 2–18 = LTC Henry Middleworth June 1945 – Aug 1945
  • 3–18 = LTC George Pecham June 1945 – July 1945
  • 3–18 = MAJ Frank Dupree July 1945 – Aug 1945
  1. Henry G. Learnard, Jr Oct 1945 – Mar 1946
  • 1–18 = CPT John Maggason Oct 1945 – Dec 1945
  • 1–18 = CPT George K. Maertins Dec 1945 – June 1946 (Jan 1946?)
  • 1–18 = CPT William Coshun Jan 1946 – Feb 1946
  • 1–18 = MAJ James D. Green Feb 1946 – Apr 1946
  • 2–18 = MAJ Thomas Murphy Aug 1945 – Sep 1945
  • 2–18 = LTC George B. Pickett Sep 1945 – Nov 1945
  • 2–18 = LTC Rich G. Williams 21—28 Nov 1945
  • 2–18 = LTC Ernest C. Peters Nov 1945 – Dec 1945
  • 2–18 = MAJ Jos W. Nelson Dec 1945 – Feb 1946
  • 3–18 = MAJ Keith P. Fabianich Aug 1945 – Nov 1945
  • 3–18 = LTC Rich G. Williams Dec 1945 – Jan 1946
  • 3–18 = CPT William Coshun Jan 1946 – Mar 1946
  1. James S. Luckett Mar–Aug 1946
  • 1–18 = CPT William Coshun Apr 1946 – May 1946
  • 1–18 = LTC Herman O. Overman May 1946 – Oct 1946
  • 2–18 = LTC George B. Pickett Feb 1946 – Nov 1946
  • 3–18 = MAJ Keith P. Fabianich Mar 46 – June 46
  • 3–18 = LTC Rich G. Williams June 1946 – Sep 1946
  1. LTC Gerald C. Kelleher Aug 1946
  2. Sterling A. Wood Aug 1946–? 1948
  • 1–18 = LTC Gerald C. Kelleher Oct 1946--? (May 1949)
  • 2–18 = LTC James F. Skells Nov 1946--?
  • 3–18 = LTC William A. McNulty Sep 1946--?
  1. Rinaldo Van Brunt (May) 1948–1950
  • 2–18 = LTC John G. Bennett (May) 1948–
  • 3–18 = MAJ Chester C. Arthur (May) 1948–
  • 2–18 = LTC Lloyd R. Fredenhall, Jr.(May) 1949
  • 3–18 = LTC John C. Speedie (May) 1949
  • 1–18 = LTC Joseph J. Coffey
  • 2–18 = LTC Eben F. Swift
  • 3–18 = LTC Elias C. Townsend
  1. Ralph W. Zwicker 1950–1952
  2. Benjamin F. Evans 1952–1953
  3. Eugene A. Salet 1953–(Jun) 1954
  • 1–18 = LTC Albert H. Smith, Jr. ? 1954
  • 2–18 = LTC Vincent Guerin ? 1954
  • 3–18 = LTC Arndt Mueller ? 1954
  1. George T. Calvin (Colvin) 1954 – Sep 1955
  • Gyroscope Rotations between Ft Riley and Germany (1955–1965)
  1. William A. Cunningham, III Sep 1955 – Feb 1957
  • Rotations between Ft Riley and Germany (1955–1965)
  1. William A. Cunningham, III Sep 1955 – Feb 1957
  • Frank J. Sackton Feb 1957–1958
  • Theodore H. Andrews 1958–1960
  • Glover S. Johns, Jr. 1960 – Jan 1962
  • Max V. Kirkbride Jan 1962–1963
  • Samuel M. Karrick, Jr. -Apr 1963
  • Robert L. Dickerson Apr–Sep 1963
  • William F. Malone Sep 1963 – Jan 1964

[Need list of 3rd Battalion commanders] [Need list of 4th Battalion commanders in Germany]


During this initial six-week period alone, a total of 706,183 Japanese were repatriated, over 479,000 of whom were civilians. Repatriation efforts would take years, but it is estimated a total of some 3,110,000 military and 3,180,000 civilian Japanese were repatriated (1976 figures). Sasebo was one of the 18 repat ports in Japan where they disembarked, accounting for around 1.4 million Japanese.

Final Repatriation Report, Nov. 1945 - excerpts from Fifth Marine Division, Occupation of Japan, 1945-09-22 to 1945-11-30 Part 2 (NOTE: The full document, Parts 1 and 2, contains detailed data on names of repat ships and ports of entry in the Kyushu area. Images to the left are from Part 1.)


18 November 1943 - History


Table of
U.S. Divisions
and their
Regiments and Field Artillery & Engineer Battalions
and other Supporting Units

Followed by illustrations of the shoulder patches for every Division.
INSIGNIA Table of illustrations of shoulder patches for every Division.
DUI Pins Examples of Distinguishing Unit Insigina Pins worn by units serving in Italy.
This table lists the units within every US Infantry Division & Airborne Division. The table lists the Infantry Regiments and Field Artillery Battalions and the Engineer Combat Battalion associated with each. This table is useful for quick reference, as there are several websites that has details on individual divisions.
In 1940, the US Army adopted the "triangular division" which meant that each Division consited of 3 regiments, which in turn consited of 3 battalions. Each division had 3 artillery battalions but this was later increased to four. The Medical, Signals, and Quartermaster Companies were smaller support units and are not listed in this table. However the divisions followed the same general rule in their numbering of these support units. There were many exceptions to this rule.

The general rule was that the support units of a division consisted of a Reconnaissance Troop, a Signal Company and a Quartermaster Company that were identified with the same number as the Division. The Medical Battalion generally used the same number as the Engineer Battalion, as I have listed in the table. The Ordnance Company identification was the same as the Division number with a "7" prefix.
Example: Supporting units of 88 Division were: 313 Engineer Btn, 313 Medical Btn,
88 Recon Troop, 88 Quartermaster Co., and 788 Ordnance Co.

How to use the Table: If you know a regiment number and are searching to find its parent Division, you can look it up in the Table or use the Search feature of your web browser. After using this table myself for several months, I have not found any errors. I don't list all the Armored or Airborne divisions only the ones that served in Italy. Some artillery or engineer units may be missing as they were independant and reported to a higher command.

For a similiar list of the divisions of the German Army in Italy, late 1944 : Table of German Divisions.


Divisions marked in Red are those that served in the Italian Campaign, Sept 1943- 1945 (excludes Sicily).
Divisions in Green served in Western Europe . All others saw service in the Pacific, Philippines or
as training or occupation forces.

DIVISION INFANTRY REGIMENTS FIELD ARTILLERY BTNS ENGR
1st "Big Red One" 16 18 26 5 7 32 33 1
2nd "Indian Head" 9 23 38 12 15 37 38 2
3rd "Rock ofthe Marne" 7 15 30 9 10 39 41 10
4th "Ivy Division" 8 12 22 20 29 42 44 4
5th "Red Diamond" 2 10 11 19 21 46 50 7
6th "Sight-Seein' Sixth" 1 20 63 1 51 53 80 6
7th "Bayonet" 17 32 184 31 48 51 53 13
8th "Pathfinders" 13 28 121 28 43 45 56 12
9th "Octofoil" 39 47 60 26 34 60 84 15
10th "Mountain" 85 86 87 604 605 616 - 126
11th Airborne 187 188 511 457 472 674 675 127
13th Airborne 326 515 517 458 460 676 677 129
17th Airborne 194 507 513 464 466 680 681 139
23rd "America" 132 164 182 245 245 247 221 57
24th "Victory" 19 21 34 11 13 52 63 3
25th "Tropic Lightning" 27 35 161 8 64 89 90 65
26th "Yankee" 101 104 328 101 102 180 263 101
27th "NewYork" 105 106 165 104 105 106 249 102
28th "Keystone" 109 110 112 107 108 109 229 103
29th "BIue&Gray" 115 116 175 110 111 224 227 121
30th "Old Hickory" 117 119 120 113 118 197 230 105
31st "Dixie" 124 155 167 114 116 117 149 106
32nd "Red Arrow" 126 127 128 120 121 126 129 114
33rd "Illinois" 123 130 136 122 123 124 210 108
34th "Red Bull" 133 135 168 125 151 175 185 109
35th "Santa Fe" 134 137 320 127 161 216 219 60
36th "Texas" 141 142 143 131 132 133 - 155
37th "Buckeye" 129 145 148 6 135 136 - 140
38th "Cyclone" 149 151 152 138 139 150 - 163
39th "Delta" This division was not activated during WW II. See note + .
40th "Sunshine" 108 160 185 143 164 213 222 115
41st "Sunset" 162 163 186 146 167 205 218 116
42nd "Rainbow" 222 232 242 232 292 402 542 142
43rd "Winged Victory" 103 169 172 103 152 169 192 118
44th Division 71 114 324 156 157 217 220 63
45th "Thunderbird" 157 179 180 158 160 171 189 120
63rd "Blood & Fire" 253 254 255 718 861 862 863 263
65th "Battle-Axe" 259 260 261 720 867 868 869 265
66th "Black Panther" 262 263 264 721 870 871 872 266
69th "Fighting 69th" 271 272 273 724 879 880 881 269
70th "Trailblazers" 274 275 276 725 882 883 884 270
71st "Red Circle" 5 14 66 564 607 608 609 271
75th Division 289 290 291 730 897 898 899 275
76th "Onaway" 304 385 417 302 355 364 901 301
77th "Statue of Liberty" 305 306 307 304 305 306 902 302
78th "Lightning" 309 310 311 307 308 309 903 303
79th "Cross of Lorraine" 313 314 315 310 311 312 904 304
80th "Blue Ridge" 317 318 319 313 314 315 905 305
8lst "Wildcat" 321 322 323 316 317 318 906 306
82nd "All American" 325 504 505 319 320 376 456 307
83rd "Thunderbolt" 329 330 331 322 323 324 908 308
84th "Railsplitters" 333 334 335 325 326 327 909 309
85th "Custer" 337 338 339 328 329 403 910 310
86th "Blackhawk" 341 342 343 331 332 404 911 311
87th "Golden Acorn" 345 346 347 334 335 336 912 312
88th "Blue Devil" 349 350 351 337 338 339 913 313
89th "RollingW" 353 354 355 340 341 563 914 314
90th "Tough 'Ombres" 357 358 359 343 344 345 915 315
91st "Powder River" 361 362 363 346 347 348 916 316
92nd "Buffalo" * 365 370 371 597 598 599 600 317
93rd Division 25 368 369 593 594 595 596 318
94th "Neuf-Cats" 301 302 376 301 356 390 919 319
95th "Victory" 377 378 379 358 359 360 920 320
96th "Deadeye" 381 382 383 361 362 363 921 321
97th "Trident" 303 386 387 303 365 389 922 322
98th "lriquois" 389 390 391 367 368 399 923 323
99th "Checkerboard" 393 394 395 370 371 372 924 324
100th "Century" 397 398 399 373 374 375 925 325
101st "Screaming Eagles" 327 401 502 321 377 463 907 326
102nd "Ozark" 405 406 407 379 380 381 927 327
103rd "Cactus" 409 410 411 382 383 384 928 328
104th "Timberwolf' 413 414 415 385 386 387 929 329
106th "Golden Lion" 422 423 424 589 592 591 592 81
Americal Division
1 st Allied Abn Task Fce 517 509 550 460 463 602 - 596

Normandy Invasion - Divisions that landed on the first 2 days:
1, 2, 4, 29, & 90 Infantry and 82 & 101 Airborne
Battle of Bulge - Divisions in the line on December 16:
4, 28, 83, 99, 106, & 109 Infantry & 9 Armored
Black Divisions : 92nd & 93rd Divisions were all-black divisions.

Seperate Units
Many other regiments and artillery battalions existed but were not part of any of the
organized divisions. These units were 'attached' to divisions for support. Some were
specialized, such as paratroopers(PIR) or heavy artillery or coastal artillery.
I will try to list some of these as I identify them. There were hundreds of field artillery
battalions that were attached to corps or armies---too many to list. I will try to list
the ones that served in the Italian Campaign.

503 PIR Parachute assault at Corregidor in Feb 1945.
504 PIR Originally part of 82nd Division, later detached. Salerno, Italy 1943.
507 PIR Transferred to 82nd Division. Landed at Normandy.
509 PIR Salerno & Anzio. 509th was in first airborne assault at Oran, Nov 1942.
59, 68 & 69 FA Field Artillery attached to 36th Division in Italy, Jan 1945.
980, 987, 190, 187, & 200 FA Landed at Normandy as seperate unit.
9 & 14 FA
630 CA AA
Coast Artillery units. Some Costal Artillery converted to Anti-Aircraft or Automatic Weapons units. See Reference, below.


Non-Infantry Units & Other Units in the Italian Campaign
Table of other Divisions and independent units that served in Italian Campaign , only.

DIVISION Organization

1st Armored
1 & 13 Armored Regt, 6 Armored Infantry Regt, 27, 68 & 91 Armored Field Artillery Btln, 81Recon Cavalry, 16 Armored Engineer Btln,
47 Armored Medical Btln, 123 Ordnance Maint. Btln,
141 Armored Signal Co
In July 1944, 1st Armored Divisions were re-organized into smaller battalions and was reduced from size of 14,620 to 12,078.
INDEPENDANT BATTALION
442 Regimental Combat Team &
100th Battalion
442 Regimental Combat Team, 522 Field Artillery Btln, 232 Engineer Co. The 100th Battalion was absorbed into the 442RCT as its 1st battalion.
473rd Regimental Combat Team Formed in 1945 from HQ 2nd Armored Group, 435, 434, 532 and 900 AAA Battalions
Tank Battalions Independent armored units that were assigned as support units. Tank Battalions that served in Italy :
751, 752, 756, 758(Light), 760
Tank Destroyer Battalions Independent units that were assigned as support units. Tank Destroyer Btlns that served in Italy :
679, 757, 776, 791, 804, 805, 894
91 Cavalry Recon
Squadron
An Independent cavlary unit. Not to be confused with 91st Recon Troop(Mechanized) of 91st Division.
1st Special Service Forces A joint American & Canadian commando unit comprised of 1600 men. Served from Salerno thru Anzio.
84 Chemical Battalion Best known chemical unit in Italy.

Divisional Insignia


Image Source: "Army Badges and Insignia of WW2" - Guido Rosignoli.

"Salerno to Florence: 5th Army Anti-aircraft, 9 Sept 1943 - 8 Sept 1944" booklet on the AA units.

Dept. of Army Pamphlet 672-1, "Unit Citation and Campaign Participation Credit Register", dated July 1961.

"15th Army Group History: 16 Dec 1944 - 2 May 1945", Battery Press 1989.

"The Allied Forces in Italy, 1943-45" - Guido Rosignoli.

"Army Badges and Insignia of WW2" - Guido Rosignoli.


18 November 1943 - History

Most of the dead - members of the People's Temple Christian Church - had consumed a soft drink laced with cyanide and sedatives.

However, the body of the People's Temple charismatic leader, Jim Jones, was said to have a bullet wound in the right temple, believed to be self-inflicted.

The deaths are being linked to the earlier killings of five people, including US Congressman Leo Ryan, on a nearby airstrip.

Mr Ryan had led a fact-finding mission to the church's jungle settlement - Jonestown - after allegations by relatives in the US of human rights abuses.

Last year Jim Jones and most of the 1,000 members of the People's Temple moved to Guyana from San Francisco after an investigation began into the church for tax evasion.

People who had left the organisation told the authorities of brutal beatings, murders and a mass suicide plan but were not believed.

In spite of the tax evasion allegations, Jim Jones was still widely respected for setting up a racially-mixed church which helped the disadvantaged.

Leo Ryan's delegation arrived in Jonestown on 14 November and spent three days interviewing residents.

They left hurriedly earlier on Saturday after an attempt on Mr Ryan's life, taking with them about 20 People's Temple members who wished to leave.

Delegation members told police as they were boarding planes at the airstrip a truckload of Jim Jones' guards arrived and began to shoot.

When the gunmen left five people were dead: Congressman Ryan, a reporter and cameraman from NBC, a newspaper photographer and one "defector" from the People's Temple.

A producer for NBC News, Bob Flick, survived the attack.

Mr Flick said: "Every time someone fell down wounded they would walk over and shoot them in the head with a shotgun."

It concluded there was no evidence of US government complicity as was widely alleged.

In December 1986 a church member, Larry Layton, received a life sentence for aiding and abetting the murders of those who died at the airstrip.

Layton had gone to the airstrip pretending to be a defector then produced a gun and injured two people.

The bodies of 412 people who committed suicide were never claimed by relatives - they are buried in a mass grave in Oakland, California.


18 November 1943 - History


First there was standard time

For millennia, people have measured time based on the position of the sun it was noon when the sun was highest in the sky. Sundials were used well into the Middle Ages, at which time mechanical clocks began to appear. Cities would set their town clock by measuring the position of the sun, but every city would be on a slightly different time.

The time indicated by the apparent sun on a sundial is called Apparent Solar Time, or true local time. The time shown by the fictitious sun is called Mean Solar Time, or local mean time when measured in terms of any longitudinal meridian.

[For more information about clocks, see A Walk through Time.]

Standard time begins in Britain

Britain was the first country to set the time throughout a region to one standard time. The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time, and they forced a uniform time on the country. The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828) and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903). The Great Western Railway was the first to adopt London time, in November 1840. Other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most (though not all) railways used London time. On September 22, 1847, the Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it. The transition occurred on December 1 for the L&NW, the Caledonian, and presumably other railways the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many railways as using GMT. By 1855, the vast majority of public clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands, one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13. The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition of Time) Act took effect it received the Royal Assent on August 2, 1880.

Standard time in time zones was instituted in the U.S. and Canada by the railroads on November 18, 1883. Prior to that, time of day was a local matter, and most cities and towns used some form of local solar time, maintained by a well-known clock (on a church steeple, for example, or in a jeweler's window). The new standard time system was not immediately embraced by all, however. (The train at right is a Union locomotive used during the American Civil War, photo ca. 1861-1865.)

The first man in the United States to sense the growing need for time standardization was an amateur astronomer, William Lambert, who as early as 1809 presented to Congress a recommendation for the establishment of time meridians. This was not adopted, nor was the initial suggestion of Charles Dowd of Saratoga Springs, N.Y., in 1870. Dowd revised his proposal in 1872, and it was adopted virtually unchanged by U.S. and Canadian railways eleven years later.

Detroit kept local time until 1900, when the City Council decreed that clocks should be put back 28 minutes to Central Standard Time. Half the city obeyed, while half refused. After considerable debate, the decision was rescinded and the city reverted to sun time. A derisive offer to erect a sundial in front of the city hall was referred to the Committee on Sewers. Then, in 1905, Central Standard Time was adopted by city vote.

It remained for a Canadian civil and railway engineer, Sandford Fleming, to instigate the initial effort that led to the adoption of the present time meridians in both Canada and the U.S. Time zones were first used by the railroads in 1883 to standardize their schedules. Canada's Sir Sandford Fleming (posing at left, at the driving the last spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Sandford Fleming wears the stovepipe hat and is to the left of the man with the hammer) also played a key role in the development of a worldwide system of keeping time. Trains had made the old system - where major cities and regions set clocks according to local astronomical conditions - obsolete. Fleming advocated the adoption of a standard or mean time and hourly variations from that according to established time zones. He was instrumental in convening the 1884 International Prime Meridian Conference in Washington, at which the system of international standard time - still in use today - was adopted.

Although the large railway systems in U.S. and Canada adopted standard time at noon on November 18, 1883, it was many years before such time was actually used by the people themselves.

The use of standard time gradually increased because of its obvious practical advantages for communication and travel. Standard time in time zones was established by U.S. law with the Standard Time Act of 1918, enacted on March 19. Congress adopted standard time zones based on those set up by the railroads, and gave the responsibility to make any changes in the time zones to the Interstate Commerce Commission, the only federal transportation regulatory agency at the time. When Congress created the Department of Transportation in 1966, it transferred the responsibility for the time laws to the new department.

Time zone boundaries have changed greatly since their original introduction and changes still occasionally occur. The Department of Transportation conducts rulemakings to consider requests for changes. Generally, time zone boundaries have tended to shift westward. Places on the eastern edge of a time zone can effectively move sunset an hour later (by the clock) by shifting to the time zone immediately to their east. If they do so, the boundary of that zone is locally shifted to the west the accumulation of such changes results in the long-term westward trend. The process is not inexorable, however, since the late sunrises experienced by such places during the winter may be regarded as too undesirable. Furthermore, under the law, the principal standard for deciding on a time zone change is the "convenience of commerce." Proposed time zone changes have been both approved and rejected based on this criterion, although most such proposals have been accepted.


UK Disability History Month

Currently the Equality Act 2010 defines disability as “if you have a physical or mental impairment that has a ‘substantial’ and ‘long-term’ negative effect on your ability to do normal daily activities.”

  • ‘substantial’ is more than minor or trivial,
  • ‘long-term’ means 12 months or more or likely to last 12 months or more
  • a physical or mental impairment impacts on ability to do normal day to day activities and must be judged without the impact of assistive devices, medication or treatment.

UKDHM adheres to the social model of disability in which the barriers of attitude, environment and organisation cause most of the disabilism we face. Such thinking did not exist in most of the past with individuals and their impairments held responsible for the disadvantage and worse. Disabled people experienced being seen as bewitched, evil or punished by God. Disabled people were often viewed as perpetual children incapable of adult relationships.

However, in this era of Universal Human Rights we can look back and reinterpret the mistreatment, resulting from our systematic oppression caused by negative attitudes, ignorance and barriers. Such an examination of the past allows us to recognise what must actively change for disabled people to achieve equality.

Many disabled people have an invisible/hidden impairment now and in the past. They have been not viewed as disabled people but still been mistreated. Equally because of the negativity associated with impairment, many who can pass as non-disabled have chosen not to identify, even though this has caused them many difficulties. Common amongst this large group of disabled people are those with psychosocial impairments. These include autism or attention deficit Cognitive or neurological impairments such as specific learning difficulty i.e. dyslexia, dyspraxia, or more general learning difficulties, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis or brain injury mental health impairments such as anxiety, depression, shell shock/PTSD, bipolar or schizophrenia metabolic impairments such as lupus, HIV, cancer, tuberculosis, diabetes, chronic fatigue, heart conditions, arthritis hormonal conditions or sensory issues such as hearing loss, many visual conditions or speech and communication. More than half the 13.5 million people currently identified as disabled in the UK have hidden impairments.

For millenia disabled people were often viewed as asexual, perpetual children incapable of adult relationships. More recently in the last 150 years the false science of Eugenics was ranged against us, sterilising us, segregating us in single sex institutions, denying us the right to married life and sexual relations and taking any children away from us as we were deemed not capable of being parents. The emotional pain and injustice of all this has been largely hidden from history. Within a few miles, wherever you live in the UK, there will be multiple examples to be uncovered in family trees, public records, public libraries where the records of asylums, long stay hospitals and social services can be found in archives.

Today all disabled children are entitled to Sex and Relationship Education and more confident generations of young disabled people are finding the joy of diverse sex and relationships with partners of their choice, but the lack of self-esteem that comes with a disempowering approach to disability can still cause huge harm including consent issues and abuse.

We will be looking for examples of good and bad practice in both hidden impairment and sex and relationships to add to this year’s resources.


Watch the video: Μαρτυρία Αργύρη Φερλελή, διασωθέντα από την εκτέλεση στα Καλάβρυτα