Roman Historiography: An Introduction to its Basic Aspects and Development

Roman Historiography: An Introduction to its Basic Aspects and Development


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We know the big names - Cicero, Diodorus, Caesar, Livy - but we forget how periods in Rome's history were recorded by multiple people, mostly at the same time. Many times history books were a not just a narrative but a composed book of first-hand accounts and opinions from that time period. Roman Historiography by Andreas Mehl attempts to aid the reader in understanding how exactly the Romans recorded and interpreted history. Do not let the title of the book deceive you, this book is definitely not a boring read. From conflicts to political intrigue, Mehl shows the reader the depths of what went into Roman historiography, both in the lives of the historiographers and the events surrounding them.

Book Summary

Roman Historiography is a book divided into approximately 8 different parts, with each part (or chapter) dedicated to a different time in Rome's history - from beginning to end. Mehl even puts the effort into describing the early church and the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Each chapter is divided into even smaller parts - individual authors. Mehl does an excellent job in going into detail about each author's life, how they lived and what their views of the world they lived in were. He gives a short statement at the end of each section determining whether the author's works are accurate as well as the objectivity of the author when it came to political or national conflicts. The form in which Mehl gives this information is intriguing, as much of the information about Roman historiographers are unknown or not greatly publicized.

As mentioned before, many times when we think of Roman historians we think of Cicero, Livy, Tacitus, etc., but we forget how a majority of their books were, in fact, compilations of manuscripts written by others. Mehl makes the point that while these authors made their own works, historiography was often created in antiquity through reinterpretation. He goes into very large depth explaining how exactly historiographers wrote down history and what their goal was for that history. Many "smaller" authors wrote down current events of their day or even local events, which in turn gave the "larger" authors we are familiar with today more material to put in their history books. While authors did write down history for the sake of records or literature, many historians were senators or political figures that made histories to push their own political views, or in some cases, the current ruler's point of view. Continuing on the point of genres, Mehl investigates the form of the histories written, stating how not only did histories push political ideas or record current events but were also seen as a form of entertainment. Many times histories were read publicly or passed around cities as a way to understand their recent ancestors or investigate how life was in an earlier period.

Breakdown

The topics that Mehl covers in Roman Historiography are beyond interesting. From the formation of Rome to the early church, Mehl does not shy away from dealing with issues that were within the Roman Empire and many that are still debated by historians today (ie. Caesar's Civil War). His in-depth studies of the lives of these Roman historiographers are also a topic of interest, as many times history is accepted without studying the source from whence it came. It forces the reader to figure out which Roman historiographers should be regarded as truthful or deceiving. Overall, these several topics really grab the interest of the reader as they are unusual topics.

While all these topics are interesting, it comes with a price. At points the book became very dry as going over detail after detail on one author can get tiresome. The format stays constant throughout the entirety of the book, many times with myself predicting what was going to happen next before I turned the page. This is the only negative I have found within the book, though many times if the reader ignores the format it is an interesting read.

Overall, Roman Historiography by Andreas Mehl is a book that I would highly recommend to anyone interested in reading the original histories or even any sort of ancient roman text. I enjoyed reading Roman Historiography and I know those of you who do read this book will also. This book gives the reader a comprehensive look into Roman historiography: where it came from and who wrote it. This is an excellent resource and read for those wanting to know more about the history they interact with.


Roman Historiography: an Introduction to its Basic Aspects and Development (translated by Hans-Friedrich Mueller first published 2001). Blackwell introductions to the classical world

This book originally appeared in 2001 under the title Römische Geschichtsschreibung from the W. Kohlhammer publishing house, Stuttgart. Since the German edition has not been reviewed in BMCR, the publication of the English version presents a good opportunity to make up for this lack. Significantly, this is the only volume published so far in the Blackwell Introductions to the Classical World which was not commissioned for the series and was, moreover, translated from another language. There is a huge supply of textbooks and companions on Roman historiography written by highly qualified Anglo-Saxon scholars, so the publishers’ decision to look, in this particular instance, outside the English-speaking world is remarkable. The intention was (one might guess) to provide access to another tradition of writing on Roman historians, different from the contemporary trend among British or American academics. To quote from the translator’s preface, “Mehl’s approach is not as literary [as that of Anglo-Saxon scholarship]. Politics, law, religion, Roman institutions, are integrated into the very texture of his argument. Mehl rescues more historical truth from ancient historiography than we have grown accustomed to expect from the more recent historiographical emphasis in English-language scholarship on ancient rhetoric” (ix).

Apart from the first and the last chapters, Mehl arranges his material chronologically: the archaic period is dealt with in chs. 2 and 3, the late republic in ch. 4, the Augustan times in ch. 5, the imperial period (up to the fourth century) in ch. 6, the Christian Roman empire in ch. 7 (there is some temporal overlap between chs. 6 and 7 the last author discussed is Procopius). Mehl takes the word “historiography” in its wider meaning and considers also biography and, more cursorily, antiquarian writing, chronography and exempla -literature (e.g. Valerius Maximus is given a short paragraph on p. 198). There are two features which distinguish this book from most other chronologically oriented presentations of Roman historical writing: first, Mehl also covers, from the Augustan period on, Greek authors’ accounts of Roman history (his model here is Albrecht Dihle’s Die griechische und lateinische Literatur der Kaiserzeit) second, he puts a strong emphasis on the rise of Christianity and its impact on the development of Roman historiography. For Mehl, such authors as Eusebius and Orosius should be treated on an equal footing with their non-Christian colleagues. Consequently, he devotes almost the same space, some nine pages, to Orosius 1 and to Sallust (229–237 and 84–93, respectively 2 ). He also makes some fine observations on similarities and differences in Christians’ and non-Christians’ treatment of the past (see esp. 199–203, 217f., 247f.).

Mehl’s chronological chapters very usefully (and succinctly) provide the most relevant information on individual authors, giving also a general overview of each period’s most characteristic historiographical patterns and tendencies (e.g. there is a good discussion of the impact of the new form of government on imperial historiography, 121–130). The brief second chapter is of a different nature since it treats “the formation and establishment of [historical] tradition” in Rome before the emergence of historiography proper. Here, Mehl also tackles the Annales Maximi and its publication by Scaevola who, he emphasizes, supplemented meagre inscriptional material with information drawn from other sources, notably family archives. Mehl does not share the scepticism voiced by (among others) Frier and Drews about Scaevola’s publication sadly, the seminal paper by Elizabeth Rawson ( CQ 21, 1971, 158–169) is absent from his bibliography.

Despite the small amount of space, Mehl gives much more than a standard, commonplace treatment of his authors rather, he places his own imprint on almost every historian he discusses. Writing on Fabius Pictor, he draws attention to the tripartite structure of his work he skilfully presents numerous innovations brought about by Cato in his Origines he follows Canfora in assigning the first part of BG 8 (up to 8.48.9), not to Hirtius, but to Caesar himself he insists on viewing Livy’s preface as reflecting his thoughts and feelings in the 20s, close to the civil wars (“We may thus use it as a measure only for early, not later, books, and certainly not for the entire history,” 106) he extols emperor Claudius’ positive opinion of historical change, as evidenced in his speech about Gallic aristocrats (“Claudius deserves credit within Roman historiography for especially thoughtful originality,” 135) he insightfully discusses Cassius Dio’s assessment of monarchy following Meissner, he is not so confident about the SHA being composed by a single author he neatly describes Orosius’ history as “[t]he most optimistic historical work of the ancient world” (235), stressing the huge difference between his and his mentor Augustine’s historical attitudes.

However, some important points have not been handled, or are handled insufficiently. Discussing Cato’s innovations, Mehl mentions the insertion of speeches as something typical for Greek historians but until then alien to Roman historiography (52). The issue is more complicated. First, we are not certain that Roman historians prior to Cato did not insert speeches. (In fact, considering Pictor’s debt to Greek historiography, it is quite probable that he did.) Second, Cato’s speeches were his own, and they were not fictitious. Thus they cannot be compared to speeches in Greek historians. (Mehl is more precise when he speaks about speeches in Coelius Antipater, 58.) It is strange not to even mention the possibility (or, rather, great likelihood) that the Epistulae ad Caesarem senem are spurious (Mehl assumes, without debate, that they are Sallustian, 85 and 90). There is a good discussion of Sallust’s idea of the turning-point (91–93), but no word on his growing pessimism affecting his treatment of this idea. Readers of the section on Asinius Pollio are likely to conclude that his work is extant (there is no mention of its being lost) the use of the present tense (“[h]e characterizes,” “[h]e attaches,” “[h]e combines,” 94) may only strengthen this erroneous inference. In his sub-chapter on Trogus, Mehl omits this author’s criticism of historians introducing speeches in direct discourse (it is mentioned elsewhere, 29) neither does he say anything about Trogus’ preoccupation with ktiseis. Most disquietingly, the highly controversial issue of Tacitus’ use of archival sources is not tackled at all (once again, there is a short mention in another context, 29) the SCPP is absent from Mehl’s discussion.

The two non-chronological chapters (the first and the last) deal with such questions as the relationship between Greek and Roman literature, the moral interest of ancient historiography, its relation to epic, drama, and rhetoric (discussed briefly, 18–20), the differences between ancient and modern concepts of historical inquiry, and, in the last chapter, the idea of a turning-point and teleological conception of history (popular among the Christians but by no means originating with them, 248f.). These chapters help the reader better understand the chronological development of Roman historiography. Moreover, frequent cross-referring between various parts of the book facilitates the comparison of authors, ideas and tendencies and the forming of a general outlook on Roman historical writing. The endnotes are brief (255–263) and contain mainly quotations from ancient sources. There is an up-to- date bibliography (264–286), usefully divided into a “General Bibliography” (mainly editions, translations and commentaries) and literature to individual chapters.

Some minor matters: Ta Romaïká should not be regarded as the title of Pictor’s history (44 cf. Dion. Hal. Ant. 7.71.1). After Cato, not only Rutilius Rufus, but also Claudius wrote history in Greek (52, cf. 134). Unlike Archias, Theophanes of Mitilene was not a poet, but a historian (77). Not only Sallust, but also Eutropius was translated into Greek (85, cf. 195). Sallust’s view of Metellus is more favourable than suggested by Mehl (89). It is rash to suppose that, in his ode to Pollio, Horace hinted “at what actually happened to Titus Labienus the younger” (96): we do not know the exact date of Labienus’ punishment and suicide, but they almost certainly occurred much later than 23 BC. Discussing Livy, Mehl does not consider the possibility (quite likely, as shown by Oakley) that the first books of the AUC were written before Actium (100). Readers are not informed that Eusebius’ chronicle is not preserved in its original Greek version (224f.).

Finally, some remarks about the translation. Of course, for a reviewer whose native language is neither English nor German this is a rather tricky subject nevertheless, some tentative observations are, perhaps, acceptable. The author himself emphasizes the difficulties inherent in producing an English version of his book: “the peculiarities of the traditional academic German language would have rendered a translation of my book into Latin much easier than into English” (8). The translator, best known for his monograph on Valerius Maximus, was undoubtedly qualified for the task, and he acquitted himself well. Occasionally, he even improves on the original, adding e.g. a play on words absent from the German edition (“…investigation of sources was…not an expectation, but an exception,” 28 cf. “nicht selbstverständlich, sondern die Ausnahme”). The book’s English is, apart from a few lapses, 3 generally lucid and easy to comprehend and intricacies of German syntax are usually no longer detectable (but on p. 177 we have two very long sentences, one of them extending to fourteen lines). I noted only one mistranslated and, as a result, seriously flawed passage: “Curtius, along with Ptolemy Soter, Cleitarchus, Aristobulus, and Timagenes, made use of the works of three Greek authors of the fourth and third centuries BC and one of the first century BC…” (179) since the German reads “…hat Curtius mit Ptolemaios Lagou, Kleitarch, Aristobul und Timagenes die Werke dreier griechischen Autoren des 4./3. Jh.s und eines des 1. Jh.s v. Chr. benutzt…,” it is evident that it is precisely Ptolemy, Cleitarchus, Aristobulus and Timagenes who are the authors of the works referred to in the second part of the quotation. And, obviously, Agricola was not the “stepfather” of Tacitus (136 Mehl rightly has “Schwiegervater”).

Mueller consequently renders “heidnisch” as “classically religious” and “Heidentum” as “classical (or traditional) religion”. This sounds rather artificial. If the words “pagan” and “paganism” are in fact derogatory (cf. 199, a passage added in the English edition) and cannot be taken simply as descriptive terms, 4 why not use “non-Christian”? For instance, the phrase “classically religious and Christian authors” (151) connotes that the former were really believers in classical religion (and not religiously indifferent). This may be, in many cases, wrong. And what about, say, Heliogabal: was he a “classically religious emperor” (cf. 174 on Julian)?

To sum up: despite its (minor) deficiencies, this is undoubtedly an important, informative and stimulating short introduction to Roman historical writing. Its inclusion in the Blackwell series is thoroughly deserved.

1. Mehl’s appreciation of Orosius corresponds to a recent growth of interest in this long neglected author note e.g. an English translation by A.T. Fear (Liverpool 2010) and esp. a monograph by P. Van Nuffelen, to be published this year by Oxford UP.

2. It is of some interest to compare the amounts of space assigned to each historian in this book. Tacitus receives the pride of place (fifteen pages), followed by Livy (ten), Sallust and Orosius, Ammianus (eight and a half) and the SHA (seven). Fabius Pictor, Cato the Elder, Josephus and Cassius Dio are each given some five pages or slightly more. In Dieter Flach’s longer book (337 pp.), Römische Geschichtsschreibung (3 rd edn., Darmstadt 1998), the proportions are as follows: Tacitus (sixty seven pages), Ammianus (twenty nine), Livy (twenty four), Sallust (twenty two), Suetonius (sixteen), Caesar and the SHA (eleven) Orosius is not covered.

3. To give some examples: “we must consider untenable Frier’s considered inference” (68 why “considered”?) on p. 82, the clause beginning with “whose biographical collection” has no predicate “[h]is description of the achievements of the reigning emperor…by the end of his work sings the praises of Tiberius’ successful care for peace” (131, italics mine cf. “geht am Werkende in einen Lobpreis des Tiberius über”).


Éditeur : Wiley-Blackwell
304 pages
ISBN : 978-1-4051-2183-5
€ 84

Roman Historiography: An Introduction to its Basic Aspects and Development presents a comprehensive introduction to the development of Roman historical writings in both Greek and Latin, from the early annalists to Orosius and Procopius of Byzantium.

* Provides an accessible survey of every historical writer of significance in the Roman world
* Traces the growth of Christian historiography under the influence of its pagan adversaries
* Offers valuable insight into current scholarly trends on Roman historiography
* Includes a user-friendly bibliography, catalog of authors and editions, and index


Andreas Mehl is Professor of Ancient History at the Martin Luther University at Halle and Wittenberg. He is the author of Seleukos Nikator und sein Reich (1986) Tacitus über Kaiser Claudius: Die Ereignisse Am Hof (1974) and Römische Geschichtsschreibung: Grundlagen und Entwicklungen: eine Einführung (Stuttgart, 2001).

Hans-Friedrich Mueller is the William D. Williams Professor of Classics at Union College in Schenectady, New York. He is the author of Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus (2002) and the editor of an abridgment of Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (2003).


Table des matières

Introduction: The Importance of Ancient Historiography and the Purpose of this Book.

Chapter 1: Ancient Literature and Roman Historiography.

1.1 Roman Literature and its Relation to Greek Literature.

1.2 Roman Historiography and the City of Rome.

1.3 The Claims of Artistry and Truth in Ancient, especially Roman, Historiography.

1.3.1 Literary Artistry and Moral Preoccupations in Ancient Historiography.

1.3.2 "History is what Actually Happened" -- Ancient Historiography and the Modern Science of History.

Chapter 2: The Formation and Establishment of Tradition in the Ruling Class of the Early and Middle Roman Republic.

2.1 Family Histories and Clan Traditions.

2.2 The Annales Maximi and the Almanacs of Publius Mucius Scaevola.

Chapter 3: Early Roman Historiography: Self-Justification and Memory in earlier Annalistic Writing.

3.1 Early Annalistic Writing (I).

3.1.1 Quintus Fabius Pictor.

3.1.2 Later Authors (From Cincius Alimentus to Postumius Albinus).

3.2 Early Annalistic Writing (II).

3.2.2 Other Authors (from Cassius Hemina to Sempronius Asellio).

3.3 Early Historical Epic in Rome (Naevius and Ennius).

Chapter 4: The Historiography of Rome between the Fronts of the Civil Wars.

4.1 Later Annalistic Writing: Optimates vs. Populares and Traditional Annalistic Writing vs. Contemporary History.

4.2 Autobiographies, Memoirs, Hypomnemata, Commentarii, and their Influence on the Historiography of Current Events.

4.2.1 Self-Representations until Cicero.

4.3 The History of Current Events to Order and Contemporary Concepts of Historiography (Cicero).

4.4 Biography (Cornelius Nepos).

4.5 The Experience of the Collapsing and Ruined Republic.

4.5.1 Gaius Sallustius Crispus.

Chapter 5: Augustan Rome, Roman Empire, and other Peoples and Kingdoms.

5.1 Titus Livius: Roman History from Romulus to Augustus in its Entirety.

5.2 World History, the History of the World beyond Rome, and Roman History by Non-Romans and New Romans.

5.2.1 World History and Roman History (from Diodorus to Juba).

5.2.2 Dionysius of Halicarnassus: Early Rome and the Greeks.

5.2.3 Pompeius Trogus: World History round about Rome.

5.2.4 Universal Chronology (Castor and Dionysius).

Chapter 6: Imperial History and the History of Emperors -- Imperial History as the History of Emperors.

6.1 Empire and "Republic": Senatorial Historiography.

6.1.1 Gaius (?) Velleius Paterculus.

6.1.2 Authors of the Julio-Claudian and Flavian Period (from Cremutius Cordus to Pliny the Younger).

6.1.3 Publius (?) Cornelius Tacitus.

6.1.4 Lucius Cl(audius) Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

6.2 Rome and Foreign Peoples.

6.2.1 Josephus / Flavius Josephus: Jews and Others.

6.2.2 Appian of Alexandria: A Retrospective View of the Establishment of Rome's World Domination.

6.3 Imperial History as Imperial Biography.

6.3.1 Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus.

6.3.2 Marius Maximus and Herodian.

6.3.3 Historia Augusta / Scriptores Historiae Augustae.

6.4 Personal History and Biography in the High Empire beyond Roman Emperors.

6.4.1 Curtius Rufus and Arrian of Nicomedia: Histories of Alexander.

6.4.2 Plutarch of Chaeronea: Parallel Lives.

6.5.1 From the Epitome of Livy, the Epitome of Trogus, and Florus to Lucius Ampelius.

6.5.2 The Historical Epitomes of the Fourth Century A.D. (Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, Festus).

6.6 Exempla-Literature and Historical Understanding.

Chapter 7: Roman History and Universal History between Classical Religion ("Paganism") and Christianity.

7.1 Zosimus and his Predecessors: Classically Religious Historiography and Historical Interpretation in a Christian Age.

7.2 Ammianus Marcellinus: Indifferent to Religion?

7.3 Christian Historiography.

7.3.1 Church History (Eusebius and Rufinus).

7.3.2 From Classically Religious Chronography to Christian Universal Chronicle (Eusebius, Jerome, Sulpicius).

7.3.3 Orosius: Universal History through the Lens of Theology.

7.3.4 Procopius of Caesarea: The History of Current Events in Transition from Rome to Byzantium.

Chapter 8: Some Basic Principles of Ancient Historical Thought.

Select Bibliography

1. General Bibliography.

1.1 Editions, Translations, and Commentaries for the Historiographical and Biographical Works Treated in this Book.

1.2 Editions of Historiographical Works and Historical Epics in Greek and Latin that Survive only in Fragments.

1.3 Histories of Greek and Latin Literature, especially Historiography: Recent Surveys and Collections.

1.4 Ancient Historiography, especially Roman: its Basic Literary, Social, and Intellectual Contexts.

2. The Formation and Establishment of Tradition in the Ruling Class of the Early and Middle Roman Republic.

3. Early Roman Historiography: Self-Justification and Memory in Early Annalistic Writing.

4. The Historiography of Rome between the Fronts of the Civil Wars.

5. Augustan Rome, Roman Empire, and other Peoples and Kingdoms.

6. Imperial History and the History of Emperors -- Imperial History as the History of Emperors.

7. Roman History and Universal History between Classical Religion ("Paganism") and Christianity.


Chronicles

Romans considered the chronological principle as fundamental and they could modify and refine depending on thematic considerations. Their narratives were characterized by the annalistic principle and it was measured in annus which was equivalent to a year in Latin.

Traditionally, historiography is closely linked with ethnography and did not only dwell on the Greek history but also history of other people. The Greeks were not united as a state and hence it was difficult to narrate the past of a political state so it was only the history of individual states that was narrated.

In Greek, historians used chronicles which was ascribed to mythical authors and later edited by men. They applied logographi which carried information beyond written record. The Christian historiography eroded the ideals of the past and it was spearheaded by Eusebius of Caesarea. Christianity superseded paganism. The Christian historians applied chronicles as their mode of historical inquiry (O’Brien, 2006).


General Overviews

A number of texts provide an entry point into understanding the Greek and Roman historians. Duff 2003 provides a general introduction to the authors, while Kraus and Woodman 1997 focuses on historians writing in Latin. For historiography in particular, Pitcher 2009 offers an introduction to the overall topic, while Marincola 1997 offers a more scholarly approach to the question of how ancient historians conceived of their enterprise. Hornblower 1994 offers a collection of essays on Greek historiography while Mehl 2011 covers the topic for the Romans. Momigliano 1977 and Walbank 1985 provide collections of articles from two of the leading scholars of ancient historiography in the 20th century. Feldherr 2009 is an important recent collection on specific questions relating to the Roman historians only, while Marincola 2007 offers a comprehensive look at the field covering a range of topics in both Roman and Greek authors.

Duff, Timothy. The Greek and Roman Historians. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2003.

A brief introduction meant primarily for undergraduates. Covers the major historians and places them in their literary and historical contexts, with discussion of how historiography developed as a genre, with its roots growing out of Homeric epic.

Feldherr, Andrew, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Historians. Cambridge Companions to Literature. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

A collection organized by theme that is explicitly intended to stimulate new thinking as well as to highlight key aspects of history writing in the Roman world. Particularly good articles in the collection on rhetoric in Roman historiography, the use of exempla, and characterization, as well as an explicit chapter on religion in Roman historiography.

Hornblower, Simon, ed. Greek Historiography. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994.

An excellent collection of essays from leading scholars. Each approaches a different topic and often different authors, but all focus on the balance between rhetoric and reality found in historical writing and in different ways attempt to differentiate the genre of history from other genres in the ancient world.

Kraus, Christina S., and A. J. Woodman. Latin Historians. Greece and Rome New Surveys in the Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

An excellent blend of an introduction to the state of Roman historiography and critical discussion of emerging trends and so useful both for students and scholars. Primary focus is on the major historians (Sallust, Livy, Tacitus), but discussion of other authors also included.

Marincola, John. Authority and Tradition in Ancient Historiography. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 1997.

Considers a series of questions across the range of ancient historians from Herodotus to Ammianus Marcellinus, including why they wrote, how they arrived at their facts and conclusions, how they presented themselves to their audiences, and how they managed discussion of their own participation in events. Particularly interesting is a concluding section on how ancient historians both set their work against predecessors by polemic and while also claiming continuity.

Marincola, John. A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography. 2 vols. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007.

A comprehensive collection covering major topics in both Greek and Roman historiography. Sections focused on the major components of ancient historiography (origins, use of sources, speeches, characterization), on types of history (local, universal, memoir, war monograph), and on related genres (biography and ethnography but also epic, tragedy, and the novel) provide a good overview, while the middle section provides detailed readings of a wide range of texts.

Mehl, Andreas. Roman Historiography: An Introduction to Its Basic Aspects and Development. Translated by Hans-Friedrich Mueller. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

A comprehensive study of almost every Roman historian, from the 3rd century BCE annalists through Christian historians and up to Procopius in the 6th century CE . The influence of both Greek historical precedents and the Roman traditions of family accounts is discussed, and context is provided to trace development over the centuries. A short concluding chapter on “The Basic Principles of Ancient Historical Thought” is a well worth a read.

Momigliano, Arnaldo. Essays in Ancient and Modern Historiography. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1977.

Presents twenty-one essays from one of the foremost scholars of ancient historiography of the 20th century. Essays treat key themes such as time in ancient historiography or the place of tradition, and the volume reprints an important article comparing pagan and Christian historiography in the fourth century CE .

Pitcher, Luke. Writing Ancient History: An Introduction to Classical Historiography. London: I. B. Tauris, 2009.

Aimed primarily at undergraduates, this book tries to suggest that ancient historians aimed both to tell what happened and to create a work of artistic merit and analyzes the choices they made to do so. Methodology, including the use or omission of evidence and speeches, is a key focus. Suggests that ancient historians, at least in their aims, were not as different from modern historians as often believed.

Walbank, Frank W. Selected Papers: Studies in Greek and Roman History and Historiography. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

A collection of twenty-one previously published papers, including eight specifically on historiographical issues. Of these, several focus on Polybius, but there is a seminal article on speeches in Greek historians as well as an important article on history and tragedy.

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Roman Historiography

Roman Historiography: An Introduction to its Basic Aspects and Development presents a comprehensive introduction to the development of Roman historical writings in both Greek and Latin, from the early annalists to Orosius and Procopius of Byzantium.
- Provides an accessible survey of every historical writer of significance in the Roman world
- Traces the growth of Christian historiography under the influence of its pagan adversaries
- Offers valuable insight into current scholarly trends on Roman historiography
- Includes a user-friendly bibliography, catalog of authors and editions, and index …mehr

Roman Historiography: An Introduction to its Basic Aspects and Development presents a comprehensive introduction to the development of Roman historical writings in both Greek and Latin, from the early annalists to Orosius and Procopius of Byzantium.

- Provides an accessible survey of every historical writer of significance in the Roman world

- Traces the growth of Christian historiography under the influence of its pagan adversaries

- Offers valuable insight into current scholarly trends on Roman historiography

- Includes a user-friendly bibliography, catalog of authors and editions, and index

  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: John Wiley & Sons
  • Seitenzahl: 302
  • Erscheinungstermin: 29. April 2011
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 235mm x 157mm x 22mm
  • Gewicht: 634g
  • ISBN-13: 9781405121835
  • ISBN-10: 1405121831
  • Artikelnr.: 29951954

Introduction: The Importance of Ancient Historiography and the Purpose of this Book

1: Ancient Literature and Roman Historiography

2: The Formation and Establishment of Tradition in the Ruling Class of the Early and Middle Roman Republic

3: Early Roman Historiography: Self-Justification and Memory in earlier Annalistic Writing

4: The Historiography of Rome between the Fronts of the Civil Wars

5: Augustan Rome, Roman Empire, and other Peoples and Kingdoms

6: Imperial History and the History of Emperors: Imperial History as the History of Emperors

7: Roman History and Universal History between Classical Religion ("Paganism") and Christianity

8: Some Basic Principles of Ancient Historical Thought

"In all, Mehl's Roman Historiography amounts to a helpful handbook for students of the ancient world. It seems an especially good means for readers to gain a quick appraisal of the German approach to its subject. Although some may criticize Mehl's assessments and emphases on occasion, the book presents a concise and readable introduction to work of Roman historians, biographers, chronographers, antiquarians, and kindred authors." (New England Classical Journal, 1 May 2013)

Named CHOICE Outstanding Title for 2012
"Appropriate for advanced undergraduate students, this work provides a foundation for further study of classical historical writing. (Annotation (c)2011 Book News Inc. Portland, OR)." (Book News, 1 August 2011)


  • Herausgeber &rlm : &lrm Wiley-Blackwell 1. Edition (17. Januar 2014)
  • Sprache &rlm : &lrm Englisch
  • Taschenbuch &rlm : &lrm 300 Seiten
  • ISBN-10 &rlm : &lrm 1118785134
  • ISBN-13 &rlm : &lrm 978-1118785133
  • Abmessungen &rlm : &lrm 15.37 x 1.52 x 22.86 cm

Pressestimmen

Named CHOICE Outstanding Title for 2012

"Appropriate for advanced undergraduate students, this work provides a foundation for further study of classical historical writing." (Book News, Inc., 1 August 2011)

Rezension

"An extraordinarily broad and deep introduction, a treasure trove of insights and information that masterfully characterizes the nature and development (ranging over a millennium) of Rome's historiography in its multiple aspects and functions, its originality and debt to others, achievements and shortcomings, and place between history and literature."

Kurt A. Raaflaub, Brown University

"This is a thought-provoking journey through the writing of history in Roman antiquity. Andreas Mehl masterfully unravels the fabric of historical traditions from the Annales to Zosimus."

Hans Beck, McGill University

Klappentext

"An extraordinarily broad and deep introduction, a treasure trove of insights and information that masterfully characterizes the nature and development (ranging over a millennium) of Rome's historiography in its multiple aspects and functions, its originality and debt to others, achievements and shortcomings, and place between history and literature."

Kurt A. Raaflaub, Brown University

"This is a thought-provoking journey through the writing of history in Roman antiquity. Andreas Mehl masterfully unravels the fabric of historical traditions from the Annales to Zosimus."

Hans Beck, McGill University

Named CHOICE Outstanding Title for 2012

"Appropriate for advanced undergraduate students, this work provides a foundation for further study of classical historical writing." (Book News, Inc., 1 August 2011)

Roman Historiography: An Introduction to its Basic Aspects and Development presents a comprehensive introduction to the development of Roman historical writings in the ancient world. Andreas Mehl traces the arc of ancient historical writing about Rome from its origins with the authors of clan history and fragmentary annalists to the writings of Byzantine scholar Procopius, the last major historian of the ancient world.

Rooting his survey in the context of its Greek predecessors, and within the broader framework of Roman literature and society, Mehl discusses every historical writer of significance in the ancient Roman era and provides much more than simple biographical detail. Also considered are essential themes such as genre, teleology, the idea of Rome, and exemplary moral conduct. By paying scrupulous attention to political context and religious developments throughout the ancient world, Mehl reveals the evolution and interpenetration of both pagan and Christian historiography.

This title offers a wealth of illuminating insights into the origins and development of the crucial historical writings of the living witnesses to the greatest empire the world has ever known.

Buchrückseite

&#34An extraordinarily broad and deep introduction, a treasure trove of insights and information that masterfully characterizes the nature and development &#40ranging over a millennium&#41 of Rome's historiography in its multiple aspects and functions, its originality and debt to others, achievements and shortcomings, and place between history and literature.&#34
Kurt A. Raaflaub, Brown University

&#34This is a thought&#45provoking journey through the writing of history in Roman antiquity. Andreas Mehl masterfully unravels the fabric of historical traditions from the Annales to Zosimus.&#34
Hans Beck, McGill University

Named CHOICE Outstanding Title for 2012
&#34Appropriate for advanced undergraduate students, this work provides a foundation for further study of classical historical writing.&#34 Book News

Roman Historiography: An Introduction to its Basic Aspects and Development presents a comprehensive introduction to the development of Roman historical writings in the ancient world. Andreas Mehl traces the arc of ancient historical writing about Rome from its origins with the authors of clan history and fragmentary annalists to the writings of Byzantine scholar Procopius, the last major historian of the ancient world.

Rooting his survey in the context of its Greek predecessors, and within the broader framework of Roman literature and society, Mehl discusses every historical writer of significance in the ancient Roman era and provides much more than simple biographical detail. Also considered are essential themes such as genre, teleology, the idea of Rome, and exemplary moral conduct. By paying scrupulous attention to political context and religious developments throughout the ancient world, Mehl reveals the evolution and interpenetration of both pagan and Christian historiography.

This title offers a wealth of illuminating insights into the origins and development of the crucial historical writings of the living witnesses to the greatest empire the world has ever known.

Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende

Andreas Mehl is Professor of Ancient History at the Martin Luther University at Halle and Wittenberg. He is the author of Seleukos Nikator und sein Reich (1986) Tacitus über Kaiser Claudius: Die Ereignisse Am Hof (1974) and Römische Geschichtsschreibung: Grundlagen und Entwicklungen: eine Einführung (2001).

Hans-Friedrich Mueller is the William D. Williams Professor of Classics at Union College in Schenectady, New York. He is the author of Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus (2002) and the editor of an abridgment of Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (2003).


Roman Historiography: An Introduction to its Basic Aspects and Development Paperback – 27 december 2013

Roman Historiography by Andreas Mehl is a book that I would highly recommend to anyone interested in reading the original histories or even any sort of ancient roman text. I enjoyed reading Roman Historiography and I know those of you who do read this book will also. (Ancient History, 2016)

Recensie

Achterflaptekst

"An extraordinarily broad and deep introduction, a treasure trove of insights and information that masterfully characterizes the nature and development (ranging over a millennium) of Rome's historiography in its multiple aspects and functions, its originality and debt to others, achievements and shortcomings, and place between history and literature." Kurt A. Raaflaub, Brown University

"This is a thought-provoking journey through the writing of history in Roman antiquity. Andreas Mehl masterfully unravels the fabric of historical traditions from the Annales to Zosimus." Hans Beck, McGill University

Named CHOICE Outstanding Title for 2012 "Appropriate for advanced undergraduate students, this work provides a foundation for further study of classical historical writing." Book News

Roman Historiography: An Introduction to its Basic Aspects and Development presents a comprehensive introduction to the development of Roman historical writings in the ancient world. Andreas Mehl traces the arc of ancient historical writing about Rome from its origins with the authors of clan history and fragmentary annalists to the writings of Byzantine scholar Procopius, the last major historian of the ancient world.

Rooting his survey in the context of its Greek predecessors, and within the broader framework of Roman literature and society, Mehl discusses every historical writer of significance in the ancient Roman era and provides much more than simple biographical detail. Also considered are essential themes such as genre, teleology, the idea of Rome, and exemplary moral conduct. By paying scrupulous attention to political context and religious developments throughout the ancient world, Mehl reveals the evolution and interpenetration of both pagan and Christian historiography.

This title offers a wealth of illuminating insights into the origins and development of the crucial historical writings of the living witnesses to the greatest empire the world has ever known.


Renaissance Art

There were Renaissance movements in architecture, literature, poetry, drama, music, metals, textiles and furniture, but the Renaissance is perhaps best known for its art. Creative endeavor became viewed as a form of knowledge and achievement, not simply a way of decoration. Art was now to be based on observation of the real world, applying mathematics and optics to achieve more advanced effects like perspective. Paintings, sculpture and other art forms flourished as new talents took up the creation of masterpieces, and enjoying art became seen as the mark of a cultured individual.


Ancient History (BA)

If you are fascinated by the ancient civilisations of Greece and Rome and keen to develop transferable skills such as critical analysis then this course is for you.

Taught by a variety of internationally recognised experts, Ancient History offers the opportunity to study the history of Greece and Rome in the Classical period (600 BCE to 700 CE). Over three years you will delve into the politics, events and developments underpinning our understanding of many aspects of historical societies and, indeed, our own culture. You will explore themes, key periods and problems in Greek and Roman history, such as the emergence (and fall) of democracy and the rise, decline and fall of Empires.

You will build skills and knowledge from day one. In year two, the experience of historical periods will be deepened and widened and you will develop skills in research and concentrate on your individual interests, which will culminate in specialist studies and individual research projects in year three. As you build knowledge and understanding of a formative and fascinating period of world history, you will have the opportunity to study in other areas of the curriculum, notably: archaeology, literature, philosophy and language.

There is also the possibility of spending a year abroad, experiencing the profound effect these classical cultures have had on history, culture and politics.

As a student of Ancient History you will be part of our Classics Department, where the quality of research that informs our teaching and a friendly, individual approach which shapes the way we guide our students combine to create an unbeaten academic experience.

  • Explore key themes and problems such as the rise, decline and fall of Empires.
  • Opportunities to study archaeology, literature, philosophy and language.
  • Develop your research and reasoning skills.
  • Choose to specialise in Greek or Roman history, or both.
  • Assessment by written exams and coursework.

Course structure

Core Modules

In this module you will develop an understanding of the Greek World in the Classical Period. You will look at the key events in Greek History from 580 to 323 BC and place these in their historical context. You will consider historical problems and critically examine information and accounts set out in the Greek sources as well as in the works of modern historians. You will analyse a range of sources materials, including inscription, historiography and oratory, and develop an awareness of potential bias in these.

In this module you will develop an understanding of the development of Roman politics and society over the extended period of Roman history, from early Rome through to the emergence of the Medieval World. You will look at the chronology and development of Rome, examining key themes in the interpretation of particular periods of Roman history, including the rise and fall of the Republic and the Imperial Monarchy. You will consider the difficulties and methological issues in the interpretation of Roman Historiography and analyse a variety of theoretical approaches used by historians.

In this module you will develop an understanding of how different classical disciplines interrelate. You will focus on specific academic skills such as avoiding plagiarism, approaching and evaluating a range of ancient evidence, using library and other resources, critically evaluating modern scholarship and theoretical approaches, and relating academic study to employability.

The Roman Republic occupies a special place in the history of Western civilisation. In this module, we explore the history of the Republic from the foundation of Rome to the murder of Julius Caesar on the Ides of March 44 BC. Students will examine the social and political pressures that drove Rome to conquer her Mediterranean empire and the consequences of that expansion for the Romans and for the peoples they conquered. The major literary sources will be discussed in translation, together with the evidence of archaeology and material culture which helps us to bring the ancient Romans to life.

For almost half a millennium, the Roman empire ruled over the ancient Mediterranean world. This module surveys the golden years of imperial Rome, from the achievement of sole rule by the first emperor Augustus (31 BC - AD 14) to the murder of Commodus (the white-clad emperor from Gladiator) in AD 192. We will analyse the political, social and cultural developments under the emperors of the first and second centuries AD, and reassess their achievements and legacies: Claudius’ invasion of Britain, Nero’s cultured tyranny, the terrible efficiency of Domitian, Trajan the conqueror, and the philosophical Marcus Aurelius.

Optional Modules

There are a number of optional course modules available during your degree studies. The following is a selection of optional course modules that are likely to be available. Please note that although the College will keep changes to a minimum, new modules may be offered or existing modules may be withdrawn, for example, in response to a change in staff. Applicants will be informed if any significant changes need to be made.

In this module you will develop an understanding of Ancient Greek grammar and syntax and learn elementary vocabulary. You will acquire basic aptitude in reading Ancient Greek text (mostly adapted, with some possible original unadapted basic texts) and consider the relationship between Ancient Greek language and ancient Greek literature and culture.

In this module you will further your understanding of Greek grammar and syntax. You will look at Greek prose and/or verse texts, in unadapted original Greek, and learn how to accurately translate passages at sight.

In this module you will develop an understanding of a wide range of texts in ancient Greek. You will look at set texts in both prose and verse for translation, and complete grammar and syntax consolidation exercises. You will consider the literary and linguistic features of advanced Greek texts and examine features of grammar, syntax and style.

This module can be taken by anyone with less than a B in GCSE Latin. If students have a B or better in Latin GCSE or equivalent, they should be looking at Intermediate Latin (unless it was a very long time ago). The module sets out to provide a basic training in the Latin language for those with little or no previous experience of Latin. The emphasis is on developing the skill of analysing the structure and meaning of Latin sentences, and on efficient use of the dictionary. Students will also gain familiarity with a range of literary and epigraphic texts in the original Latin.

A module intended to build on Beginner’s Latin or O-level/GCSE, extending the students' knowledge of Latin to the point where they are ready to read substantial texts.

In this module you will develop an understanding of classical Latin and how to interpret Latin texts. You will study two set texts in Latin, one prose and one verse, focussing on translation, context and understanding of grammar. You will gain practice in unprepared translation of texts of similar genres to the prepared texts and will consider selected topics in Latin grammar and syntax.

In this module you will develop an understanding of the framework of Greek literary history from Homer to Heliodorus. You will look at the chronology of major authors and works, and how they fit into larger patterns in the development of Greek culture and political history. You will examine ancient literary texts in translation, considering issues in key genres including epic, lyric, drama, oratory, philosophical writing, historiography, Hellenistic poetry, and the Greek novel.

In this module you will develop an understanding of the history of Roman literature from its beginnings until the end of the Republic. You will look at the work of the major Republican Roman authors Plautus and Terence, Lucretius, Catullus and Cicero. You will consider the issues in the earlier history of Roman literature, including the relationship with Greek models and the question of Roman originality, literature and politics, the use of literature for scientific or philosophical exposition, and the development of narrative style ant attitudes to the Roman Republican past.

In this module you will develop an understanding of the history of Roman literature in the early imperial period. You will look at the work of five authors selected from the Julio-Claudian period, considering the ways in which Roman literature responded to the new political conditions established by the Principate. You will develop your skills in interpretation, analysis and argument as applied both to detailed study of texts (in translation) and to more general issues.

In this module you will develop an understanding of ancient philosophical ideas and the ways in which philosophical arguments are presented and analysed. You will look at the thought and significance of the principal ancient philosophers, from the Presocratics to Aristotle, and examine sample texts such as Plato's 'Laches' and the treatment of the virtue of courage in Aristotle, 'Nicomachean Ethics' 3.6-9.

In this module you will develop an understanding of how classical Greek and Roman societies developed the concept and role of the individual as part of the wider community. You will look at Greek and Roman education, and how that encouraged the formation of ideal behaviour and identity. You will consider the role of rhetoric, and how competition was encouraged within these societies though literary and dramatic contests, sport, military life, and religion. You will examine how these ideas reflect the role of the individual in the community of the cosmos, and the place in society of 'others', including the lower classes, women, children, the elderly, and slaves.

This is a survey module covering a large and disparate field. No previous knowledge is assumed: it will offer a basic introduction to the principles of classical archaeology and to the archaeological material of ancient Greece. The module will help you to place archaeological objects and contexts alongside literature and philosophy and to gain a more rounded understanding of how the Greeks thought about their world and the physical environment they created for themselves. The main aim of the module is to familiarise you with the material culture of the Greek civilisation from the Bronze Age to the Hellenistic period. We will examine the principal forms of Greek art and architecture, together with their stylistic development and social context. We will also consider developments in political organisation and religious practice, as well as evidence for everyday life. The module will introduce basic methodological concepts and theoretical approaches to the study of ancient Greek material culture.

This module studies the broad spectrum of archaeological evidence for the Roman world. It will provide an introduction to the main sources of archaeological evidence and key sites across the Roman world. It will offer a taste of how we can use the evidence they provide in the study of history, society and technology during the period c. 200 BC – c. AD 300. It aims to familiarize you with the principal forms and contexts in which art and architecture developed in the Roman world to introduce you to the uses of material culture in studying history, i.e. to study the art and architecture of Rome as part of its history, social systems, culture, and economy and to develop critical skills in visual analysis.

  • Intensive Greek
  • Aspects of Modern Greek Language and Culture
  • Hellenistic Epic: Apollonius of Rhodes
  • Imperial Greek Poetry: Epic & Epigram
  • Homer (in Greek)
  • The Tragedy of Euripides
  • Greek Dramatic Texts II (Comedy)
  • Herodotus
  • Plato (in Greek)
  • Imperial Greek Literature
  • Greek Historiography (in Greek)
  • Greek Erotic Poetry in Greek
  • Horace
  • Lucretius and Virgil
  • Latin Love Elegy
  • Roman Satire
  • Latin Epic
  • Latin Historiography
  • Catullus and Horace
  • Latin Letters
  • Homer (In Translation)
  • Greek Drama (In Translation)
  • Cinema and Classics
  • Ovid’s Metamorphoses: Art and Power in Augustan Rome
  • Virgil’s Aeneid : the Empire in the Literary Imagination
  • Gender in Classical Antiquity
  • Greek Law and Lawcourts
  • Greek History to 322 BC
  • Augustus: Propaganda and Power
  • The Roman Republic: A Social and Economic History
  • The Rise of the Roman Empire: An Economic and Social history
  • Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy
  • The Good Life in Ancient Philosophy
  • The Built Environment in Classical Antiquity
  • Greek and Roman Art in Context
  • Understanding Pompeii and Herculaneum
  • Perspectives on Roman Britai
  • Second Year Project
  • Further Aspects of Modern Greek Language and Culture
  • Cinema and Classics
  • Roman Oratory
  • Ancient Literary Criticism
  • Roman Drama (In Translation)
  • Greek Lyric, Eros and Social Order
  • Nature and the Supernatural in Latin Literature
  • Greek Literature under the Roman Empire
  • Studying Ancient Myth
  • Culture and Identity from Nero to Hadrian
  • The Roman Novel
  • Gender in Classical Antiquity
  • Greek Law and Lawcourts
  • Augustus
  • The Roman Republic: A Social and Economic History
  • The Rise of the Roman Empire: An Economic and Social history
  • Alexander the Great
  • The City from Augustus to Charlemagne: The Rise and Fall of Civilisation
  • Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy
  • The Good Life in Ancient Philosophy II
  • Understanding Pompeii and Herculaneum
  • Perspectives on Roman Britai
  • City of Rome
  • City of Athens
  • The Archaeology of the Roman Near East

Teaching & assessment

The course has a modular structure, whereby students take 12 course units or modules at the rate of four whole units per year. At least 7.5 modules of Ancient History must be taken over the three years of the degree, three modules at year 2 level, and three at year 3 level.

You will be taught through a mixture of lectures, seminars and tutorials, depending on the subjects studied. Much of your work will be outside class: reading in the library or via e-learning resources (we have a comprehensive e-learning facility, Moodle). You will also be preparing for seminars and lectures, working on essays and undertaking group projects and wide-ranging but guided independent study.

In your final year we provide ongoing support for your dissertation work, which usually includes:

  • Lectures and practical sessions on Dissertation Research Methods e.g. planning your topics, carrying out research, using specialist resources, finding information in print and online, and managing your search results and references. These sessions are run in conjunction with the Library Service and are generally also open to second year students
  • Short departmental writing ‘surgeries’, in which academic staff offer general writing support if you experiencing problems and/or those who have specific queries

Assessment takes place by a flexible combination of essays, projects, examinations, and tests, various methods being employed depending on the nature of the course unit and the intended learning outcomes. In the third-year, students complete a guided and extended piece of independent research, a 10,000 word dissertation, on a historical subject.

Entry requirements

A Levels: ABB-BBB

Where an applicant is taking the EPQ alongside A-levels, the EPQ will be taken into consideration and result in lower A-level grades being required. For students who are from backgrounds or personal circumstances that mean they are generally less likely to go to university you may be eligible for an alternative lower offer. Follow the link to learn more about our contextual offers.

Other UK and Ireland Qualifications

International & EU requirements

English language requirements

All teaching at Royal Holloway (apart from some language courses) is in English. You will therefore need to have good enough written and spoken English to cope with your studies right from the start.

The scores we require
  • IELTS: 6.5 overall. Writing 7.0. No other subscore lower than 5.5.
  • Pearson Test of English: 61 overall. Writing 69. No other subscore lower than 51.
  • Trinity College London Integrated Skills in English (ISE): ISE III.
  • Cambridge English: Advanced (CAE) grade C.

Country-specific requirements

For more information about country-specific entry requirements for your country please visit here.

Undergraduate Pathways

For international students who do not meet the direct entry requirements, the International Study Centre offers the following pathway programmes:

● International Foundation Year - for progression to the first year of an undergraduate degree.

● International Year One - for progression to the second year of an undergraduate degree.

Your future career

Our degree courses not only promote academic achievement but also the means to hone the life-skills necessary to excel, post-graduation.

Studying Ancient History requires research, assessment, reasoning, organization and self-management often on your own or as part of a team. So, by choosing to study this intellectually demanding discipline you will develop a broad range of skills which are highly prized by employers, including:

  • the ability to communicate views and present arguments clearly and coherently
  • the ability to critically digest, analyse and summarise content
  • time management and the discipline to meet deadlines
  • organisation and research skills
  • problem-solving skills and capability

Being able to understand and process complex issues, to critically evaluate resources and construct coherent arguments both verbally and in writing is why many Royal Holloway classicists become employed in law, marketing, publishing, the media, government and finance. Employers like Channel 4, multinational law firm SJ Berwin, The Guildhall (City of London), accountancy firm KPMG, the Natural History Museum, Customs and Immigration, London Advertising, Broadstone Pensions and Investments and the Armed Forces have all recently recruited Royal Holloway alumni from the Department of Classics.

Fees & funding

Home (UK) students tuition fee per year*: £9,250

EU and International students tuition fee per year**: £18,800

Other essential costs***: There are no single associated costs greater than £50 per item on this course

How do I pay for it? Find out more about funding options, including loans, scholarships and bursaries. UK students who have already taken out a tuition fee loan for undergraduate study should check their eligibility for additional funding directly with the relevant awards body.

*The tuition fee for UK undergraduates is controlled by Government regulations. For students starting a degree in the academic year 2021/22, the fee will be £9,250 for that year. The fee for UK undergraduates starting in 2022/23 has not yet been confirmed.

**For EU nationals starting a degree from 2021/22, the UK Government has confirmed that you will no longer be eligible to pay the same fees as UK students, nor be eligible for funding from the Student Loans Company. This means you will be classified as an international student. At Royal Holloway, we wish to support those students affected by this change in status through this transition, however a decision on the level of fee for EU students starting their course with us in September 2022 has not yet been made.

Fees for international students may increase year-on-year in line with the rate of inflation. The policy at Royal Holloway is that any increases in fees will not exceed 5% for continuing students. For further information see fees and funding and our terms and conditions. Fees shown above are for 2021/22 and are displayed for indicative purposes only.

***These estimated costs relate to studying this particular degree programme at Royal Holloway. Costs, such as accommodation, food, books and other learning materials and printing etc., have not been included.


Watch the video: 161019: Η Ρωμαϊκή έννοια του Imperium και οι εφαρμογές της


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