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29 January 1943
Armoured cars from the British 8th Army cross the border between Tripolitania and Tunisia
White Rose History: January 1933 – October 1943
200,000 German brothers were sacrificed for the prestige of a militaristic imposter. The human conditions of surrender set down by the Russians were hidden from the soldiers who were sacrificed.
For this mass murder, General Paulus received the Oak Leaves [decoration]. High-ranking officers escaped from the slaughter in Stalingrad by airplane. Hitler refused to allow those who were entrapped and surrounded to retreat to the troops behind the line. Now the blood of 200,000 soldiers who were doomed to death accuses the murderer named Hitler.
Tripoli! They surrendered unconditionally to the 8th English Army. And what did the English do? They allowed the citizens to continue living their lives as usual. They even let police and bureaucrats remain in office.
Only one thing did they undertake to do thoroughly: They cleansed the great Italian colonial city of every false ringleader and subhuman.
The annihilating, overwhelming super-power is approaching on every side with dead certainty. Hitler is less likely than Paulus to capitulate. There would be no escape for him. And will you be deceived as were the 200,000 who defended Stalingrad in a losing cause, so that you will be massacred, sterilized, or robbed of your children?
Roosevelt, the most powerful man in the world, said in Casablanca on January 26, 1943: Our war of extermination is not against the people, but against the political systems. We will fight for an unconditional surrender. More contemplation may be needed before a decision can be made. (I can only determine what the following sentence was supposed to mean.) This is about the lives of millions of people. Should Germany meet the same fate as Tripoli?
The following portion of the text was unimpeachable:
Today, all of Germany is encircled just as Stalingrad was. All Germans shall be sacrificed to the emissaries of hate and extermination. Sacrificed to him who tormented the Jews, eradicated half of the Poles, and who wishes to destroy Russia. Sacrificed to him who took from you freedom, peace, domestic happiness, hope, and gaiety, and gave you inflationary money.
That shall not, that may not come to pass! Hitler and his regime must fall so that Germany may live. Make up your minds: Stalingrad and destruction, or Tripoli and a future of hope. And when you have decided, act.
White Rose History: January 1933 – October 1943
At the beginning of 1943, the accused Hans Scholl challenged his friend – the accused Probst – to write down his thoughts about current events. Scholl had spoken his mind about political matters with Probst for a long time. Probst then sent him a draft [Note 1] that undoubtedly was to be duplicated and distributed, though indeed this never took place. …
The accused Probst frequently visited the Scholl siblings and shared their opinions. At the request of the accused Hans Scholl, he wrote the above-mentioned draft of his position on the political aspects of current events. Of course he claims that he did not know that Scholl would use that draft for a leaflet, but admitted that it was not unclear [Note 2] to him that [the document] could [be perceived] as illegal propaganda.
Note 1: This part of the indictment reflects the inaccuracies that arose from the hurried prosecution of Christoph Probst and the Scholls. Christoph Probst handed over the leaflet on the occasion of a trip to Munich.-Ed.
Note 2: Clumsy grammatical construction “not unclear” is from the original document.
January 29 Birthday Astrology
Aquarians born on January 29 are not content to watch the parade go by -- they are spurred on by a powerful sense of mission. They may appear somewhat prickly, but they are actually gentle and philosophical in nature despite their strong political beliefs. They will put their reputation on the line to bring about necessary change.
Friends and Lovers
Friends, of whom January 29 people have many, help define their lives. They have a talent for inspiring and influencing others. They suffer their share of romantic heartaches and are often afraid of commitment because it represents loss of independence. They are capable of profound, spiritual love yet can't get past the need to hold back something of themselves.
Children and Family
Whatever the drawbacks of their upbringing, January 29 men and women can find strength by transcending the challenges life sends their way. They have all the best traits for parenthood: intelligence, spirituality, humor, and patience. They take this role seriously, perhaps more than any other in their lives.
Once men and women born on January 29 understand the value of fitness, they are likely to be lifelong converts. Like many Aquarians, they generally keep up a hectic pace yet may be unwilling to commit to anything more than the occasional trot around the block.
Career and Finances
There are no better teachers than the men and women born on January 29. They love learning and have an affinity for inspiring others to love it. They may change career plans several times. Although they are unconventional in their thinking, they have a healthy respect for money.
Dreams and Goals
January 29 men and women want to help others see the power and beauty of life through personal accountability and wise choices. They love and respect knowledge and wish to share it with others. They want to know themselves and understand their motivations. They have the courage and integrity to ask hard questions.
For more information about astrology, see:
- Birthday Astrology
ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
Jill M. Phillips is the author of hundreds of articles on astrology as well as dozens of books. She has regularly written forecast columns for Astrology: Your Daily Horoscope.
You should embrace: Ideals, distinction, irony
You should avoid: Self-centeredness, controversy, destructive acts
January 21st, 1993 is a Thursday. It is the 21st day of the year, and in the 3rd week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 1st quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1993 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 1/21/1993, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 21/1/1993.
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"All right, they're on our left, they're on our right, they're in front of us, they're behind us. they can't get away this time."
Lt. Gen. Lewis B. "Chesty" Puller, at Guadalcanal
The World War II Database is founded and managed by C. Peter Chen of Lava Development, LLC. The goal of this site is two fold. First, it is aiming to offer interesting and useful information about WW2. Second, it is to showcase Lava's technical capabilities.
Stalingrad and the German retreat, summer 1942–February 1943
The German 4th Panzer Army, after being diverted to the south to help Kleist’s attack on Rostov late in July 1942 (see above The Germans’ summer offensive in southern Russia, 1942), was redirected toward Stalingrad a fortnight later. Stalingrad was a large industrial city producing armaments and tractors it stretched for 30 miles along the banks of the Volga River. By the end of August the 4th Army’s northeastward advance against the city was converging with the eastward advance of the 6th Army, under General Friedrich Paulus, with 330,000 of the German Army’s finest troops. The Red Army, however, put up the most determined resistance, yielding ground only very slowly and at a high cost as the 6th Army approached Stalingrad. On August 23 a German spearhead penetrated the city’s northern suburbs, and the Luftwaffe rained incendiary bombs that destroyed most of the city’s wooden housing. The Soviet 62nd Army was pushed back into Stalingrad proper, where, under the command of General Vasily I. Chuikov, it made a determined stand. Meanwhile, the Germans’ concentration on Stalingrad was increasingly draining reserves from their flank cover, which was already strained by having to stretch so far—400 miles on the left (north), as far as Voronezh, 400 again on the right (south), as far as the Terek River. By mid-September the Germans had pushed the Soviet forces in Stalingrad back until the latter occupied only a nine-mile-long strip of the city along the Volga, and this strip was only two or three miles wide. The Soviets had to supply their troops by barge and boat across the Volga from the other bank. At this point Stalingrad became the scene of some of the fiercest and most concentrated fighting of the war streets, blocks, and individual buildings were fought over by many small units of troops and often changed hands again and again. The city’s remaining buildings were pounded into rubble by the unrelenting close combat. The most critical moment came on October 14, when the Soviet defenders had their backs so close to the Volga that the few remaining supply crossings of the river came under German machine-gun fire. The Germans, however, were growing dispirited by heavy losses, by fatigue, and by the approach of winter.
A huge Soviet counteroffensive, planned by generals G.K. Zhukov, A.M. Vasilevsky, and Nikolay Nikolayevich Voronov, was launched on Nov. 19–20, 1942, in two spearheads, north and south of the German salient whose tip was at Stalingrad. The twin pincers of this counteroffensive struck the flanks of the German salient at points about 50 miles north and 50 miles south of Stalingrad and were designed to isolate the 250,000 remaining men of the German 6th and 4th armies in the city. The attacks quickly penetrated deep into the flanks, and by November 23 the two prongs of the attack had linked up about 60 miles west of Stalingrad the encirclement of the two German armies in Stalingrad was complete. The German high command urged Hitler to allow Paulus and his forces to break out of the encirclement and rejoin the main German forces west of the city, but Hitler would not contemplate a retreat from the Volga River and ordered Paulus to “stand and fight.” With winter setting in and food and medical supplies dwindling, Paulus’ forces grew weaker. In mid-December Hitler allowed one of the most talented German commanders, Field Marshal Erich von Manstein, to form a special army corps to rescue Paulus’ forces by fighting its way eastward, but Hitler refused to let Paulus fight his way westward at the same time in order to link up with Manstein. This fatal decision doomed Paulus’ forces, since the main German forces now simply lacked the reserves needed to break through the Soviet encirclement singlehandedly. Hitler exhorted the trapped German forces to fight to the death, but on Jan. 31, 1943, Paulus surrendered 91,000 frozen, starving men (all that was left of the 6th and 4th armies) and 24 generals surrendered with him.
Besides being the greatest battle of the war, Stalingrad proved to be the turning point of the military struggle between Germany and the Soviet Union. The battle used up precious German reserves, destroyed two entire armies, and humiliated the prestigious German war machine. It also marked the increasing skill and professionalism of a group of younger Soviet generals who had emerged as capable commanders, chief among whom was Zhukov.
Meanwhile, early in January 1943, only just in time, Hitler acknowledged that the encirclement of the Germans in Stalingrad would lead to an even worse disaster unless he extricated his forces from the Caucasus. Kleist was therefore ordered to retreat, while his northern flank of 600 miles was still protected by the desperate resistance of the encircled Paulus. Kleist’s forces were making their way back across the Don at Rostov when Paulus at last surrendered. Had Paulus surrendered three weeks earlier (after seven weeks of isolation), Kleist’s escape would have been impossible.
Even west of Rostov there were threats to Kleist’s line of retreat. In January, two Soviet armies, the one under General Nikolay Fyodorovich Vatutin, the other under General Filipp Ivanovich Golikov, had crossed the Don upstream from Serafimovich and were thrusting southwestward to the Donets between Kamensk and Kharkov: Vatutin’s forces, having crossed the Donets at Izyum, took Lozovaya Junction on February 11, Golikov’s took Kharkov five days later. Farther to the north, a third Soviet army, under General Ivan Danilovich Chernyakhovsky, had initiated a drive westward from Voronezh on February 2 and had retaken Kursk on February 8. Thus, the Germans had to retreat from all the territory they had taken in their great summer offensive in 1942. The Caucasus returned to Soviet hands.
A sudden thaw supervened to hamper the Red Army’s transport of supplies and reinforcements across the swollen courses of the great rivers. With the momentum of the Soviet counteroffensive thus slowed, the Germans made good their retreat to the Dnepr along the easier routes of the Black Sea littoral and were able, before the end of February 1943, to mount a counteroffensive of their own.
The Loss of HMS Spartan 29th January 1944
At sunset on 29th January, the Luftwaffe began a glide bomb attack on the ships in Anzio Bay. At the time of this attack, HMS Spartan was anchored providing AA protection for the ships in the vicinity of the beachhead. Smoke had been ordered in the anchorage but was not fully effective owing to the short time it was in operation and the strong breeze. HMS Spartan was making smoke from stem to stern but was not herself covered.
About 18 aircraft approached from the north and circling over land, delivered a beam attack against the ships that were silhouetted against the afterglow. The timing of the attack prohibited the aircraft from being sighted except by very few witnesses, and radar was ineffective owing to land echoes. By the time the warning had been received and HMS Spartan and other ships had opened fire in the general direction of the attack, six bombs were already approaching the anchorage, most of them falling into the water.
Shortly afterwards, at approximately 17:56, another glider bomb (radio-controlled Henschel Hs 293) was seen approaching the starboard side of the ship. This bomb was engaged by close range anti-aircraft fire it was first thought likely to miss astern but is reported to have altered course during the final stage of its approach.
The bomb struck the ship at the after end of “B” funnel casing, started a heavy fire in the vicinity, the projectile passed through the ship and exploded high up on the port side of the main watertight sub-division containing “B” Boiler Room.
The main mast collapsed and boiler rooms were flooded. Steam and electrical power failed, a serious fire developed and the ship heeled over to port. Thus HMS Spartan was immobilized. About an hour after being hit, Spartan had to be abandoned in the dark, and 10 minutes later she settled on her beam-ends in about 25–30 ft (7.6–9.1 m) of water.
Five officers and 41 enlisted men were posted killed or missing presumed killed, and 42 enlisted men were wounded. Ron Douglas survived together with Acting Lieutenant J.S. Mackonochie, engineer.
The following extract is from Ronald Sired’s book, “Enemy Engaged” (published by William Kimber & Co. London, 1957, page 184) who was serving onboard HMS Laforey.
Just about this time I spotted a radio controlled-rocket bomb coming from a Do.217, and heading straight for Spartan. All our close-range weapons were directed towards the bomb, but it was travelling too fast for our fire to be accurate. I was able to see its red tail as it made for Spartan some 400 yards away. I watched helplessly as the bomb fell. I saw a bright flash as it exploded amidships, between the funnels, and a pillar of flame shot into the evening sky, momentarily lighting up Spartan. Serious fires were started and the Spartan quickly listed to port. By 1800 (this time must be incorrect as it does not fit with the Admiralty report) she was badly ablaze and, as the flames grew higher, I saw men dashing along her heeling decks with hoses and other fire fighting equipment. Other men dived over the side into the water.
Laforey moved closer to the strickened ship, which had listed further to port. Already her stern was below water. The after turret glowed red hot and sultry red flames reflected from gathering clouds. Laforey lowered both whalers and the motor-boat to pick up survivors. HMS Barndale was also standing close by, ready to go alongside Spartan at first opportunity to take off the wounded menbers of her ship’s company.
By 1840, the Spartan had listed some 70 degrees to port and I saw loose gear from her upper deck fall into the sea. Most of her ship’s company had jumped overboard and were being picked up by small craft. Her list increased and her fires died down as water flooded her compartments. From across the still waters came cries of men as they struggled in the oil-covered waters. The faint glow of torches flickered here and there as boats made their way to them.
By 1910, Spartan lay almost on her beam-ends and the water was lapping around her bridge. There were still a few intrepid sailors aboard her, helping wounded men to the boats alongside. Our motor-boat came alongside and took off her skipper, Captain McLaughlin. I saw a small cockle shell of a boat, a dinghy, containing one sailor, bobbing up and down close to the compass platform of the cruiser, searching for survivors. It was a queer sensation to watch the sea claim this once proud ship. The sea lapped over the upper-deck, which was now practically vertical and facing towards me.
By 1930, our scrambling nets which had been lowered over the side were swarming with oil-soaked survivors, and the first-aid and repair parties assisted them as they climbed inboard. There was considerable activity on board as the damage control parties dashed away for rum and blankets. Most of our ship remained closed-up in case of further attacks, but there were none.
By 1940, Spartan’s bridge and upperworks were underwater and I watched her starboard bilge keel appear as she slowly rolled over. The sea broke over her keel and her rudders and propellers were clearly visible as she sank from sight. By 2000 Spartan was no more. I had watched the foaming waters surge over her keel as she vanished, (In reality it was probably the darkness and not the sea that swallowed Spartan for, in fact, the ship’s keel remained visible).
The task of searching for her crew continued in the darkness and, as our mess-decks were crowded with survivors we moved away from the scene. Landing craft came alongside Laforey to take off Spartan’s survivors and at 2030, with the destroyer Loyal, we left for a night patrol at sea.
Joseph Logan, Gunners Mate, on board LCIL 219, together with his shipmates also assisted HMS Spartan. As Joseph described it, “LCI 219 quickly pulled alongside the Spartan in an effort to assist fighting the fires. I was manning one of the hoses. The landing ramps of the LCI were lowered down to the water surface to assist pulling the sailors out of the water. Other crew members of LCI 219 helped the Spartan sailors up the ramps. I seem to remember there were about 75 men pulled out of the water onto LCI 219. First aid was provided as needed.”. His son states that his father and other crew members used artificial respiration methods that he learned in the Boy Scouts to aid some of the British sailors.
January Through March Patents
In January, Willy Wonka was registered as a trademark in 1972, as was the Whopper burger in 1965, Campbell’s Soup in 1906, and Coca-Cola in 1893.
February features the patent of the washing machine in 1827, the patent of the phonograph to Thomas Edison in 1878, and the registration of Sun-Maid (raisins) trademark in 1917.
March boasts the patent of the Hula-Hoop in 1963, the patent of aspirin in 1899, and maybe the granddaddy of them all, the telephone, patented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.
Changes introduced by the N-550.
The N-550 moved the Certificate Number to top right of the Certificate and replaced “DEPARTMENT OF LABOR” with “DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE” on the bottom. The new form also printed “DUPLICATE” on top left of Naturalization Service copy. The biggest change was addition of a statement that "It is a violation of the U.S. Code (and punishable as such) to copy, print, photograph, or otherwise illegally use this certificate.” (This notation has created some confusion, but is not understood to mean duplication for purpose of illegal use, not personal scans or copies as insurance against loss).