Battle of Fort St. David, 19 December 1746

Battle of Fort St. David, 19 December 1746


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Battle of Fort St. David, 19 December 1746

The Battle of Fort St. St David (First Carnatic War).

When hostilities first broke out between the British and French in southern India in 1745 (part of the War of the Austrian Succession), Anwar-ud-Din, the Nawab of the Carnatic, had declared his area to be neutral and forbade either side from attacking the others possessions. The French had soon broken this restriction, and in September 1746 captured the British stronghold at Madras. The French governor, the Marquis Joseph-François Dupleix, temporarily placated the Nawab by promising to hand Madras over to him once it was captured, but French delays soon angered Anwar-ud-Din, and he send an army commanded by his son Maphuze Khan to besiege the French.

This army suffered two defeats in three days (battle of Madras, 2 November 1746 and battle of St. Thome, 4 November 1746), in both cases against much smaller French forces. The British were able to take advantage of these setbacks to form a short-lived alliance with the Nawab, who agreed to provide a cavalry force under the command of his sons Maphuze Khan and Mohammed Ali.

This was very fortunate for the British, who now retreated to their most modern fort in the area, Fort St. David, twelve miles to the south of Pondicherry. By December the fort was garrisoned by 200 European troops and 100 Sepoys.

The French were delayed at Madras for some time, and were only able to advance towards Fort St. David in December. Their field army was commanded by General de Bury, and he had 900 European troops, 700 Sepoys, six field guns and six mortars.

De Bury proved to be an incompetent commander. On the 19th his army camped in a walled garden a mile and a half from the fort. No sentries were posted, even though the Nawab's cavalry was within five miles. The Indians attacked as the French were preparing their dinner. Most of de Bury's men panicked and attempted to cross the nearby River Pennar. Only his artillery stood their ground and their actions prevented the retreat from turning into a total disaster. Even so the French lost around a dozen of their European soldiers killed and another 120 or so wounded.

The French now retreated to Ariancopang, and didn't make another attack on Fort St. David until March 1747. By this time a French naval squadron had arrived off the coast, and Anwar-ud-Din had been bought off. The French moved against Fort St. David on 13 March, but were quickly forced to retreat when a British naval squadron arrived in the port. A small French squadron arrived soon after this, allowing Dupleix the freedom of movement to attempt an attack on Cuddalore (27-28 June 1747), but this too ended in failure.


History of the Fort at No. 4

The history of The Fort at No. 4 in Charlestown, New Hampshire in many ways reflects the larger growth and development of the English colonies. This area in western New Hampshire was settled by pioneers who were characterized by their determination, work-ethic and emerging industrial skills. As the English colonies grew throughout the 18th century and immigration from England continued at a rapid pace, the need for more farmland and economic opportunity drove settlers west. The “west” in colonial New England included the vast tracts of land beyond the established towns. This was territory dense with forest and overflowing with deer, beaver and fish it was also land that was home to various Native American tribes. Just as coming to North America provided economic, religious and social opportunities, westward expansion of the colonies represented similar freedoms.

Seal of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1735

Massachusetts Establishes Land Grants

Facilitating the move west for its inhabitants, in 1735 the Massachusetts General Court established 26 land grants or “plantations” along the upper Connecticut River Valley. This act reflects the geographic importance of waterways in that time period: rivers served as highways in the movement of goods, people and ideas. Settlements were made along the Connecticut River so that colonists could access the rich soil of the river banks and use the river as transportation. Flowing 410 miles from the north all the way to the Long Island Sound, Connecticut means “Long River” in native Algonquian. Along with the Indians, colonists utilized it as a major route for trade. European powers also used it for the movement of troops during the French and Indian War era. Land grant No. 4 was located where the Black River comes in to the Connecticut, about 60 miles north of Deerfield, Massachusetts. Squarely in the path traveled by Indian hunters, No. 4 was positioned at a crossroads of rivers and overland routes a strategic location that would give the settlement a key role in the events from its establishment through the American Revolution.

“No. 4” is Settled

The original buyers of plantation No. 4 purchased their grant in 1735 yet did not settle the area themselves. It was not until 1740 that several families purchased grants from the original land speculators and made the arduous trek from their home towns including Rutland, Lunenberg and Groton, Massachusetts to provide new opportunities for their families. Three brothers, Stephen, Samuel, and David Farnsworth, were the first settlers of No. 4. They were joined by others, including the Stevens, Hastings, Willard, Parker, and Johnson families who would all play a role in the settlement’s history and development.

Surrounding Geography and People

These early families found themselves in a remote section of New England. No. 4 was the northern most settlement of the English colonies at this time. The closest settlement of any kind to No. 4, was Fort Dummer, about 40 miles to the south. Across the Connecticut River to the west lay a wilderness claimed by both New Hampshire and New York, yet long inhabited by the western Abenaki tribe. Farther west and to the north was New France this area, including what would become Canada, was claimed by England’s rival, France. In this age of colonialism, the French laid claim to the area from Louisiana through the Ohio River Valley. The St. Lawrence River gave the French unlimited access into the distant western frontier, allowing them to build a string of forts and trading posts. This placed No. 4 on the edge of competing territory between two leading international powers of the time period.

New France Versus New England

New France’s settlements were markedly different from English ones. Most French settlers were men who worked as traders and fur trappers. Their goal was to make a quick profit before they returned home to France. While in the New World, these men assimilated closely with Indian tribes, forging friendships and allies in order to conduct business. Both the French and their Native allies wanted to drive the English eastward and often joined together to raid settlements located in Indian homelands. Also, French missionaries established outposts specifically to introduce Catholicism to the native population. In contrast, New England colonists consisting mainly of Puritans and Pilgrims were more numerous and included whole families who were looking to establish a home in North America. New England colonists established towns that included local forms of government, schools and businesses. The Puritan work ethic helped create an ordered society that flourished. The English did not approach Native peoples in the same way as the French. While the English also wanted to convert the Native Americans, they did not readily form allies or accept Indian traditions. In addition, their primary economic activity – farming – brought them into conflict with Indians over land use issues.

Making a Home

The inhabitants of No. 4 recreated this English system in their settlement along the Connecticut River. They eventually secured a minister, doctor and blacksmith – all essential elements in a colonial settlement. The families of No. 4 educated their children using the common tools of the day such as the hornbook. Like most colonial children, girls and boys worked hard doing their daily chores. Girls typically helped their mothers cook, garden, sew and care for the younger children. Boys often chopped wood and learned a trade. Children had very little time for entertainment, but did have games and toys that were common in other colonial settlements. For example, they most likely made dolls from cornhusks and played games by shooting marbles and by rolling a large hoop with a stick.

The families of No. 4 cooperatively farmed land, built homes and ran businesses. For example, by the mid 1740s, the Spafford family constructed a gristmill, where grain was ground into flour, and a sawmill, which cut boards for construction of houses. Both of these industries played a significant part in building homes in the area and helping the population to thrive. However, living on the frontier meant facing dangers like Indian attacks. Several attacks on No. 4, described in diaries and other documents, record the killing and capture of settlers as well as the destruction of Spafford’s mills which were burnt down (and rebuilt) twice.

Native American Relations

The relationship between frontier inhabitants like those at No. 4 and the Native Americans whose homeland they were on was complex. In times of peace, No. 4 inhabitants had the opportunity to interact with the native population, mostly Abenaki. This included establishing a trading relationship with the local Indians. The account book of Phineas Stevens who set up a trading post at No. 4 reveals how often he traded with the Indians. This relationship was disrupted during times of conflict. Relations were already tense by the early 1740s when war from Europe spread to America (King George’s War 1744-1748). Located in the midst of Indian routes and the river, the families at No. 4 experienced this conflict first hand. Since they arrived at the settlement, they lived in fear of being attacked or captured by Native warriors allied with the French soldiers. The inhabitants of No. 4 held a meeting in 1743 where they decided to build a fort that would offer protection for the families.

A Fort is Constructed

Much of our information about the layout of the Fort comes from a map by soldier John Maynard. It outlines a plan showing the Fort’s homes, outbuildings, well placements and stockade. The map also lists some of the names of those living in the Fort at No. 4 during the summer of 1746. It shows that the Fort was built in the shape of a square with pointed twelve foot posts standing five inches apart, enough to shoot out from, but not wide enough for someone to enter. Inside this protective wall they brought in existing houses and connected them with lean-tos. They constructed a “Great Chamber” with an attached wooden tower that served as a look out for miles up and down the Connecticut River. The large hall served as a function room for church service, meetings or barracks. In addition, they eventually secured a cannon, placed in Parker House, that would sound the alarm of danger in case of attack. Should danger appear, residents would seek refuge inside the Fort leaving their fields and large animals.

Appealing for Help

Residents of what was now called The Fort at No. 4 also asked for protection and aid from the New Hampshire Government. As early as 1743 and 1744 documents at the New Hampshire state archives show how John Spafford and Josiah Willard of No. 4 petitioned Governor Benning Wentworth for military protection. They directed their plea for assistance to New Hampshire because in 1741 King George II of England had settled a boundary dispute with Massachusetts by running the line 50 miles south of the Fort, in effect ceding to New Hampshire a wide tract of formerly Massachusetts territory. In response, the New Hampshire government established a committee to investigate the settlement of No. 4 in order to garrison it. In 1744, Governor Shirley from Massachusetts wrote to New Hampshire about how important that area was for the protection of English subjects. Because of the boundary dispute, Massachusetts still had soldiers on the upper Connecticut River, yet did not want to remove them until New Hampshire took over. However, the New Hampshire government was slow moving in its response. Under pressure from Massachusetts residents who no longer wanted to pay for soldiers outside of their territory, Massachusetts removed its soldiers from No. 4 and inhabitants were forced to abandon the Fort in the autumn of 1746.

Stevens Returns

Phineas Stevens, one of the early settlers of No. 4 played a significant role in organizing the defense of No. 4 from the mid 1740’s to his death in 1756 while on a military campaign in Nova Scotia. He was commissioned Lieutenant under Josiah Willard then Captain for the defense of No. 4. In January, 1747, he petitioned Governor Shirley to let him return with soldiers to The Fort by April emphasizing its key location as the first line of protection of western New Hampshire and Northern Massachusetts settlements. Shirley granted his request and Stevens returned just in time for within days, his company successfully repelled an attack against The Fort from a siege by French soldiers and Indian warriors. His defense allowed the settlers to return. Stevens’ bravery also caught the attention of British officer Sir Charles Knowles who sent a sword honoring Stevens’ actions. The residents of No. 4 remembered this important event and the gift by naming the town Charlestown at the time of its incorporation in 1753, in honor of Sir Knowles.

Redeeming Captives

Stevens played an important role not only in the life of The Fort but in the larger New England community as well. He was commissioned on several occasions to redeem English as well as Indian captives who had been taken by the French and their Indians allies and brought to Canada. Indians took captives for many reasons including replacing family members lost in battle or for trading them to the French for products. The French in turn sold captives back to the English. The experience of captives differed depending on the tribe. Some captives were killed, others sold, and some integrated into the life of the tribe. Stevens’ journals of his travels in 1749 and 1752 reveal much about colonial life, economy, transportation and Indian relations in that time period. During his 1752 trip, he retrieved 24-year old John Stark who eventually became integral to the story of New Hampshire’s history. Despite the uneasy relations with the Indians, the population of Charlestown grew steadily, so that by 1754 there were 180 inhabitants.

French & Indian War (Seven Year’s War)

The year 1754 marks the start of the French and Indian War when warfare erupted between rival powers France and England for the fourth and final time in North America. 1754 also marks renewed hostilities for the residents of No. 4 and Charlestown, as in that year Abenaki Indians captured the Johnson family. Their trials and tribulations in their march to Canada, captivity and redemption mirrors other captivity narratives that were commonly published in that era. The Johnson story is instructive revealing not only this peril of frontier life, but also the economic factor captives played in the French and Indian economies. In August of 1754 with the threat of conflict looming, the Johnsons were preparing to leave for the safety of Northfield, Massachusetts. Mr. James Johnson had just returned from Connecticut and had heard the news that war was expected. Mrs. Susanna Johnson was in the final days of pregnancy, yet she began making plans for their move. However, on August 30th Mr. and Mrs. Johnson, Sylvanus, age 6, Susanna, age 4, Polly, age 2, Mrs. Johnson’s sister Miriam Willard, age 14 and two neighbors, Peter Larabee and Ebenezer Farnsworth were captured. Their journey in which they all survived is chronicled in A Narrative of the Captivity of Mrs. Johnson (Heritage Books, Inc., 1990). Mrs. Johnson’s tale surprises readers with its description of humane treatment, especially after the birth of her daughter, one day into captivity. As the French and Indian War spread more soldiers came through No. 4 offering protection from Indian attacks.

Soldiers “Huzzah!”

I Powder with my brother ball /A Hero Like I Conquer all” from Samuel Lounsbury’s powder horn "made at Charlestown/alas No. 4 June 20 1757"

Having No. 4 fortified and garrisoned added a dimension of importance to this settlement on the frontier that would see a military presence through the end of the American Revolution. No. 4’s strategic geographic location became especially clear during the 1750s as soldiers from New England were garrisoned on their way to military campaigns. No. 4 itself underwent additions and improvements to accommodate the soldiers. Various ranger and militia companies were stationed at No. 4 to carry out scouting and raiding parties and to provide protection for the farmers in and around the settlement. Between 1757 and 1760, with the French and Indian War fully underway, No. 4 was a staging area for regular and colonial troops from New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut on their way to and from the Lake Champlain/ Lake George theatre of war. From there the men were sent to serve at Fort William Henry, Crown Point, or Ticonderoga. Many saw action in Canada or out west at places like Forts Oswego or Niagara in what is now western New York State.

This was especially true once construction of the Crown Point Road was completed in 1760. Measuring 77 miles, the Crown Point road was constructed by John Stark and other rangers and linked Charlestown (No. 4) with Chimney Point, now in Vermont, on the eastern shore of Lake Champlain, directly across the lake from Fort Crown Point.

Records of these soldiers at No. 4 are recorded in the muster rolls, diaries and even powder horns remaining from the time period. The powder horns that held soldiers’ gun powder were carved with designs and lettering ranging from the rudimentary to the intricate. Like others from the era, the horns carved at No. 4 offer fascinating insight into solders’ lives. Many soldiers inscribed poems about wanting to be successful in battle others yearned for loved ones left behind. Some powder horns provided maps of military campaigns or other images.

Robert Rogers

One famous powder horn that survived was that of Major Robert Rogers. Rogers’ horn was carved at Fort William Henry in 1756. Rogers was well known for his core group of Rangers who allied with Indians to scout ahead and bring back valuable information. Rogers’ Rangers were one of the most successful arms of the British army in the French and Indian War. One of Rogers’ most legendary campaigns occurred in October 1759 against the Abenaki of the St. Francis tribe (Quebec). This historic event of which books and movies were made directly involved No. 4. While Abenaki oral tradition and Rogers’ account differ to some extent it was a significant event that came at the end of the war. Rogers and his band of rangers and Indian scouts razed the village, yet were forced to make an incredible overland journey back to the safety of No. 4, fewer in number, starved and exhausted.

Overall, Rogers’ dress, attitude and behavior contrasted sharply with those of the English soldiers, or Regulars, who came to fight in the war. These differences that Rogers exposed exemplify the growing rift between the English Regulars and the colonial militia men. As the combined forces were successful in defeating France and her Indian allies, American militia men in particular and colonists in general gained a new confidence and ultimately a new identity that set them further apart from their “mother country”.

End of an Era and a New Beginning

The 1759 attack on St. Francis signaled an end to the Abenaki presence in New Hampshire 1759 also heralded the end of French resistance in their loss at the battle of Quebec. The fall of Quebec was one of the last major military engagements of the French and Indian War. Official peace came with the Treaty of Paris in 1763. The result of English victory meant the eventual expulsion of France from North America and British dominance of the continent, forever shaping United States history.

In the decade following the peace treaty, American Colonists were unable to reconcile their new identities and feelings of independence with an English King and Parliament who increasingly sought tighter economic and political control. Thus, The Fort at No. 4 was called into action again as a rallying point for the troops fighting in the American Revolution. In 1777, General John Stark mustered troops at No. 4 to take them into the Battle of Bennington: troops from all over New Hampshire answered the call. Once the Revolution was successfully fought, the need for The Fort dwindled. After three decades of activity and service The Fort at No. 4 fell into disrepair as the citizens of Charlestown concentrated on building their community in the newly formed United States. The Fort’s role during the French and Indian War era, a significant precursor to the American Revolution, was not forgotten. Finally, in the 1960s The Fort was reconstructed to become a Living History Museum to educate students and visitors about life in New Hampshire and New England during this defining moment in United States history.

Selections from the poem “Then and Now” by Henry H. Saunderson. History of Charlestown, NH, 1876, pages 718-722.


Contents

In 1720 France effectively nationalized the French East India Company, and began using it to expand its imperial interests. This became a source of conflict with the British in India with the entry of Britain into the War of the Austrian Succession in 1744. Ώ] Hostilities in India began with a British naval attack on a French fleet in 1745, which led the French Governor-General Dupleix to request additional forces. ΐ] This resulted in the despatch of a fleet under La Bourdonnais that arrived in 1746. In July of that year La Bourdonnais and British Admiral Edward Peyton fought an indecisive action off Negapatam, after which La Bourdonnais put in at Pondicherry for repairs and strategising with Dupleix. The fleets met again on 19 August, but Peyton refused battle, recognising that La Bourdonnais had acquired additional guns at Pondicherry, and retreated to Bengal. On 4 September 1746, La Bourdonnais led an attack on Madras. After several days of bombardment the British surrendered and the French entered the city. Α] The British leadership was taken prisoner and sent to Pondicherry. It was originally agreed that the town would be restored to the British after negotiation but this was opposed by Dupleix, who sought to annex Madras to French holdings. Β] The remaining British residents were asked to take an oath promising not to take up arms against the French handful refused, among them a young Robert Clive, and were kept under weak guard as the French prepared to destroy the fort. Disguising themselves as natives, Clive and three others eluded their inattentive sentry, slipped out of the fort, and made their way to Fort St. David (the British post at Cuddalore), some 50 miles (80 km) to the south. Γ] Δ] Dupleix, in the meantime, had before the assault promised to turn over Fort St. George to the Nawab of the Carnatic Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan, but refused to do so. Anwaruddin responded by sending a 10,000 man army to take the fort from Dupleix by force. Dupleix, who had lost the support of La Bourdonnais over the status of Madras, had only 300 French troops. In the Battle of Adyar this small force successfully repulsed the attacks of Anwaruddin's army, demonstrating the significant advantages of well-trained European forces against the generally poorly trained Indian troops.

Dupleix then launched an assault on Fort St. David. Stung by his defeat at Adyar, Anwaruddin sent his son Muhammed Ali to assist the British in the defence of Cuddalore, and was instrumental in holding off a French attack in December 1746. Over the next few months Anwaruddin and Dupleix had made peace, and the Carnatic troops were withdrawn. In March 1747 the French launched an attack against the outer defences of Fort St. David, forcing the British defenders inside the fort's walls. The timely arrival of a British fleet from Bengal, however, turned the tables and prompted the French to withdraw to Pondicherry.

In 1748 Major Stringer Lawrence arrived to take command of the British troops at Fort St. David. Ε] With the arrival of reinforcements from Europe, the British besieged Pondicherry in late 1748. Clive distinguished himself in successfully defending a trench against a French sortie: one witness of the action wrote "[Clive's] platoon, animated by his exhortation, fired again with new courage and great vivacity upon the enemy." Ζ] The siege was lifted in October 1748 with the arrival of the monsoons, and the war came to a conclusion with the arrival in December of news of the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. Under its terms Madras was returned to British control.


Battles fought in India between 1800-1900

1803-06: Second Anglo-Maratha war. The Marathas were defeated by the British

1814-16: Nepalese War. Between the English and the Gurkhas. The war came to an end with the Treaty of Sagauli

1817-19: Third Anglo-Maratha war. The Marathas were badly defeated by the British

1824-26: First Anglo-Burmese War. The British defeated the Burmese. Peace was restored by the Treaty of Yandahboo

1839-42: First Anglo-Afghan War. The Afghan ruler Dost Muhammad was defeated by the English

1845-46: First Anglo-Sikh War. The Sikhs were defeated by the English. The war was ended by the Treaty of Lahore

1848-49: Second Anglo-Sikh War. Sikhs were defeated and Punjab was annexed by the British

1852: Second Anglo-Burmese War. The English were successful

1865: Third Anglo-Burmese War. The English annexed Burma

1878-80: Second Anglo-Afghan war. The English suffered losses


HISTORY MATTERS: Fort St. Davids

We’re called “East Falls” — but where are the waterfalls? Joseph Minardi explains our piscine origins, when the Schuylkill river roared with rapids (and delicious protein).In pre-Revolutionary days, a group of prominent Welshman from Philadelphia, some of whom were Quakers and close associates of William Penn, organized a society and a clubhouse that was the genesis of East Falls. They called themselves the Society of Fort St. David’s in honor of the patron saint of Wales.

Out of hemlock logs they erected a rough-hewn cabin as their headquarters in the wilderness. The primitive lodge sat at the foot of a hill, opposite a long rock that extended into the raging waters of the Schuylkill River, then teeming with rockfish, perch, catfish and shad. This long rock formed a natural dam and made it an ideal location for fishing, leading to some legendary fish tales.

Despite the crudeness of their summer pavilion and the rural setting, the Society of Fort St. David’s attracted a large and respectable number of associates from the upper echelons of Philadelphia’s aristocracy. The Society was militarily in its hierarchy and governing. There were governors, captains, lieutenants, etc., and, as its leader, there was a commander-in-chief who issued orders and proclamations. Even the name included the word Fort, implying that it was some sort of garrison or fortification.

The Schuylkill was formerly a more turbulent river than present-day. The waters of the stream rushed over the boulders and jagged rocks, producing cascades and rapids. The roaring of the waters were heard as far as five miles away. The earliest inhabitants of the area, the Lenni Lenape Indians, referred to this part of the river as Ganshewahanna, or “noisy waters.”

Where Schuylkill o’er his rocky bed
Road like a bull in battle.”

At first, the fishing done by the Society of Fort St. David’s was more of a casual affair. They used to meet during fishing season, beginning with the first of May, and continuing every other Friday during the season. The original fortress-like house was torn down by Hessian soldiers, who used the wood to build their own huts during the bitter winter of 1777–1778.

After the conclusion of the Revolutionary War, the members resolved to rebuild the fort. This second clubhouse was accidentally burned down some years later, and the society merged with another similar institution, the State in the Schuylkill. The newly unified club modeled its “castle” after Fort St. David’s in 1812 and became the Fishing Company of St. David.

East Falls was the greatest fishing spot to be found anywhere in Philadelphia County. There were frequently told stories of heroic catches so immense that they stretched the limits of credulity.

Historian John F. Watson, a man often given to stretching the truth, told of huge hauls back in the fishing heyday of East Falls. In his Annals of Philadelphia, first published in 1830, Watson told the age-old stories of Godfrey Shrunk, a well-known fisherman for the Fishing Company of St. David. Shrunk told of catching 3,000 fish a night using only a dip-net! Catfish were numerous too, with Shrunk cooking nearly 500 of the bewhiskered fish at a time.

According to another historian, Charles V. Hagner, there was nothing really extraordinary about these colossal catches, stating that a person could catch enough shad in fishing season, lasting only three months, to support his entire family for a whole year.

The catfish of those days were different from those found in the river nowadays. They supposedly migrated from the sea regularly on or about the 25 th of May in numbers so immense that they blackened the narrow passages of the river. They were perfectly black on the back and white on the belly, and were remarkably fine eating.

They were caught in obscene amounts during their three-week run while others were put into holding ponds for the summer and autumn seasons.

These pools supplied the acclaimed hotels and roadhouses of Ridge Avenue and Wissahickon (now Lincoln) Drive, where patrons gobbled up the bottom feeding fish, washed down with a steaming cup of coffee.

At the Falls Hotel, catfish were paired with waffles to form the classic Wissahickon Supper, later served at all the local resorts.

Fairmount Dam & Waterworks

The construction of the Fairmount Dam in 1821 put an end to the legendary days of far-fetched fishing. The dam caused the waters to rise upstream, submerging the boulders, which killed the fishing industry and silenced the “noisy waters” of the Lenape Indians.

The fisheries of East Falls are ancient history but the memory still remains. On the roof of the 1913 Falls of the Schuylkill Library is a steeple topped with a catfish, an acknowledgment of Fort St. David’s remarkable fishing history.

Follow Joe on Facebook for great photos & info about the fascinating old architecture of Philadelphia.


Cuddalore History

The following notes come from my recent research into one of my five x great grandfathers John De Morgan who arrived in India in 1711 as a private and eventually rose to become the commander in 1745 of Fort St David near Cuddalore.

In the course of this research I have unearthed many stories covering the lives of many of the ordinary soldiers, which I believe deserve a wider hearing.

The Dutch established the original factory at Devanampatam (Fort St David) in about 1670, and later built a fort 700 yards north of the mouth of the Gadilam River. They quitted both places in 1678. The Madras records say that their departure was partly owing to a dispute with Sivaji.

In 1680 the Dutch returned to Cuddalore and obtained from the Marathas a grant of land there and permission to erect a factory as will be seen later, they were in possession of the Devanampatam fort and had a lease of Manjakuppam at the time that the English bought Fort St. David in 1690 in 1693.

As so often in British History, some of the earliest soldiers were recruited in Ireland.

"October Monday ye 24th1709 Captain Courtney producing a list of the soldiers, raised by him in Ireland arriv’d here in the Hallifax & came ashore the 15th Instant, y’t they are much out of all manner of Cloathing, they being in number about thirty three & y’t they are all in Generall wanting shirting, and by a list of 15 of them they want Coats, Shoes, and Stockings, does now make his application to the board requesting they may be Cloathed, Ordered that the doe deliver what coats he hath in stors, to those that want them, so farr as they goe, as likewise Shoes stockings, & white cloth enough to make y. 2 shirts a piece, & yt. an acc’t of ye same be kept apart to be deducted out of their monthly pay."

Just as in modern times, complaints of failings in the soldiers equipment were common place.

"Agreed and order’d ye bross Dougo, and Amaru Ferrara be entertained in Capt’n Hugonin Company as Topasses pay as usuall."

Topasses were "men of the hats", called as such to distinguish them from Peons who were native born Indian's and who wore turban's. Topasses were generally of Portuguese or mixed Portuguese descent at this date.

As was also the case in Britain wrecking, or the recovery of cargo from wrecked ships was seen as a perk belonging to the local rulers. Just as in Cornwall, the locals usually got their before the rulers. The East India Company attempted to write clauses into treaties which overrode this custom in neighboroughing states for East India Company vessels.

"Thursday October 27th1709 There having been a little boat belonging to a sampan bound from Cuddalore to Madrass but meeting with Contray winds were forced back again & by a squall of wind y little boat was broke away from her stern & drove ashoar a little way out of our bounds were Sirrup Sing Tuncaneers have seized her pretending (tho’ falsely) their masters have a right to all wrecks within his Government, which is contray to several Cowles & Perwanna’s granted to the Rt. Hon’ble Comp. By ye form’r and successive Kings of ye country, & of late years from Gulphus Cawne. Is therefore agreed & ordered ye Mr. Farmer do send out twelve soldiers & twenty Peons & ye the owner of the boat to go along with them, & y’t Mr Farmer do acquaint Capt’n Hugouin with our order to the end he may send out such men, as he may confide in under the command of Sergeant Brooks, to the end he may avoid any Hostility, but that they bring in the boat & w’t belongs to it.. "

Upkeep of the buildings and fort infrastructure was a constant battle. Gunpowder was key to the forts survival, I imagine that it was more regularly maintained than the other buildings.

"SatterdayOctober the 29th 1709 The Power rooms in the Fort being very much decayed, & not safe to keep a Quantity of Powder in, tis agreed to build a new Powder Room in such a place, as shall be thought most proper for it as also a new Choultry at Cuddalore which is ready to fall down so consequently very dangerous for any to be there."

It would appear that facilities for the troops were rather rudimentary. One poor man who had only just arrived in India, and who was quite probably already ill when he arrived slipped and fell into the moat. Did they have a washroom in the barracks?

"30th October This morning John Henry one of the new soldiers in ye Garrison was unfortunately drowned in the moat just by the Fort Gate going to wash himself.

MondayYe 14th November 1709 Inclosing in the aforesaid generall came a Commission from the Hon’ble Councill appointing y’t Lieutenant Hercules Courtney to Command a Company of Soldiers made out of Capt’n james Davies Company at ye Fort w’ch is to consist of 150 men besides new soldiers come upon the Frederick & Hallifax, Capt’n Davis, & Capt’n Courtney having divided the two companies ‘tis agreed y’t Capt’n Courtney’s Company be drawn up, & his commission read at the head thereof with ye usuall manner of delivering him ye half pike."

The offices were often as drunk and disorderly as the men, and often fell out amongst themselves.

"March 21st 1709/10 Quarrel between Capt’n Courtney and Capt’n Davis."

Just as in modern times Cuddalore is frequently swept with huge floods as the waters come down from the huge inland catchment area which stretches away over 250 miles to the west, nearly to the Ghats.

"April 3rd 1710 This day broke our a Large Barr to the Southward of the ffort occasion’d by Great Rains & Currants of Water w’ch came out of the Country. Fort St David."

The gunners were considered a cut above the rest of the ordinary soldiers, and lived apart in the gunroom. They had priviledges not granted to soldiers, such as the right to brew Toddy or Arrack for sale to the visiting sailors. Sadly however this did not always work in their favour, for when the ships were absent, which could be nine or more months away, they tended to drink themselves into oblivion. They were less likely to leave the fort on escort duty, and were more prone to commit suicide than were the soldiers.

"19th June 1710. Thomas Cassar is entertained in the Gunroom at the usual pay to serve 3 years.

Stephen Deas a Topass is entertained in Capt’n Davis’s company at the usual pay."

"20th June 1710. This morning Capt’n James Davies arrived from Madras overland & brought with him a general letter dated the 17th Instant.

21st June 1710. David Antony, Bastian Antony, Anthony Lopes, Lewis de Silva Topass are entertained in Capt’n Davis Compy at the usual pay.

Monday June 26 1710. Anthony de Rosiro is entertained in Captain Hugoens company at the usual pay."

In the unsettled conditions recruiting went on at an increased rate with many of the men being of Portuguese, or mixed Portuguese Indian race. These men were called Topasses and where valued more highly than Indian’s who were known as Peons, but less valued than northern European’s.

Gaspar Roy, Joseph Row, Antony Texeira, Manuel De Costa, Dominigo de Mount, Pasqual Deas & Ventura Ferrera are entertained in Captain Hugonin’s Company at the usual pay of Topasses."

It would appear that the European's and the Topasses were paraded together in the same companies.

Conditions for the soldiers were often extremely harsh, and the distant EIC board was less than sympathetic to the conditions of their men who were often underpaid and in arrears.

The ready availability of drink did not help matters either. The right to sell or “farm” arrack to the troops was sold by “outcry” or auction every year. The farmers often gave credit to the soldiers, and then tried to claim the money back directly from the EIC at pay day. This led to many abuses.

They allso order in said General that for the future no Retailer of Arrack do presume to trust any of the Millitary, below the degree of sergeant, on penalty of loosing their money & that no stoppage be made at the pay Table but for Diet & Ammunition Coats, which order they would have published in Cuddalore, & Tevenapatam, by beat of Tom Tom & fixing papers in Several languages at the usual places which is accordingly done & notice given that the arrack license (w’h expires the last day of this month) will be put up at Publick outcry at the fort on Monday next being the 28th Instant."

The combination of depression, homesickness and drink all to often led to men going off the rails. As is illustrated by the following deaths the following month.

"Last night Corporal Knight run off his guard Villarenutta about one mile out of our bounds, where he killed a man & was brought in this morning after having been severely beat by the country people.

8th. This morning said Corporal died & was interred in the Evening."

Even without drink, life was often short. Between 30 and 40 men were landed as soldiers each year at Fort St. David. Within a year only about 10 would still be alive.

"17th This morning James Hearn a Centinell of this Garrison departed this life & was interred in the Evening."

These survivors were especially valued as they were considered as "seasoned" because they were seen as being more likely to survive than would new recruits. The soldiers contracts were for five years, and these seasoned men were often offered large bonuses to sign on again, rather than to return home. This was not alturism on the part of the East India Company, but hard headed business sense, because the cost and waste in new recruits was enormous. Only men at the margins of society, or refugees would sign on in Europe, as they recognised it to be a one way trip for all but a tiny lucky minority.

Even the officers were often so drunk that they could not maintain discipline.

"18th Sept 1710.
And it being ordered in said Genl to break Ensign Carter his Commission for Sergeant Brooks to be made Ensign in his stead. Was this day read at the head of the Company & Delivered him.

Francis Sharhaler, Enoch Vouters, & Loucas Carly are entered in the Gunroom at usual pay."

Ensign Carter had been so incapacitated by drink when six of his men deserted, that he had not been able to take steps to stop them.

“They likewise advise that the orders sent them hence for reducing Military Officers pay according to what appointed by the Honbl Compas. Letter recd. Per the Susannah has caus’d a great noise and putt the Garrison upon a ferment, insomuch that on the 27th. last past a Sergeant & five Centinells deserted and run away with their arms, and a great many more designd to doe the like had they not been prevented in due time by a watchfull eye over them, They also advise that Ensign Carter was timely advis’d of their running away but being drunk took no notice of it till four hours after they were gone, and this having been his frequent practice, of which he has been often admonish’d, it’s therefore Agreed that he be broke and that a Commission be drawn out to appoint Sergt Edward Brookes (he being well recommended to us) Ensign, in his stead.”

Sergeant Brooks had previously run the armoury at Cuddalore.

"2nd October 1710. Sergeant Brooks being made an Ensign the care & charge of the armoury at Cuddalore becomes vacant thereby & Sergeant Hobey being esteemed a fitting Person to officiate in the said employ tis agreed that he should look after the same.",

Life as an East Company Soldier appears to have been fairly tough during this period.

Madras Gazetteers South Arcot published 1906 Page 38
From British Library
IOR G/18/2/PT3,
IOR G/18/2 PT2.
IOR G/18/2 PT2.
IOR G/18/2 PT2.
IOR G/18/2 PT2.
Diary and Consultation Book 1710. Page 92.
IOR G/18/2/ PT 2.


Birth of Fort St. George

By the mid-17th-century, trade in the Coromandel Coast was already prospering with the British East India Company vying for monopoly over its French and Dutch counterparts. To protect English trade interests in the area, it was decided that an English Fort was needed in the region. And so, in the year 1639, Francis Day and Andrew Cogan, representatives of the British East India Company, purchased the strip of land along and inward from the present Marina Beach from the then Nayak rulers of the region, for the construction of a new Fort that was dedicated to St. George, the Patron Saint of England. On February 20, Day and Cogan arrived at the site with two ships and a few dozen workers and began work on a settlement that would later become Fort St. George. The Fort was finally completed on April 23, 1644, and had cost the crown nearly £3,000.


Madras Miscellany: The Battle of the Adyar

What do you think was the most significant battle in modern Indian history (1498-1948), I was recently asked by a researcher who called on me. I had no hesitation in replying, “The Battle of the Adyar River.” Much to her surprise.

The battle was a consequence of Fort St. George surrendering to the French early in October 1746. On October 15, the Nawab of Arcot -- whom the English had supported -- sent troops under the command of his son, Mahfuz Khan, to invest Fort St. George and ask the French to return the settlement to the English. Instead, the French broke out of the fort and dispersed the Nawab’s troops. Mahfuz Khan, reinforcing his army, it is said, to about 10,000 men, then moved south, seized San Thomé and formed a battle line on the north bank of the Adyar River on October 22 to prevent the French moving up reinforcements from Pondicherry. Two hundred French and French-trained Indian troops led by a Swiss mercenary, Captain Paradis, force marched from Pondicherry on the same day, crossed Quibble Island and took positions on the south bank of the Adyar River where they came under ineffective artillery fire from Mahfuz Khan’s forces.

On the 24th, Paradis decided to ford the river with his 200 men after he heard that a similar sized force led by de la Tour was on its way from Fort St. George to attack the rear of Mahfuz Khan’s line. But in the event, de la Tour arrived too late to support Paradis whose troops, with disciplined firing and then charging with bayonets, broke the Nawab’s line. Mahfuz Khan’s troops fled and, so, the Battle of the Adyar River, which began on the morning of October 24, 1746, ended by that evening, with the French occupation of Fort St. George consolidated.

In terms of later battles and today’s ones, the Battle of the Adyar River was not much of a clash of arms. But it proved one thing. That disciplined European troops and Indian sipahis trained in the European manner of soldiering could rout thousands of Indian soldiers with little training and less discipline. And that lesson was not lost on the English who, the same year, in their last bolt-hole on the Coromandel, Fort St. David, Cuddalore, began raising and training what became the Madras Regiment that was to be the nucleus of the Indian Army of today that grew from those beginnings. It is with that Army that the British created an India that has grown into the modern nation of today. Triggering English thought to create such a military force that was to spearhead the drive for Empire and the creation of modern India is the significance of that battle that many treat just as a footnote to history. From my point of view, it was a pivotal point in history.

Not long ago, about a 100 years ago, Madras had within its municipal limits something like 300 water bodies. Today, there are hardly a couple of dozen. The rest have all been built over. And that includes three of its biggest ones: the Long Tank, the Vyasarpadi Tank and the Spur Tank. And lest we blame the authorities of post-Independence Madras, we should recall that the process of replacing precious water with brick and mortar began around 1920.

The Long Tank was a boomerang-shaped one, about 6 km in length from the southernmost tip of what was called the Mylapore Tank to the westernmost tip of the tank it flowed into, the Nungambakkam Tank. The Mylapore Tank stretch was one of the early venues (1870s-90s) of the Madras Boat Club regattas, having as it did “a fine expanse of water from the Cathedral Corner (where Gemini Studios used to be) to Sydapet…”. Blacker's Garden, near what is now called Cathedral Garden Road (and then occupied by successive high Government officials) was where the boathouse was and where the Governor, his Lady and their entourage, together with his Band and other spectators (‘Europeans Only’) gathered to watch the finishes.

When there was a debate in the 1890s on whether this stretch or the Adyar (which is now the Club’s home course) was preferable, the supporters of the Long Tank pointed out, “Although the glare of the setting sun off the broad stretch of water was somewhat trying, a good view of the whole course could be had, which is not obtainable on the Adyar. The Long Tank provides a long broad stretch of deep water, the course being straight from start to finish, so that, for racing purposes, it is infinitely preferable to the river which winds about a great deal and presents at low tide, a shallow and uneven course almost throughout.” What a body of water to lose!

But lose it we did when, in 1923, the Town Planners decided that growing Madras needed more land for housing and proposed the Mambalam Housing Scheme for whose 1600 acres it became necessary to breach the Long Tank and let its waters into the Adyar. The breaching was done in 1930, and the development of Theogaraya Nagar (T’Nagar) began. Then, in 1941, the ‘Lake Area’ was developed on part of the Nungambakkam Tank and was followed by 54 acres being given for the campus of Loyola College. The last vestiges of the tank were handed over, in 1974, for the Valluvar Kottam complex.

The Vyasarpadi Tank, into which the water from 28 tanks once flowed, gradually gave way to post-Independence development and finally vanished under the weight of the Tamil Nadu Housing Board’s Vyasarpadi Neighbourhood Scheme and the Vyasarpadi Industrial Estate in the 1960s and 70s. And the Spur Tank all but vanished from around the 1920s as buildings came up for what is now the Kilpauk General Hospital. All that’s left of it is what is called Chetpet Lake, which is dry most of the time.

When the postman knocked…

Aruna Gill, in a response from Princeton on my item this past week on her book The Indus Intercept, writes that she has been neither to Pakistan nor its troubled Baluchistan province. “I have to thank,” she explains, “Google Maps for allowing me to zoom in on the terrain and the streets of Quetta for a bird’ eye view and a street’ eye view.” She then tells me, referring to her interest in the Indus script, that while her husband Gyan Prakash, who teaches at Princeton, is focussed on modern Indian history, her interest has always been “in the ancient worlds.” She adds, “Reading the history of ancient cultures humbles me -- that they could know and think and do things with such limited resources. Ancient scripts are just one manifestation of this, while we take the written word so much for granted.”

* Additional information on the brothers Vembakkam Sadagopacharlu and Rajagopalacharlu (Miscellany, November 5) has been sent to me by reader V.C. Srikumar, the Editor of the Law Weekly. He tells me that the journal was founded in 1914 by V.C. Seshachariar, an advocate, the son of Rajagopalacharlu, whose elder son was V.C. Desikachari, Chief Judge of the Madras Small Causes Court. Referring to the appointment of Sadagopacharlu to the Madras Legislative Assembly, the first Indian to be so appointed, reader Srikumar points out that he was one of the three non-official members nominated in 1862 by Governor Sir William Dennison under the then introduced Indian Councils Act, 1861. The other two were Robert Campbell, chairman of the Madras Chamber of Commerce, and an earlier chairman of the Chamber, William R. Arbuthnot. The three first sat in Council on January 22, 1862.

Commending the choice of a person it later described as “a native pleader in an East India Company’s Court,” The Hindu stated, “He is a man of extensive and varied information regarding the country and its wants is a sound practical lawyer has come in contact with almost all sections of the population of the Southern Districts of the Presidency is highly esteemed for his popular sympathies… and (he) possesses in abundance the essential requisites of a public man, to wit, sound judgment and tact.” Several acres of his property in Alamelmangapuram, Venkatesa Agraharam and what is now Raja Annamalaipuram were, on his death, endowed by his wife Echamma to the Sri Vedantha Desikar Temple, Mylapore, which has given much of the acreage on 99-year leases for housing development.


Battle of Fort St. David, 19 December 1746 - History

Revolutionary War Soldiers

GRAVES OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS.

Located by the Daughters of American Revolution

Source: TWENTIETH REPORT OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY of the DAUGHTERS of the AMERICAN REVOLUTION
OCTOBER 11, 1916, TO OCTOBER 11, 1917 - pub. June 9, 1918
65th Congress, 2nd session, Document NO. 241
Transcribed by Tina Easley

NOTE: This is not a complete list of all Revolutionary War Soldiers

The locating and marking of Revolutionary soldiers' graves is another work of the Daughters of the American Revolution, but carrying with it a great deal of labor, since accurate dates, location, names, services, etc., must be secured and identified before the D.A.R. markers can be placed.

The accompanying list of soldiers' graves is an addition to a similar list in the last report and shows the activity of the society during the past year. Those that have been "marked" by the society are so ind icated in the list.

Else Cilley Chapter, Nottingham, N. H., placed a memorial monument on Nottingham Square to the four generals—Bartlett, Butler, Ci lley, and Dearborn—who went from there to the Revolutionary War. This mon ument was dedicated on July 4, 1917. It has a Concord granite base with a Quincy granite pedestal and Westerly granite Minute Man.

Col. Thomas Lothrop Chapter, Cohasset, Mass., located the grave of a Cohasset heroine of the Revolution, Persis (Tower) Lincoln, daughter of Daniel and Perthia (Nichols) Tower and wife of Allen Lincoln, who was taken prisoner and died in Dartmoor prison. Persis ran the blockade from Cohasset to Gloucester to get supplies for relatives and friends which could not be obtained in Boston.

Adams, Andrew. Born 1735 died November 27, 1797 buried in West Litchfield (Conn.) Cemetery.

Adkins, Isaiah. Born 1760 died May 14, 1842 buried at Union Hill, near Mehoopany. Pa. He ranked as a corporal.

Agry, Thomas. Birth and death not given buried in Hallowell Cemetery, Hallowell, Me.

Allen, William. Died March 31, 1823 (aged 78) buried in Agawam Center (Mass.) Cemetery.

Alsop, John (private). Born 1743 died 1783 buried in Frederick County, Md.

Ames, Elisha. Born 1758 died September 26, 1845 buried at Mehoopany, Pa. Private in Massachusetts troops.

Anderson, Benjamin (private). Born September 13, 1766 died August 2, 1830 buried in Silver Spring churchyard, Cumberland County, Pa.

Anderson, Isaac. Buried in Valley Park, Montgomery County, Pa.

Andrews, Jonathan. Born 1756 died November, 1826 buried at Pleasant Ridge, Me.

Angel, Daniel. Born August 27, 1749 buried Mehoopany (Roger Hollow), Pa. Company, Capt. Benjamin Slack, of horsemen regiment, Col. Barton. Also in Jonathan Night's company, under Col. Kimball.

Annis, Jacor. (Dates obliterated grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Atwater, Reuren. (Located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Atwater, Samuel. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Ayres, Lieut. William. Born February 28, 1724 died December 14, 1814 buried in the Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Bailey, Dudley. Born December, 1744 died March, 1812-13 buried at West Dummerston, Vt. Served under Capt. Edgell, R. I.

Bailey, Oliver. Born 1738 died 1822 buried in Granville Cemetery, Pennsylvania. He was from the State of Connecticut.

Bailey, Thomas. Buried in Ebenezer Churchyard, South Carolina. (Located by Catawba Chapter, at Rock Hill, S. C.)

Baldwin, Ashrel. Born March 7, 1751 or 1757 died May 18, 1828 buried at Morris, Conn., which, at that time, was a part of Litchfield, but not at this present time.

Baldwin, Col. Jeduthan. Born January 13, 1730 died June 4, 1788 buried in the Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Baldwin, James. Born November 12, 1759 died May 24, 1843 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Baldwin, Capt. John. (Grave located by London Chapter, London, Ohio.)

Barrour, Major Mordecai. Born 1760 died 1846. He was born in Culpeper County, Va., and served as an officer in the Virginia continental line of the Revolutionary Army. Was present at the siege of Yorktown, and family records record the fact that the plume was shot out of his hat during that engagement. He drew a pension after the war. Died in 1846 at Weston, the home of his granddaughter, Mrs. John Gillam Friend, and is buried in Beth-Salem Cemetery, Boligee, Green County, Ala. His record is on his tombstone.

Barnes, Orange. Born 1762 died September 30, 1823 buried at Footville, near Litchfield, Conn.

Barrett, Oliver. Buried in Sheddsville, West Windsor, Vt. He drew a pension.

Bartlett, Asa. Born 1754 died September 17, 1837 buried in private family burying ground in town of Cumberland, R. I.

Bartlett, Gen. Thomas. Born October 22, 1745 died June 30, 1805 buried on Nottingham Square, Nottingham, N. H.

Bartlett, Wyman. Born April 15, 1754 buried in Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Baskerville, Lieut. Samuel. Buried in Paint Township Cemetery on his farm in Ohio. Was a lieutenant in a Virginia regiment during Revolutionary War for seven years and nine months. Moved to Ohio in 1809. Was associate judge from 1810 to 1812.

Batterton, Samuel. Born 1758, died June 11, 1833. Pensioned under act of March 18, 1818, for service as private in Virginia line. Buried on farm owned by Mrs. Hickman, near Harrison County line, on road between Millersburg and Cynthiana, Ky. Grave marked by old limestone headstone, with inscription containing words "A soldier of American Revolution."

Beach, Noah. Born August 21, 1754 died April 12, 1851 buried West Litchfield, Conn.

Bean, Capt. John. Buried in Episcopal Cemetery, Evansburg, Pa.

Beere, Bezaleel. Born April 28, 1741 died May 28, 1824 buried in West Litchfield, Conn.

Beebe, Samuel. Served in the Revolutionary War. Moved to Ohio and became a settler of Canaan Township, Madison County, in 1815.

Beecher, Burr. Born 1757 died November 11, 1823 buried at Northfield, Conn.

Beeman, John. Buried in Hallowell Cemetery, Hallowell, Me.

Beer, Robert. Born in Ireland, April 21, 1750, died in Illinois in 1842. He was drafted at Easton, Northampton County, Pa. enlisted in 1777 for two months as ensign, under Capt. John Mack in February, 1778, as ensign for two months under Capt. Timothy Jeans September, 1778, and at various times as ensign and Indian spy for one month, under Capt. Patrick Campbell. Also served under Col. Jacob Stroud, of Pennsylvania. Applied for and received a pension October 16, 1832, while a resident of Beaver County, Pa. Moved to Fulton County, 11l., in 1840, where he died in 1842, and was buried in a country cemetery near Fairview, Fulton County. A Revolutionary marker was placed on his grave October 31, 1916, by the Col. Jonathan Latimer Chapter, D. A. R., of Abingdon, 111., the regent of this chapter, Mrs. Mary B. Campbell, being a great-greatgranddaughter of Robert Beer.

Bell, (beall), Archibald. Born October 3, 1756 died July 3, 1840. Inscription on old monument in North Middletown Cemetery says: "A soldier of the Revolutionary War, and one of the few survivors of the Battle of Blue Licks."

Bennett, Deacon David. Born about 1761 died June, 1848 buried at Dummerston, Vt. He drew a pension.

Bennett, Samuel. Born about 1758 died September, 1841 buried at Brookline, Vt. Was a member of Connecticut State troops.

Benton, Nathaniel. Born August 25, 1726 died September 30, 1800 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Betterley, Thomas. Born April, 1751, died June, 1836 buried at West Dummerston, Vt. Served under Capt. Lovell, of Massachusetts.

Bigelow, Jonas. Buried in Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass. Birge, Benjamin. Born April 19, 1763 died March 17, 1796 buried at Headquarters. (Grave located by Mary Floyd Tallmadge Chapter, Litchfield, Conn.)

Birge, James. Born October 16, 1758 died February 10, 1850 buried at Headquarters, Connecticut.

Bishop, Jared. (Located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Bisseli, Archelaus. Born August 14, 1758 died April 26, 1846 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Bisseli., Benjamin. Born January 15, 1754 died February 28, 1825 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Bissell, Calvin. Born April 21, 1753 died October 28, 1837 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Bissell, John. Born December 28, 1761 died July 27, 1819 buried at Milton, Conn.

Bissell, Zebulon. Born October 30, 1751 died May 16, 1824, buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Bivins, John. Born 1760 died 1839. Enlisted Northampton, Mass., 1775 served nine months. Enlisted December, 1775 served one year. Enlisted August, 1777, for two or two and a half years again in the fall of 1779, from New York, three months under Capt. Gideon King. Died at Marietta, Fulton County, Ill., 1839.

Black, Alexander. Buried in Ebenezer Churchyard, South Carolina.

Black, Joseph. Buried in Ebenezer Churchyard, in South Carolina.

Blair, William. Born March 24, 1759 died July 2, 1824 buried at Old Waxhaw Presbyterian Church, South Carolina. He fought in Battles of Hanging Rock, Eutaw Springs, Ratcliffe Ridge, Stono Fiske Dam Ford, on Broad River.

Blakeslee, Samuel. Born 1757 ( 59) died February 16, 1831 buried at Northfield, Conn.

Blodgett, John. Born 1733 died April 10, 1813. Served in Capt. John Sherman's company, and Col. Gideon Burt's regiment. June 16, 1782, served four days against insurgents at Springfield, and Northampton, (vol. 2, p. 196). Buried in Old Village Cemetery, New Hampshire.

Blood, Sewall. Born 1765 died 1814. Entered as a private at the age of 16, the Massachusetts Militia in 1781. Blue, Stephen. Buried in North Carolina.

Bodourtha, Joseph. Burled in Agawam Center Cemetery, Massachusetts. Bodurtha, Stephen. Age 56. Died January 22, 1803. Buried in Agawam Center Cemetery, Massachusetts. Bond, John. Born 1734 died December 29, 1803 buried at Conway, Mass. Was a private in Capt. Robert Oliver's company, also served in Col. Eph. Doolittle's regiment. Return made October 6, 1775.

Bond, Capt. Thomas. Born January 30, 1739 died 1784 buried in Maple

Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass. Boswell, Reuben. Buried in North Carolina. Bourne, John. Born 1760 (?) died October 6, 1859. Was at Dorchester Heights, March 17,1776. Enlisted November 7,1777, for three years, at the age of 17, in Massachusetts company. Bowe, Thaddeus. Died September 28, 1828, age 68. He was a private in Enoch C. Cooper's company

Bowen, Jabesh. He was a corporal in Capt. Jonathan Danforth's company, Col. Daniel Brewer's Ninth regiment. Private company returned October 7, 1775. Buried at Corson's Cemetery, Norridgewock, Me.

Bradley, Aaron. Born August 27, 1762 died October 24, 1843 buried at Bantam, Conn.

Bradley, Daniel. Born 1725 died September 13, 1802 buried at East Litchfield, Conn. Bradley, James. Buried in North Carolina.

Brandon, Christopher. Died 1847 buried in Union Cemetery, South Carolina.

Brandon, Col. Thomas. Died 1802 buried in Union Cemetery, South Carolina.

Bray, Joseph. Born December 25, 1762 died January 31, 1841. He was a private in John Scott's company was in service from August 31, to November 20, in Penobscot expedition. Buried near Pelton Brook, Starks, Me.

Breast, John. Born 1760 died January 1, 1844. Drew a pension under act of June 7, 1832, for service in Virginia line. He is buried back of old Log House, "Breast Tavern," a few yards from the road between Paris and Little Rock, Ky., on a farm owned by J. H. Roseberry. The grave formerly had a rough limestone marker, exact spot now obliterated.

Brenig, Col. George. Buried at Lehigh Church, Albertus, Pa.

Briggs, Joseph. Born about 1758 died February, 1850 buried at Dover Center, Vt. He was pensioned in 1833.

Briggs, Samuel. Born at Barnstead, N. H., June 21, 1764 died at Carratunk, Me., October 30, 1840.

Britton, John. Buried at Horton Cemetery, Atlas, Mich. (Marker placed by Genesee Chapter, Flint, Mich.)

Broadwater, Col. Charms B. Died 1806 buried near Vienna. Va. Served in old French and Indian War, 1764.

Broadwater, Lieut. Charles Gray. Served in Revolutionary War. Buried near Vienna, Va.

Broadwater, Lieut. Charles Lewis. Served in Revolutionary War and War of 1812. Buried near Vienna, Va.

Brooke, Capt. John. Buried at Limerick Square, Pa.

Brooke, Matthew. Buried at St. David's Cemetery, Radnor, Va.

Brookes, David. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chatter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Brookes, Enos. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Bruce, Joseph. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt)

Bruen, Jabez. Born July 24, 1750 died November 27, 1814. (Grave located by Mrs. Charles A. Pauly, regent, Cincinnati (Ohio) Chapter, who is a direct descendant of Jabez Bruen.)

Bryant, Daniel. (Grave located by the Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Buel, Peter, Jr. Born October 12, 1739 died January 30, 1797 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Buel, Salmon. Born 1736 died December 18, 1811 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Bull, Asa. Born 1751 died April 14, 1805 buried at West Litchfield, Conn. Bullock, Darius. Born about 1761 died October, 1833 buried at Halifax, Vt. He was pensioned in 1832. Burke, Solomon. Born 1742 died 1819. He was a private in Capt. John Macy's Windsor Company, Vermont Militia, 1780.

Bubkhalter, John.* Born 1762 died 1861. Served in the Revolution under Gen. Clarke was in the Battle of Kettle Creek at the Siege of Augusta, Ga. (Marker unveiled by his great-great-granddaughters, Ruth and Esther Short.)

Bush, Lieut. Joseph. Died October 10, 1828 buried in the Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfleld, Mass.

Butler, Gen. Henry. Born April 27, 1754 died July 20, 1813 buried on Nottingham Square, Nottingham, N. H.

Button, Newberry. Born in Stonington, Conn., 1766 died in New Haven, Conn., December 15, 1843, aged 78. Served as a flfer. (Record given by Eve Lear Chapter, New Haven.)

Cady, Manasseh. Born 1758: died 1833. He was corporal of marines on board the frigate Trumbull, 1781.

Camp, Abel. Born 1748 died May 8, 1825 buried at Morris, which used to be a part of Litchfield, Conn., but it is not at the present time.

Camp, Ezra. Born 1762 died December 23, 1838 buried at Morris, Conn.

Campbell, John. Died October 27, 1833 aged 83 buried at Buffalo Cross Roads Presbyterian Church Cemetery, Union County, Pa. He was a private served under Capt. Robert McKee, 1776 under Lieut. James Laird, 1777 Col. Lowrey's regiment of Derry Township, Lancaster County, Pa.

Carmany, Johannes. Born June 15, 1760 died May 19, 1840 buried in the Reformed Churchyard at Campbellstown, Pa. His father, who had enlisted, was taken sick, and the son, then 16 years of age, took his place. He was a private in one of the Lancaster County companies of the Flying Camp, in service on Long Island.

Carothers, James. Buried in Ebenezer Churchyard, South Carolina.

Cary, Luther. Born 1759 died October 8, 1834. (Grave located In Ohio.)

Catlin, Thomas, Jr. Born June 18, 1737 died December 9, 1829 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Catlin, Uriah. Born June 15, 1735 died April 10, 1808 buried at Northfield, Conn.

Chamberlain, Moses. Died December 9, 1833, Bingham, Me. He enlisted in the Revolutionary War at the age of 19 years.

Champion, Judah. Born 1729 died October 8, 1810 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Chandler, Mordecai. Lived at Hebron Church, Union, S. C. Buried in Spartanburg County, S. C.

Chapin, Capt. Elisha. Aged 49. He was killed by savages in Williamstown, Mass., July 17, 1756, or 1776 (date blurred). Buried in Elmwood Cemetery, Holyoke, Mass.

Chase, James. Died 1844 aged 93 buried West Dummerston, Vt. He was a pensioner and had served in the Rhode Island Militia, Revolutionary War.

Chase, Lot. Born 1759 died February 10, 1836 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Chase, Roger. Born September 15, 1749 died June 25, 1822 went with Arnold's expedition to Quebec. Enlisted June 1, 1775, for two months.

Chidester, William. Born 1756 died 1813 buried in Canfield, Ohio. Served four years in Connecticut regiment.

Childs, Jonas. Buried in Hallowell Cemetery, Hallowell, Me.

Child, Jonathan. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Childs, Jonathan. Born October, 1756 died July, 1819 buried In Wilmington, Vt, Served in Col. Learnard's regiment, Massachusetts.

Chiley, Gen. Joseph. Born 1734 died August 25, 1799 buried on Nottingham Square, N. H. Clark, Ahel. Born 1765 died March 25, 1842 buried at Morris, Conn.

Clark, Isaac. Buried in Hallowell Cemetery, Hallowell, Me.

Clark, Sylvanus. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Clark, Thomas. Born 1749 died January, 1836 buried at Dummerston Center, Vt. Served under Capt. Josiah Boyden.

Clay, Samuel. Born May 10, 1761 died April 9, 1810 buried on farm owned by Mr. Charlton Clay, between his residence and Stoner Creek, near Paris, Ky. Old graveyard now obliterated. He served in Revolutionary War, having enlisted in 1777, and followed Gen. Greene throughout his campaign in the Carolinas. (Manuscript lists in the Virginia Historical Society.)

Clement, Philip. Born 1744 died November 10, 1817 buried in the "Old

Village Cemetery." Served as a private, Haverhill, Mass., under Capt.

Samuel Merrill, Maj. Gage's regiment, September 30 to November 6, 1777. Clift, Capt. Joseph. He was captain of Tenth Marshfield, Second Plymouth

County Regiment. Buried at Two-Mile Cemetery, Mass. Clift, Capt. Wills. Buried back of Unitarian Church at Marshfield Hills,Mass.

Cline, Jonas. Born 1760 or 1764 died 1840. Enlisted at Shawangunk, N. Y. Pension granted in 1832 while living in Richland County, Ohio. Died in Fulton County, 11l.

Cline, William. Buried at Pleasant Hill Cemetery, Portland, Ind. (Grave marked 1917.)

Clontz, Jeremiah. Buried in North Carolina.

Clowney, Samuel. Buried in Fair Forest Cemetery, South Carolina.

Corurn, Lemuel. (Dates obliterated. Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Coe, Levi. Born 1761 died February 28, 1832 buried at West Litchfield,Conn.

Cole, Samuel. Buried in the Old Union Cemetery, Johnstown, Pa. (Grave marked 1917.)

Collens, Charles. Born August 5, 1727 died August 17, 1796 buried at Morris, Conn.

Converse, Jeremiah. Born in New Hampshire in 1760. Enlisted as a private in Revolutionary War. Severely wounded by Indians, which disabled him for life. Emigrated to Ohio in 1814, and died in 1837.

Cook, Enoch. Born 1761 died August, 1839 buried at Dummerston Center, Vt. Served under Capt. Josiah Boyden.

Cook, Lieut. Oliver. Born about 1735 died January, 1813 buried at Brattleboro, Vt. Served under Capt. John Sargeant.

Cooper, Enoch. Died April 13, 1814, aged 75. He was first lieutenant in Capt. Nathan Rowley's company. Buried in Old North Cemetery, Agawam, Mass.

Cory, Elnathan. Born 1757 died February 14, 1838. Private in New Jersey Militia. Died in Beaver County, Pa., and is buried in Wilson's graveyard at New Galilee, Pa. Cotton, Benj. Born 1758 died July 13, 1846 buried at Seville, Ohio. His grave marked in 1917. Date of enlistment, 1775 to end of war. Engaged in the Battles of Hubbardton, Monmouth, and both Battles of Still water. He died in Wayne County, Ohio. Date of pension application, April 22, 1818. Residence at that time was Truxton, Cortland County, N. X.

Couch, John. Buried in Hallowell Cemetery, Hallowell, Me.

Crandell, Richmond. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North

Cranston, Elon. Born 1760 died May 27, 1837 buried at East Litchfield,

Cranston, James. Born 1755 died December 20, 1783 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Crooks, William. Died May, 1778. Murdered by Indians near Tunkhannock. Miner asks, "Was not the blood of Crooks the first shed at Wyoming?"

Culbertson, Capt. Robert. Born July 23, 1755 died July 26, 1801 buried in Rocky Spring Churchyard, Franklin County, Pa.

Curry, Robert. Born 1756 died 1801. Served in Fourth Light Dragoon Continental Troop, Revolutionary War.

Curtis, Samuel, sr. Born at Worcester, Mass., September 26, 1730 died at Auburn, Mass., October 18, 1814 buried in Hope Cemetery, Worcester, Mass.

Curtis, Zebina. Born 1760 died 1828. Private in Capt. John Marcy's (Windsor) company, Vermont Militia, in 1780.

Cuthbertson, Capt. John. Buried in North Carolina.

Dannals, Stacy. Buried in Old Beaver Cemetery in Beaver, Pa.

Davis, Capt. John. Buried at Bethel Meeting, Worcester Township, Montgomery County, Pa.

Dawkins, Maj. Elisha. Buried at old home, near Union, S. C.

Davis, Thomas. Philadelphia Chapter. Philadelphia, Pa., placed a sedile in the sanctuary of the Washington Memorial Chapter at Valley Forge and dedicated it on October 21, 1916, in memory of Rev. Thomas Davis, soldier, patriot, and churchman. He was a soldier under George Washington, 1776-1780. He was rector of George Washington's church at Alexandria, Va., from 1792 to 1806, and intimately associated with George Washington in his civil, military, and religious life.

Day, Adonijah. Died October 1, 1790 buried in Presbyterian Cemetery, Lima, N. Y. Served in Nineteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania Troop.

Day, Capt. Jos. Died March 19, 1813 aged 67 buried in Elmwood Cemetery,

Day. Joel. Died February 14, 1803, aged 72. Private under Capt. Enoch Chapin. Buried in Elmwood Cemetery, Holyoke, Mass.

Day, Lieut., John. Died November 21, 1810, aged 82 buried in Elmwood Cemetery, Holyoke, Mass.

Dean, Benjamin. Born 1739 died 1815. Private in Col. Elmore's regiment, continental service. Mattross in Lamb's regiment of artillery. Served three years. Buried in Canfield, Ohio.

Dearborn, Gen. Henry. Born February 23, 1751 died June 6, 1829. Died at Roxbury, Mass., and is buried at Mount Auburn, near city of Boston.

De Berry, Henry. Born in Edgecombe County, N. C. died in Montgomery County, N. C. He was the first sheriff of Montgomery County, N. C.

Decker, David. Buried in Moscow, Me. Was one of the Boston Tea Party.

Deiley, Daniel. Buried in old Allentown Cemetery, Allentown, Pa.

Deming, Julius. Born April 16, 1755 died January 23, 1838 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Demon, Levi. Born 1749 died March, 1797 buried at Hartford, Vt. Served in Col. Ebenezer Wood's regiment.

Dennison, Chauncey. Born 1750 died July 18, 1838. (Headquarters.)

De Wolf, Levi. Born May 9, 1764 died January 23, 1849 buried at Morris, Conn.

Dickey, Elias. Born 1754 died November 13, 1839 served Capt. Daniel Emerson's company, Col. Wingate's regiment. Dickinson, Jesse. Born 1753 died March 17, 1840 buried in Fitch's Cemetery, Northmoreland County, Pa. He was a flfer. Served under Capt. Stoddard and Capt. Samuel Sanford and Cols. Chandler, Russell, Hait, and Isaac Sherman regiments. He was at Brandywine, Bunker Hill, and at the surrender at Yorktown.

Dickinson, John. Born 1758 died 1850 buried in West Cemetery, Amherst, Mass.

Dickinson, Nathaniel. Born 1750 died 1802 buried in West Cemetery, Amherst, Mass. Served in Col. Elisha Porter's regiment.

Dickinson, Oliver. Born July 10, 1757 died March 23, 1847 buried at Milton, Conn.

Diefenderfer, John. Buried in old Allentown Cemetery, Allentown, Pa.

Dingley, Thomas. Died 1806. Captain of Thirteenth Company Marshfield,Second Plymouth County regiment. He was a deacon. Buried at Winslow, Mass.

Dodge, Daniel. Born September 15, 1729 died 1814 buried in the Westfield Flats Cemetery, Roscoe, N. Y. Was a private in Col. Fred Weissenfel's company, The Levies, New York State.

Doolittle, Ambrose. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Douglass, George. Buried in Old Waxhaw Cemetery, North Carolina.

Du Bois, Martin. Born October 1, 1764, in New York died in Bunker Hill, Mich., 1854. Enlisted in Ulster County, N. Y., as a private. Buried in Fitchburg Cemetery, Bunker Hill, Ingham County, Mich. His wife died same day and both are buried in same grave.

Dummer, Nathaniel. Buried at Hallowell Me. (Grave marked 1917.)

Durand, Samuel. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Dusenbury, Capt. John. Buried in Peoria, Ill., in old French Cemetery, now covered with buildings of a business character.

Ely, Enoch. Died February 19, 1842 aged 87 buried in Elmwood Cemetery,

Holyoke, Mass. Served as private under Capt. Enoch Chapin. Ely, Capt. Joseph. Died May 31, 1803 aged 85 buried in Elmwood Cemetery,

Holyoke, Mass. Emmons, Phineas. Born October 1, 1756 died June 13, 1825 buried at Milton, Conn.

Esterbrook, Ben.i. Born about 1744 died May, 1830 buried at Dummerston Center, Vt. Served near Boston, Mass.

Evans, Rev. Edward. Buried at Constantlne, Mich. (Grave marked 1917.)

Eveleth, Zimri. Born August 31, 1763 died May 1, 1816, in Scituate, Mass.,and was buried there in Union Cemetery. He was born in Lancaster, Mass. His daughter Sarah married one William Vinal ofScituate. He has a host of descendants.

Everett, John. Born 1727 died 1819 buried in Canfield, Ohio. Fairbanks, Calvin. Born February 1, 1753 died November 1, 1836 buried at Royalton, Vt.

Falconer, John. Born 1747 died June 24, 1831 buried in Rural Cemetery, White Plains, N. Y. Served as ensign in the Second Regiment Westchester County Militia, under Col. Thomas Thomas. (Grave marked by White Plains Chapter, D. A. R.)

Fabnan, Seth. Born 1734 died April 13, 1820 buried at Morris, Conn.

Farr, Lieut. Col. William. Died 1794 buried in Sartor Graveyard, South

Feaster, Andrew. Born 1735 died 1821 buried in old Feaster Cemetery, at Feasterville, Fairfield County, S. C. Grave is marked by his son John. It has inscription, date of birth and death, and place of birth, etc. He furnished a field of oats and a mare to Col. Henry Hampton's regiment, Light Dragoons. (See Lib. O, No. 321, Hist. Rec. S. C.) His name is recorded as a soldier in the Revolution, in the Revolutionary Rolls as published in the Daily State, of Columbia, S. C, on.November 6, 1914.

Field, John. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Fitch, Haynes. Born 1734 died 1815 buried in Canfield, Ohio.

Flagg, Dimon. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Forrest, Joseph. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Forrest, Robert. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Foster, Maj. John. Buried in Union County, N. C, 12 miles from Monroe, N. C.

Fowler. Elisha. Buried in Agawam Center Cemetery, Massachusetts.

Fowler, Lieut, (later Capt.) Ellis. Buried in Kelley Graveyard, near Kel- ton, S. C.

Fowler, Job. Died February 23, 1813 aged 75 buried in Agawam Center

Fox, Nicholas. Buried in Old Allentown Cemetery, Allentown, Pa.

Fox, Consider. Born 1757 died April, 1859. (Grave located by General Richard Montgomery Chapter, Gloversville, N. Y.)

Freeman, Rtjfus. Born 1762, Providence, R. I. died July 15, 3847 buried at Seville, Ohio. (Grave marked 1917.) Date of enlistment April or May, 1780, five months. Residence, at time of enlistment, in Fitzwilliam Township, Cheshire County, N. H. Date of application for pension, June 25, 1833. Residence at that time, Canaan Township, Wayne County, Ohio.

Fuller, Enoch. Bodyguard to Washington and spent winter at Valley Forge. Buried in Winslow, Me.

Galpin, Amos. Born 1754 died December 7, 1843 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Garnsey, Noah. Born 1746 died September 18, 1820 buried at Northfield,

Garrison, Arthur. Buried at Ebenezer Churchyard, South Carolina.

Gibbs, Lemuel. Born March 16, 1737 died January 23, 1827 buried at Morris,

Gibbs, Moobe. Born January 12, 1757 died April 5, 1834 buried at Milton,

Gibbs, Solomon. Born July 15, 1760 died December 6, 1842 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Giddings, Capt. Daniel. Born 1734 died August 18, 1816 buried in the old village burying ground at Claremont, N. H. Was a lieutenant in Capt. Charles Smith's company, September 15 to 30, 1775 Col. John Foster's regiment January 15 to November 18, 1776 promoted to captain February 15, 1776 captain in Col. John Cogwell's regiment. Return April 30, 1778, with rank of captain. Gilbach, Sergt. Frederick. Buried in the old graveyard of the Reformed Church at Ulaytown, Lancaster County, Pa.

Gilbert, Lieut. Benj. Buried in the Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Gilbert, Capt. Daniel. Buried in the Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Gilbert, Col. Joseph. Buried in the Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Giles, Col. William. Wounded at Kings Mountain buried in South Carolina. Gillett, Simon. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Gilson, Eleazor. Born 1754 died 1825 buried in Canfield, Ohio. Was a pensioner. When Mr. Gilson applied for a pension, Tyral Tanner made this sworn statement: "I declare on the honor of a Revolutionary officer, that I know Eleazor Gilson to have been a private soldier in the Fifth Connecticut Regiment, Second Brigade, in the Army of the United States, from 1777 to 1780."

Gleason, Benj. Born 1745 died October, 1823 buried at Dummerston, Vt. Served seven years. From New Hampshire.

Gleason, Capt. . Buried in the Catholic Cemetery, Barnesville, Md.

Glenn, William C. Born 1764 died 1827 buried at Glenn Cemetery near Carlisle, S. C.

Goode, William. Born 1765 died 1837. Born in Powhattan County, Va., and died in Clarke County, Ala. Served in Virginia continental line.

Goodnow, Isaac, Jr. Born about 1739 died about 1812 buried at Newfane, Vt. Served Lexington Alarm, under Capt. Caleb King.

Goodrich, Joseph, Jr. Born Lunenburg, Mass., August 10, 1746 died in Bing'ham, Me., December 20, 1815. Served in Revolutionary War as private in the colonel's company, One hundred and fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment, commanded by Col. Timothy Bigelow. He enlisted for nine months and was discharged May 5, 1780.

Goodwin, Nathaniel, Sr. Born 1728 died May 18, 1777 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Goodwin, Nathaniel, Jr. Born 1760 died April 15, 1841 buried at Morris, Conn.

Goodwin, Ozias. Born November 27, 1733 died March 1, 1788 buried at West Litchfield, Conn. Goodwin, Uri. Born 1764 died April 12, 1830 buried at Morris, Conn. Goslee, Solomon. Born 1762 died November 29, 1834 buried at Bantam, Conn.

Gould, Oliver. Born 1734 died June 25, 1832 buried in "Old Village Burying Ground," Connecticut. Private in Capt. Aaron Guild's company, Col. Jos. Whitney's regiment, June 20, 1776 Capt. Ebenezer Battle's company, May 8, 1777.

Grant, Ambrose. Born September 14, 1745 died December 7, 1816 buried at East Litchfield, Conn. Graves, Noadiah. Buried at Coldwater, Mich.

Griesemer, Felix. Buried in Old Allentown Cemetery, Allentown, Pa.

Griesemer, John. Buried in Old Allentown Cemetery, Allentown, Pa.

Griffin, Richard. Buried in Lanes Creek Township, near the Stack Road. Was wounded at Cowpens, S. C, in 1781. Grave in North Carolina.

Griswold, John. Born June 29, 1758 died December 22, 1847 buried at Milton, Conn.

Griswold, Midian. Born 1763 died November, 1829 buried at Bantam, Conn.

Grove, Michael. Died September, 1827, at Jersey Shore buried at Dreisbach Church Cemetery, near Lewisburg, Pa. Private in Pennsylvania Militia served under Lieut. Peter Grove also belonged to Lieut. Robinson's rangers.

Guild, Ame. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Guild, John. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Hafner, Michael. Buried at Dreisbach Church Cemetery, near Lewisburg, Pa. He was a private in Capt. George Reihm's First Regiment Berks County Militia, Col. Samuel Ely, in 1781.

Haggins, Joer. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Haines, Ensign Henry. Buried in the old graveyard of the Old Reformed Church of Ulaytown, Lancaster County, Pa.

Haines, John. Buried in Hallowell Cemetery, Hallowell, Me.

Hale, Thomas. Buried in the Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Hall, Dr. Amos. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Hall, Jonathan. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Hall, Jonathan. Born 1757 died 1855. Private Massachusetts Militia 1776 and 1777 captain of Revolutionary Veterans on the occasion of the visit of Lafayette to Windsor, 1825.

Hall, John. Born 1754 died April 4, 1848 buried at Milton, Conn.

Hamrright, Col. Frederick. Born 1727 died 1817 buried at Shilo Cemetery, Grover, S. C.

Handy, Samuel. Died October, 1838 buried in Pioneer Cemetery, West Blumfield, N. Y. He was quartermaster sergeant, Second Connecticut. Harbison, John. Buried in Center County, Pa.

Harding, George. Born 1761 died 1830 buried in Canfield, Ohio.

Harding, John. Born 1758 died 1838 buried in Canfield, Ohio. Private in Capt. John Van Mater's company rangers in Westmoreland County, Pa. Drum major Tenth Pennsylvania Continental Line. Appointed January 14, 1777.

Harriden, Joseph. Among the men mustered by James Leonard, muster master for Bristol County, dated September 2, 1777, Capt. Silas Cobb's company, Col. Danforth Keyes's regiment.

Harris, William. Born October, 1757 died March, 1845 buried at Brattleboro, Vt. Pensioned 1818.

Harrison. David. Born 1751 died April 13, 1812 buried at Morris, Conn.

Harrison, Elihu. Born 1740: died May 3, 1806 buried at Morris, Conn.

Harrison, Thomas, Jr. Born 1723 died December 23, 1791 buried at Morris, Conn.

Hart, Rev. Oliver. (Grave located by Fair Forest Chapter, Union, S. C.) Harwick, Jacor. Born 1752 died 1833. Enlisted from Surry County, N. C, 1781. Born in the Colony of Pennsylvania. Buried in Fulton County, Ill. (Grave located by Peoria Chapter.)

Harwood, Major Peter. Buried in Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Hastings, Thomas. Born 1746 died 1827 buried in South Amherst Cemetery, Amherst, Mass.

Hatch, Charles. Born January 18, 1755 died October 13, 1828 buried at Marshfield, Mass. He was a deacon.

Haven, Abel. Born May 1763 died December 1850 buried at East Dummerston, Vt. Capt. Joseph Tyler's company.

Hawley, Josiah. Born 1748 died 1827. Private in Capt. John Macy's Windsor company, Vermont Militia, 1780.

Hayden, Josiah. Born 1734 died 1818 buried at Winslow, Me. Major of twenty-third regiment (Col. John Bailey's).

Heald, Timothy. Born 1715 died 1785 buried at Winslow, Me. Committee of Safety.

Heald, Timothy, Jr. Born 1749 died 1817 buried at Winslow, Me. Committee of Safety.

Heaton, James. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Helphenstone, Maj. Peter P. Native of Virginia major in Revolutionary War. Came to Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1805. Settled in Madison County, in 1807.

Henderson, Maj. John. Buried at Henderson Graveyard on Eison Plantation, South Carolina.

Henderson, Gen. William. (After the Revolutionary War settled on the Santee, S. C.)

Henry, Samuel. Born 1733 died 1790 buried at West Cemetery, Amherst, Mass. Capt Reuben Dickinson's company, Col. Porter's regiment. Herman, Martin. Born 1732 died 1804 buried at Langsdorf's graveyard, near Kingston, Cumberland County, Pa.

Higgins, Ichabod. Born August 1759 died January, 1852 buried at Jamaica, Vt. Pensioner. Served in Massachusetts Continental Lines.

Hildreth, Joseph, Sr. Born 1723 died July, 1798 buried at Dummerston, Vt. Col. John Sargeant's regiment.

Hildreth, Joseph, Jr. Born 1747 died May, 1812 Buried at Dummerston, Vt. Capt. Josiah Boyden's company. Hinds, Oliver. Buried at Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfleld, Mass. Hitchcock, Amassa. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Hitchcock, Bela. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.) Hitchcock, David. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Hoisington, Hon. Ebenezer. Born 1729 died 1804 member Dorset conevntion, September, 1776 member Westminster convention, October, 1776 member Windsor convention, June, 1777, and July, 1777 member Cumberland County Committee of Safety, 1776 member Vermont Board of War, 1777.

Hoisington, Lieut. Ebenezer, Jr., Born 1752 died 1839. Sergeant Vermont Militia, 1777 ensign, 1778 lieutenant in Capt. John Macy's Windsor company, Vermont Militia, 1780.

Hoisington, Elias. Born 1759 died 1810. Private in Lieut. Asahel Smith's Company, Vermont Militia, 1780 private in Capt. John Macy's Windsor company, Vermont Militia, 1780.

Hoisington, Elisha. Born 1753 or 1754 died 1827. Private in Connecticut Militia, 1779.

Hoisington, Orange. Born 1767 died 1839. Private in Capt. John Macy's Windsor company, Vermont Militia, 1780 (in his fourteenth year).

Hollingsworth, Benjamin. Has Government marker over grave. Buried at old home below Union, S. C.

Holton, Arad. Born 1752 died October, 1841 buried at Dummerston, Vt. Served under Capt. Jason Duncan.

Hooper, Jacob. Born 1749 died July 16, 1836 he was among the men mustered in by Nathan Wells, muster master for York County, Capt. Jeremiah Hill's company, Col. John Peterson's regiment.

Hopkins, Harris. Born March 1, 1744 died December 16, 1820 burled at Nortltfield, Conn.

Horton, Capt. Daniel. Born September 13, 1744 died December 9, 1807 buried at Rural Cemetery, White Plains, N. Y. (Grave marked by White Plains Chapter.)

Horton, Elisha. Born 1757 died November 30, 1837 buried at Bantam, Conn. Was one of "Tea-Party Men."

Horton, Maj. Jonathan. Buried in Rural Cemetery, White Plains, N. Y. First Regiment, Westchester County Militia, under Col. Joseph Drake.

Horton, Timothy. Died January 31, 1837, aged 72 buried in Old North Cemetery, Agawam, Mass. surgeon in Timothy Robinson regiment.

Hosmer William. Born 1738 died July 18, 1836 grave located at Seville, Medina County, Ohio.

Howe, Capt. Arner. Buried in Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Howe, Arraham. Buried in Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Howe, Nehemiah. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Howland, Arthur. Buried east of fair grounds, Marshfield, Mass.

Hurrard, Eldad. Born 1750 died 1841. Private in Capt. John Macy's Windsor company, Vermont Militia, 1776.

Hurrard, Watts, Jr. Born 1753 died 1826. Private in Capt. John Macy's Windsor company, Vermont Militia, 1780. Huggins, David, Sr. Born 1744 died 1821. Private in Capt. Josiah Russell's company of rangers (New Hampshire), 1776, private in Col. Chase's regiment, New Hampshire Militia in 1777.

Hughes, Col. Joseph. (Grave located by Fair Forest Chapter, Union, S. C.)

Hulett, David. Buried at Huletts Landing, on Lake George. Bronze tablet erected by the Washington Heights Chapter, New York City, N. Y.

Hull, Andrew. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Hull, Andrew, Jr. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Hull, Samuel. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Hull, Samuel, 2d. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Hunter, Sergt. William. (Afterwards a judge and Member of Congress.) Buried in Sheddsville. West Windsor, Vt.

Huntley, Rev. Jonathan. Born 1757 died May, 1834 buried West Dummerston, Vt. Pensioned in 1833.

Ives, Titus. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Jackson, Edward. Born 1730 died 1820. Served in Capt. John Willis's company, Second Virginia Regiment. Wounded in battle of Yorktown. Buried on the home farm, in family plot, about 1 mile south of Mount Clare, Harrison County, W. Va.

Jackson, Stephen. Son of Edward Jackson. Born July 31, 1764 died August, 1847 he was in same company with his father and both were wounded at Yorktown later moved to Harrison County, W. Va., when Stephen became an Indian scout. He is buried in same family plot, 1 mile south of Mount Clare, Harrison County, W. Va.

Jackson, William. Born 1760 died March 18, 1832 buried near Nicholson, Pa. Served i- Capt. Philip BevierV and Capt. William Paulding's regiment, Cols. Du Bois and Van Cortland.

Jacor's, Stephen. Born 1755 died 1816. Private in Capt. John Macy's Windsor company, Vermont Militia, 1781.

James, Shadeeick. Has a Government marker. Died in 1852 buried in Gilead Cemetery, near Jonesville, S. C.

Jenkins, William. Born in Wales, Febuary 19, 1762 died October 14, 1842. Second lieutenant in Capt. Conway's company, Fourteenth Regiment, commanded by Col. Charles Lewis. Buried at Murpheysboro, Ark. A monument has been erected by the Texarkana Chapter, Texarkana, Ark.

Jeter, James. Buried at Jeter Graveyard, near Santuc, S. C.

Johnson, Benjamin. Born 1759 or 1760 died January 7, 1829 buried at Bantam, Conn.

Johnson, Lieut. David. Baptized 1738 died August, 1812 buried at Dover, Vt . Commissioned lieutenant 1775 Capt. J. Simons. Jones, Abraham. Born about 1746 died December, 1816 buried at Dover, Vt. Served under Capt. Comfort Starr. Jones, Eaton, Jr. Born 1762 died January 5, 1838 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Jones, Jeremiah. Born 1759 died 1848 buried at Jones's Cemetery, on the original tract of land granted to Jeremiah Jones. Served under Capt. Srawfield, also Capt. James Fair, Col. Wade, Capt. Andrew Du Bose, and Gen. Marion. Grave located in South Carolina.

Jones, Joshua. Born 1758 died January 10, 1830. New Hampshire Revolutionary War rolls, p. 257. On pay roll of Capt. Titus Salter's list, 1775.

Joslen, Darius. Buried in Canfield, Ohio. Served as a private in Capt. Daniel Whiting's company, Berkshire County. Enlisted in Capt. Noah Langston's company. Served under Capt. Ezereal Herrick.

Joyce, Nathaniel. Born 1743 died February 28, 1827 buried in Cedar Grove Cemetery, Mass.

Keigher, George. Buried at Barren Hill, Pa.

Keiper, Sergt. Henry. Buried in Allentown Cemetery, Pa.

Kellogg, Eldad. Enlisted in Connecticut buried in Harpersfield, Ashtabula County, Ohio.

Kellogg, Jonathan. Born 1760 died 1823 buried in South Amherst Cemetery, Amherst, Mass. Served in Capt. Parker's company, Col. Porter's regiment.

Kemmerer, Frederick. Buried in Allentown, Pa.

Kendall, Joseph. Buried in Limerick Square, Pa.

Kennedy, Squire William. Buried in Union Cemetery, S. C. Grave has a

Kennedy, William, Jr. Buried in Union Cemetery, S. C. Grave has a Government marker.

Kent, Joseph. Born 1718 died 1801. He was a captain in Revolutionary War. Buried in Massachusetts. Kilbourn, David. Born April 28, 1742 died September 17, 1815 buried at Bantam, Conn.

Kilbourn, Giles. Born January 25, 1728 died September 13, 1797 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

King, Sergt. Alexander. Died August 8, 1826, aged 73 buried in Huntingdon (Pa.) Cemetery. Enlisted January, 1776, with Capt. Henry Darby, at New London Cross Roads, in Chester County, for one year, which he served, and was in battles of Long Island, White Plains, and the taking of the Hessians at Trenton. Early in 1777 he enlisted in Capt. Benjamin Fishburne's company, Fourth Regiment (Pennsylvania Line), commanded by Col. William Butler, and was promoted to the rank of sergeant. He continued in service until the beginning of 1781, when he was discharged by Col. Butler as unfit for service. He was wounded in the hand by a Hessian's bayonet and was afterward injured in the foot. (Pa. Archives, Ser. VI, IV, 533. Pensioner.)

Kister, John Nicholas. Died February 3, 1841 buried iu Pennsylvania.

Kirk, Joskph. Died in 1775 at Carrying Place, Me. buried in Pleasant Ridge, Me. He was one of Arnold's men.

Knight, Benjamin. Buried at Landaff, N. H. (grave marked 1917).

Knight, Samuel. Born about 1757 died July, 1817 buried at Duinmerston

Center. Vt. Served in Col. William Williams' regiment.

Knox, John. (Grave located in North Thetford, Vt.)

Lampson, Daniel. Born March 28, 1755 died October 6, 1852(3) buried at Morris, Conn.

Lanckton, John. Aged 71, died March 10, 1793 buried in Old North Cemetery, Agawam, Mass.

Landon, Daniel. Born February 11, 1717 died July 11, 1790 buried at West Litchfield. Conn.

Lang, Samuel. Buried in West Bath Cemetery, West Bath, N. H. (Grave marked 1917.)

Langhan, Elias. He was a major in Revolutionary War. Born in 1755 moved to Ohio in 1798 settled in Madison County in 1807 died April 5, 1830, at th# residence of Judge Baskerville, and buried on his farm in Ohio.

Larmon or Laymon, William. Buried in the Catholic Cemetery, Barnesville, Md.

Larnard, Deacon Moses. Born 1762 died 1845 buried at Halifax, Vt. He was a pensioner served in Massachusetts Continental Lines. Law, William. Buried in Connecticut.

Lee, Timothy. Born October 10, 1748 buried in Centremoreland, Pa. Sergeant in Revolutionary War.

Leland, Thomas. Born 1756 died 1847 buried at Seville, Ohio. (Grave marked 1917.). His pension was $12 per month. Served in Tenth Battalion, subsequently known as Ninth Massachusetts Regiment.

Lemmond, John. Buried in North Carolina.

Lemmond William. Buried in North Carolina.

Leonard, Abner. Died March, 1793, aged 48. Private in Lieut. Enoch Cooper's company, Col. David Leonard's regiment. (Vol. 9, page 682.) Buried in Old North Cemetery, Agawam, Mass.

Leonard, Ariiset. Died November 11, 1819, aged 64. Private in Capt. Nathan Rowley's company, Col. John Moseley's regiment. Buried in Old North Cemetery, Agawam, Mass.

Leonard, Benjamin. Died September 10. 1780. He was a drummer in Capt. Preserve Leonard's company, Col. Porter's regiment. Buried in Old North Cemetery, Agawam, Mass.

Leonard, Benjamin. Died February 24, 1785, aged 83 buried in Old North Cemetery, Agawam, Mass. Mustered October 25, 1780.

Leonard, Fellows. Died March 10, 1793 buried in Old North Cemetery, Agawam, Mass. Private in Capt. Preserve Leonard's company.

Leonard, Preserve. Died May 18, 1801, aged 73 buried in Old North Cemetery, Agawam, Mass. He was captain Tenth Company, Col. John Moseley's regiment.

Leonard, Moses. Died February 5, 1788, aged 77 buried in Old North Cemetery, Agawam, Mass. Private in Capt. Phineas Stebbin's company.

Leonard, Thadeus. Died September 5, 1842, aged 80 buried in Old North Cemetery, Agawam, Mass. Fifer in Capt. Samuel Sloper's company.

Lincoln, Elisha. Born 1795 died May 23, 1824 buried in Jewett Cemetery, at Twelve Corners, Madison, Me. Private Capt. Eleazer Hamlin's company, Gen. Thomas's regiment. Muster roll dated August 1, 1775.

Lines, Ralph. Buried in Connecticut.

Linn, John. Died September 28. 1847, aged 91 buried in the MiHIinburg (Pa.) Cemetery. Private under Capt. Erasmus Gill, Fourth Regiment Pennsylvania Cavalry, Col. Stephen Moylan also in First Battalion Northumberland County Militia, under Col. John Kelly.

Littell, William. Born 1745 died 1825 buried in Service Graveyard, South Side, Beaver County. He was a pensioner as recorded in Beaver, Pa., 1818.

Little, Capt. George. Buried at Marshfield Hills, Mass. (Wales Monument.)

Little, Luther. Buried at Sea View, Mass.

Loftin, Thomas. Buried in old Presbyterian Cemetery, Pickens County, Ala. Lord, Lynde. Born 1733 died June 10, 1801 buried at West Litchfield, Conn. Lord, Knox. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Lucas, George. Buried in Old Union Cemetery, Johnston, Pa. (Grave marked 1917.)

Lyons, Benj. Born 1733 died 1822 buried in Presbyterian Cemetery, White Plains, N. Y. Second Regiment West Chester County Militia, under Col. Thomas Thomas.

Macy, Capt. John. Born 1724 died 1797. Captain of a company of Windsor and vicinity men, Vermont Militia, 1780 and 1781. This company was in Maj. Benj. Wait's detachment that marched in the alarm to Royalton, October, 1780 also in the alarm of March, 1781 (by order of Gen. Bailey).

Mansfield, Joseph. Born 1737 died June 6, 1821 buried at Morris, Conn.

Marcy, Samuel. Born 1759 died 1838. Drummer Capt. John Macy's Windsor County Vermont Militia, 1780. Private in same 1781.

Mason, Elisha. Born April 5, 1759 died June 1, 1858 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Mason, Joseph. Born April 24, 1755 died March 21, 1844 buried at Northfield, Conn.

Mayse, James. Buried at Fair Forest Cemetery. South Carolina. (Has monument.)

Mccain, Hugh. Born November 17, 1765 died March 6, 1837 buried Tirzah A. R. P. Church in Lancaster, S. C.

McClary, Jesse. Buried near North Thetford, Vt.

Mcclary, John. Buried near North Thetford, Vt.

Mccurdy, John. Born 1746 died January 4,1824. In Capt. Benj. Plummer's company. Detached from Col. William Jones's regiment for service under Col. Samuel McCobb on expedition against Mayosbagaduse.

Mcewen, Henry. Birth date not known died October 14, 1823 buried in Center Hill Cemetery, Center County. Enlisted June, 1775, in Cumberland County, Pa., Capt. W. Hendrick's company. (Gravestone being erected by descendants.)

Mcjunkin, Col. Joseph. (Has monument.) Buried in McJunkin graveyard, near Union, S. C. •

Mcjunkin, Capt. Samuel. (Has monument.) Buried in McJunkin graveyard, near Union, S. C.

Mcneil, Archibald, Jr. Born July 17, 1737 died January 31, 1813 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Mcwhorter, George. (Located by John Foster Chapter, Monroe, N. C.)

Meacham, Asa. Born 1759 died May 5, 1836. Private in Capt. Moses Kellogg's company, Col. Porter's regiment, New Hampshire. September 23, 1777, to October 18, 1777. Company marched under Maj. Gen. Gates.

Means, Gen. Hugh. (Has monument.) Buried at Fair Forest Cemetery, South Carolina.

Merrick, Capt. Erenezer. Born 1722 died March, 1819 buried at West Dummerston, Vt. He was a captain in 1782.

Metcalf, Benjamin. Born 1757 died April, 1848 buried at Guilford, Vt. Service in Massachusetts continental lines. Pensioner.

Miller, Col. Elijah. Born May 7, 1728 died August 21, 1776 buried in Presbyterian Cemetery, White Plains, N. Y. He died at Camp Hurlgate. His home was occupied by Gen. Washington for headquarters in 1776 and 1778.

Miller, Hosea. Born April, 1742 died May, 1795 buried at Dummerston, Vt. Served under Capt. Benj. Whitney.

Miller, John B. Born 1754 died 1835. Trumpeter in Armand's legion. Buried in Canfield, Ohio.

Miller, John, Sr. (Grave located in Old Allentown Cemetery, Pa.)

Miller, Vespatian. Born June, 1740 died July, 1812 buried in Dummerston Center, Vt. Served under Capt. Benjamin Whitney.

Minshall, Rev. William. A prisoner. Buried in Range Township, Bethel Cemetery, Madison County, Ohio. Inscription on monument: "A stranger I am—but here I must lie. My name you can see, but my age is unknown."

Moll, John. (Grave located in Allentown, Pa.)

Moltty, George. (Grave located in North Thetford, Vt.)

Mone, John. (Grave located in North Carolina.)

Moore, Nathan. Buried in Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Morehouse, David. Born August 14, 1740 buried in private cemetery, Roberts's farm, Falls, Pa. Company, Capt. St. John's regiment, Fifth Connecticut.

Morgan, Jesse. Age 60 died June 16, 1810 buried in Elmwood Cemetery, Holyoke, Mass. Served under Capt. Enoch Chapin (Mass.).

Morgan, Capt. Joseph. Died December 18, 1813, aged 77 buried in Elmwood Cemetery, Holyoke, Mass. Captured in capitulation of Fort William Henry, 1757.

Morris, James. Born January 8, 1752 died April 20, 1820 buried at Morris,

Morrow, Maj. Samuel. (Has monument.) Buried at Fair Forest, S. C.

Mosely, James "Highkey." (Has Government marker.) Born 1756 died 1840 buried at Hames's plantation, South Carolina.

Moss, Levi, Jr. Born 1747 died March 6, 1825 buried at Northfield, Conn.

Moss, Titus. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Newhard, Lawrence. (Grave located in Allentown, Pa.)

Newharter, Thomas. (Grave located in Allentown, Pa.)

Newton, Marshall. Born January, 1757 died December, 1833 buried at Newfane, Vt. Served in Massachusetts continental lines.

Nickens, Moses (colored). Settled in Madison County, Ohio, 1810 soldier in Continental Army under Gen. Washington and also in War of 1812 enlisted from Jefferson Township, Madison County, Ohio. Died in Columbus, Ohio.

Norton, Dr. Gould Gift. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Nuckotts, John (Cherokee). Lived near Grindall Shoals, Union County buried in Whig Hill.

Nye, Erenezer. Buried in the Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Ohl, Henry. Born 1762 died 1849 buried at Canfield, Ohio. Private in Northampton County Militia.

Old, Col. Benj. Died May 5, 1827, aged 63 buried in Agawam Center Cemetery, Massachusetts.

Osborne, Eliada. Born 1760 died December 26, 1849 burled at West Litchfield, Conn.

Obborn, Isaac. Born July 22, 1744 died March 25, 1826 buried at West

Osborn, John. Born 1727 died January 7, 1814. Buried at West Litchfield,

Conn. Otterson, Maj. Samuel. (Record furnished by Fair Forest Chapter, Union,

Page, Dr. Benjamin. Buried in Hallowell Cemetery, Hallowell, Me.

Page, Daniel. Born 1756 died December 1, 1834 buried at Milton, Conn.

Palmer, John. Born 1766 in Union County, N. C. Moved to Indiana.

Parish, Ebenezer. Born 1760 died about 1835 buried in Orcutt's Grove Cemetery, near Noxen. Pa. Private in Massachusetts troops. Won title of captain in Battle of White Plains.

Parker, Joseph. Born 1760 died February 6, 1830 buried at Morris, Conn.

Parker, Levi. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Parkhurst, Abraham. Born 1755 died 1815 buried at Granville Cemetery,Pa. From Massachusetts. Parks, Lieut. Jonathan. Born September, 1743 died July, 1827 buried at

Newfane, Vt. Served under Col. John Sargeants.

Patrick, Matthew. Born 1754 died 1789. Sergeant in Lieut. Asahel Smith's company, Vermont Militia, 1780 sergeant in Capt. John Marcy's (Windsor) company, Vermont Militia, 1781.

Patrick, Sergt. Samuel. Born 1750 died 1825. Sergeant in Capt. John Marcy's (Windsor) company, Vermont Militia, 1780-1781.

Pattee, Ezekiel. Born 1731 died 1813 buried at Winslow, Me. Committee of Safety.

Patterson, Deacon Robert. Born 1744 died September 15, 1828. Capt. Peter Clark's company, Moor's regiment.

Patterson,. Robert. Born 1744 died November 10, 1817. Private in Capt. Moses McFarland's company of invalids stationed at Boston, Col. Nichols's regiment.

Pearson, Capt. John. Born August 17, 1740 died January 22, 1829 buried in

Neshanock Churchyard, Mercer County, Pa.

Peck, Philo. Born October 3, 1752 died February 13, 1831 buried at West

Litchfield, Conn. Perry, Abner. Born 1755 died September, 1834 buried at Dover, Vt. Served

as Minuteman in Massachusetts company.

Pettes, Joseph. Born 1754 died 1811 buried in Old South Burying Ground, Windsor Vt . Private in Capt. James Hendricks's company, Massachusetts Militia, 1776.

Phelps, Francis. Born August, 1757 died July, 1842 buried at Halifax, Vt. Served in Massachusetts Continental Line. Pensioned in 1819.

Phelps, John. Born 1756 died June 25, 1833 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Phelps, Winslow. Buried at South Woodstock, Vt. Pilgrim, Thomas. Born 1754 died April 24, 1843 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Polk, Capt. Charles. Buried in North Carolina. Porter, John. Died March 16, 1834 aged 93 buried in Agawam Center, Cemetery, Mass.

Potter, Joel. Born 1761 died July 18, 1827 buried at headquarters.

Potter, Capt. John. Buried in Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Peatt, Levi. Buried at Hulett's Landing, on Lake George. Bronze tablet erected by the Washington Heights Chapter, New York City, N. Y.

Pratt, Stephen. Born 1761 died 1854 buried at Otsego, Mich. He enlisted twice, first at the age of 16, and served for 16 months each time.

Pray, Abraham. Buried in Hallowell Cemetery, Hallowell, Me.

Proctor, Francis, Jr. Born in Ireland died April, 1815, in Lycoming County, Pa. buried at Dunnstown, Pa. He was the son of Francis Proctor, sr., and brother of Gen. Thomas Proctor (who organized first company of artillery in Philadelphia). Served witfi his brother in continental line, November 27, 1775. Lieutenant November 29, 1775 captain July 16, 1776 major December 24, 1782.

Putnam, John. Born 1767 died 1844 buried at Granville Cemetery, Pennsylvania. From Medford, Mass.

Pyron, John. (Grave located by John Foster Chapter, Monroe, N. C.)

Pyron, William. (Grave located by John Foster Chapter, Monroe, N. C.)

Ray, William. Born 1755 died October 6, 1813 buried at Morris, Conn.

Reeve, Tapping. Born 1744 died December 13, 1823 buried at East Litchfield, Conn. He was head of the first law school in the United States.

Reib, Andrew. (Grave located in Allentown, Pa.)

Rice, Lieut. Jonas. Born about 1765 died May 1849 buried at Brattleboro, Vt. Served in Capt. Blakeslee's company.

Richardson, Andrew. Born 1760 died 1825 buried in Winslow, Me. Private in Capt. Farwell's company.

Riddle, Samuel. Born 1759 died 1825 buried in Canfield, Ohio. Private in rangers of Washington County, Pa., and of Westmoreland County, Pa. Private in Capt. George Sharpe's company, Third Battalion, Militia.

Robbins, Willard. Born 1753 died 1823 buried in South Amherst Cemetery, Amherst, Mass. He was a sergeant in Capt. Reuben Dickinson's company, Col. Porter's regiment.

Robinson, Chandler. Born December, 1761 died 1833 buried South Branch, near Forkston, Pa. Served in Capt. Douglas's company in May, 1776, and 1778.

Robinson, William. Born about 1750 died October, 1841 buried at West Dummerston, Vt. Served in New Hampshire continental lines.

Rogers, Nathaniel. Born 1750 died 1833 buried at Marshfield Hills, Mass.

Rogers, Peleg. Died 1820 buried at Marshfield Hills, Mass.

Rogers, Thomas. Buried at Marshfield Hills, Mass., near the Unitarian Church.

Ross, James. Buried in North Carolina.

Rowley, Nathan. Died October 9, 1821 aged 81. Lieut. Col. David Moseley's regiment.

Runnels, Benjamin. Born 1748 died 1802 buried in Winslow, Me. Blacksmith with Army in New York, employed in forging chains thrown across Hudson to keep British ships from going up the river.

Russell (russel) . Born at Lexington, Mass., January 12, 1762 died at Moscow, Me., May 1, 1852 buried in Bingham, Me.

Russel, Joseph. Born at Groton, Mass., 1763 died at Moscow, Me., December 27, 1850 buried in Bingham, Me.

Salisbury, James. Born about 1751 died January, 1842 buried at Guilford, Vt. Served in Capt. David Stowell's company.

Sanford, Jonah. Born August 1, 1735 died January 21, 1817 buried at Morris, Conn.

Sanford, Joseph, Jr. Born 1745 died December 13, 1813 buried at Morris, Conn.

Sargeant, Elihu. Born May, 1758 died December, 1833 buried at Brattleboro, Vt. Served in Col. John Sargeant's regimeht.

Sargeant, Rufus. Born June, 1740 died November, 1836 buried at Dummerston, Vt. Served in Capt. Josiah Boyden's company.

Sargeant, Lieut. Thomas. Born February, 1734 died April, 1783 buried at Brattleboro, Vt. He was a highway commissioner.

Sartor, William. Buried at Scaife Place, near Santuc, S. C.

Savage, Capt. John. Buried in McJunkin graveyard in South Carolina.

Sayles, William. Born February 28, 1744 died February 19, 1832 buried in private burying ground on his old farm at Lenox, Madison County, N. Y. He was in Battle of Lexington with Capt. Asa Fairbanks, from Wrentham, Mass.

Schultz, Christopher. Buried at Clayton Meeting, Clayton, Bucks County, Pa.

Schultz, John. Buried at Newtown, Pa. Secrest, Capt. John. Buried in North Carolina.

Sells, Ludwig. Born February 15, 1743 died October 13, 1823 buried in the Dublin Cemetery, Dublin, Ohio. He was in Capt. Martin Bowman's Company. Served in the Pennsylvania line in 1777.

Seymour, Moses. Born July 23, 1742 died September 17, 1826 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Seymour, Samuel. Born January 1, 1754 died November 14, 1837 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Sharpe, Benjamin. (Grave located bj'Fair Forest Chapter, Union, S. C.)

Sharpe, John. Buried at Lipscomb Gregory farm, South Carolina.

Sharpe, William. Buried at Lipscomb Gregory farm, South Carolina.

Shaw, Abiatha. Born 1762 died December, 1852 buried at Westmoreland, N. H. Served under Col. John Daggart.

Shaw, John. Buried on a farm about 7 miles from Paris, Ky. (Grave marked 1917.)

Shaw, William. Buried at Ebenezer graveyard, South Carolina.

Shelton, Gen. Joseph. Buried at Simstown, near Neal Shoals, S. C.

Shropshire, Abner. Born May 13, 1761 died December 13, 1840 pensioned under act of June, 1832, for service as a private in Virginia Militia. Was buried at Valley Forge, near Leesburg, but was moved to Georgetown (Ky.) Cemetery on September 28, 1917.

Simpson, Benjamin. Born 1754 at Groton, Mass. Private in Capt. Henry Haskell's company. Camped at Cambridge, Mass. Record in Massachusetts soldiers and sailors. Buried in Waterville, Me.

Simpson, William. Buried in North Carolina.

Sims, Capt. Chas. (Has monument.) Buried at Simstown, S. C.

Skein, Adam. Buried at Sartor Graveyard, near Santuc, S. C.

Skinner, John. Buried at Jonesburg, N. H. (Grave marked 1917.)

Smith, Amos. Born April, 1750 died January, 1821 buried at Chesterfield, N. H. Served in Col. Ashley's regiment.

Smith, Lieut. Asahel. Son of Capt. Steel Smith, the founder of Windsor, Vt. Born 1756 died 1846 buried in Sheddsville, Vt. (West Windsor).

Smith, Benjamin. Buried at Coldwater, Mich.

Smith, David. Born December 20, 1747 died October 16, 1814 buried in East Litchfield, Conn.

Smith, Eli. Died March 29, 1824 buried at East Litchfield, Conn,

Smith, Jacor. Born 1738 died April 14, 1807 buried at Northfield, Conn.

Smith, John. Born 1739 died February 15, 1807 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Smith, Manuel. Born 1741 died 1821. He was a member of the Committee of Safety. Buried Winslow, Me.

Smith, Reuren. Born 1737 died August 25, 1804 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Smith, Samuel. Buried in Hallowell Cemetery, Halloweli, Me.

South Worth, Lemuel, Sr. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

South Worth, Lemuel, Jr. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Spaulding, Jacor. Born about 1727 died June, 1808 buried at Brattleboro, Vt. Served under Capt. James Blakeslee.

Spencer, Ephraim. Born 1759 died May 16, 1828 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Sperry, Jor. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

Spooner, Alden. Born 1757 died 1827. Private in Capt. Samuel McClure's (Dresden) company, Vermont Militia in the alarm at Newbury, 1781. Buried in Old South Burying Ground, Windsor, Vt.

Steadman, Nathaniel. Born April, 1746 died October, 1812 buried at Newfame, Vt. Served under Col. John Sargeant.

Steen, Lieut. Col. James. Killed at Kings Mountain.

Stees, John. Born September 13, 1760 died July 8, 1840 buried at Stees Cemetery, near Mifflinburg, Pa. Private in Eighth Company, Third Battalion, Lancaster County Militia, Pennsylvania.

Stephens, Emanuel. Buried near Indian Trail, N. C.

Sterne, Dr. Thomas. Born 1745 died 1816. Surgeon New Hampshire Militia, 1776. Buried in Old South Burying Ground, Windsor, Vt.

Stevens, Erenezr. Buried at Nicholson, on Glenwood road. Member New York Militia. Was a dragoon in Connecticut regiment. Grave located in Pennsylvania.

Stevens, Henry. Born 1764 died April 16, 1854. Buried at Northfield, Conn.

Stevens, Peter. Born March 17, 1741 Canterbury, Conn. died May 26, 1821, Wells, Vt. Served in 1775, Fourth company, Third regiment, Gen. PutnamCapt. Obadiah Johnson.

Stewart, Jehiel. Born October 22, 1750 died March 18, 1813 buried in Westfield Flats Cemetery, Roscoe, N. Y. Private under Capt. Ferguson, of Massachusetts.

Stockwell, Jonas. Born 1755 died November, 1812 buried at Dummerston, Vt. Served under Col. John Sargeant.

Stoddard, Bryant. Born 1740 died February 17, 1824 buried at Morris, Conn.

Stoddard, Daniel. Born April 29,1760 died December 16,1826 buried at Bantam, Conn.

Stoddard, David. Born August 8, 1747 died May 4, 1794 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Stoddard, Jesse. Born September 17, 1762 died January 23, 1846 buried at Bantam, Conn.

Stone, Cam. Born 1747 died 1820. Private in Capt. John Marcy's (Windsor) company, Vermont Militia, 1780. Buried in Old South Burying Ground, Windsor, Vt.

Stone, Sylvanus. Born October 17, 1713 died December 13, 1785 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Stone, Thomas. Born 1755 died September 10, 1843 buried at Bantam, Conn.

Straton, Hezekiah. Born 1746 died 1824. Was a member of committee of safety. Buried in Winslow, Me.

Strong, Simeon. Born 1764 died 1841 buried in West Cemetery, Amherst. Mass.

Stboup, John. Died February 4, 1832 buried on Crawford Farm, Paint Township, Madison County, Ohio.

Swain, Joseph. Born 1754 died February, 1831 buried at Halifax, Vt . Served in Massachusetts continental lines was a pensioner.

Swanzey, Capt. William. Born 1746 died August 8, 1825. Second Battalion, Cumberland County Militia Col. Thomas Gibson, commander. Buried in Lick Run Presbyterian Cemetery, Jacksonville, Pa.

Sweet, Peleo, Sr. Born 1758 died December 9, 1825, in Ashtabula, Ohio buried in Edgewood Cemetery, Ashtabula, Ohio. Enlisted in Connecticut.

Suydam, Cornelius. Born April 6, 1761 died March 17, 1851. Private in Middlesex County, New Jersey Militia. Buried in Dutch Reformed Churchyard, Spotswood, N. J. Tallmadge, Benjamin. Born February 25, 1754 died March 7, 1833 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Tallmadge, Samuel. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.)

TanNer, Lieut. Tryal. Born 1751 died 1833 buried in Canfield, Ohio. Sergeant in Gen. Arnold's campaign. Enlisted in Connecticut continental regiment as lieutenant was promoted to adjutant was in the Battle of Monmouth forced to resign in 1780 to support his family.

Taylor, Daniel. Born 1739 died September, 1807 buried at West Dummerston, Vt. Served under Capt. Eben Merrick.

Taylor, Elisha. Born 1760 died October 30, 1843 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Taylor, Lieut. Hilbert. Born 1744 died 1803 buried in Rural Cemetery, White Plains, N. Y. On his tombstone, "A soldier of the Revolution." Third regiment, Westchester County Militia, Col. Pieri Van Courtland. (Grave marked by chapter.)

Taylor, John (jonathan). Born 1753 died July 6, 1809 buried at Milton, Conn.

Tenney, Daniel. Born June, 1748 died March, 1825 buried at West Dum- merston, Vt. Served with Maj. Richard Waldon.

Tenney, Jonathan, Sr. Born February, 1758 died November, 1826 buried at West Dummerston, Va. Served under Capt. Thomas Richards.

Thayer, Jonathan. Born 1762 died 1846 buried in South Amherst Cemetery, Amherst, Mass.

Thomas, Col. Anthony. Buried in Winslow Cemetery, Mass.

Thomas, Sergt. Habrison. Died 1808 buried on the old farm near Wierwood, Va. He was sergeant in the company of Capt. James Franklin, Tenth Virginia regiment, commanded by Col. Edward Stevens. His name appears on a roll, May 31, 1777, and March, 1778, with remarks which indicate that he was then in hospital from War Department.

Throop, Benjamin. Born Septemper 13, 1752 died October 8, 1833 buried at Footville, Conn.

Tllden, John. Born 1754 died March 14, 1792 buried at Marshtield Hills, Mass.

Tobey, Zoeth. Born 1758 died 1835 buried in the Lawner Cemetery, Charleston, Mich. He enlisted at Dartmouth, Mass., in 1780, served 2 years, was wounded and honorably discharged.

Tolman, Robert. Cincinnati Chapter, Cincinnati, Ohio, erected a monument in the form of a gateway of granite blocks, given to the chapter through the historic sites committee, these blocks having been taken from the old historic courthouse and placed in the Pioneer Cemetery, where a Revolutionary soldier is buried. The date of his birth and death are not visible on the tombstone, but the name Robert Tolman, Revolutionary soldier, 1794, is clear.

Trumbull, Ezekiel. Born 1759 died November 27, 1838 buried at Morris, Conn.

Trundle, Sergt. John. Buried on the farm near Dickerson, Md., known as the Heffner farm. Grave has a tombstone. Tussell, John. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Tuttle, Lucius. (Grave located by Lady Fenwick Chapter, Cheshire, Conn.) Tyler, James. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Tyler, Joshua. (Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.)

Underwood, Thaddeus. Born about 1760 died September, 1840 buried at Marlboro, Vt. Served in Capt. Warren's militia. Uptegrove (Private). Buried in the old graveyard of Ulaytown Reformed Church, Lancaster County, Pa. Van Ness, George. Died March 22, 1832. Served through Revolutionary War and was with Washington at Valley Forge. Moved to Madison County, Ohio, in 1813.

Varnon, John. Born 1744 died February, 1825. Private in First Regiment Pennsylvania Troops. (See Record and Pension Office, War Department.) Buried on farm owned by Mrs. Hickman, near Harrison County line, on road between Millersburg and Cynthiana, Ky.

Viers, Maj. William. Died 1811 buried in an unmarked grave on the farm known as the James Dawson farm, Dawsonville, Md.

Vosburg, Abram. Born died July 12. 1S21 buried in cemetery on Neck,

Vosburg, Pa. Was in Capt. Everett Bogardus's company, Snyder's regl-ment. Private in Van Alstine's regiment of Albany County (N. Y.) Militia.

Vose, Lemuel. Born April 30, 1753 died March 2, 1827 buried near Forkston, Pa. Served in Connecticut regiment.

Wadsworth, Capt. Elijah. Born 1747 died 1817. Assisted in raising Sheldon's regiment of light dragoons. Was one of the first to join the Army, and served through the whole war. Was at West Point when Maj. Andre was taken prisoner, and served as one of his guards. Entered the war as a lieutenant and at the close was a captain. When he was 65 years old was general in war of 1812. Buried at Canfield, Ohio.

Walkup (wahab), Capt. James. Born 1724 died February, 1798 buried at Old Waxhaw, N. C.

Wallace, Richard. Born 1756 died August 30, 1794 buried at East Litchfield, Conn. Grave located by the Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.

Ward, Luther. Born June, 1761 died July, 1848 buried at Dover, Vt. Belonged to Massachusetts Militia. Pensioned 1831.

Warner, Jonathan. Born November 3, 1759, at Amherst, Mass. died January 4, 1845, at Wales, Erie County, N. Y. buried in the village cemetery at South Wales, Erie County, N. Y. Enlisted as a private in Massachusetts Militia, July, 1776. Served four months under Col. Nicholas Sikes, Capt. River Lyman. Second service, enlisted and served as a private under Cols. Hale and Leonard for two months, in Capt. Eli Parker's company, Massachusetts Militia. Applied for a pension December 2, 1833. He married Margaret Elizabeth Zwill, December 2, 1779. She was pensioned as his widow October 27, 1845 died at Wales, N. Y., March 3, 1848, aged 88 years. Warner, Josiah. Born 1745 died 1830 buried in West Cemetery, Amherst, Mass. Served in Lieut. Noah Dickinson's company, Col. Elisha Porter's regiment.

Warner, William. Died August 28, 1795 buried in Pioneer Cemetery, West Bloomfleld, N. Y. Lieutenant in Seventeenth Regiment, New York Militia. Warren, Martin. Died 1852 buried in old cemetery at Warrensburg, Mo. Warriner, Maj. Gad. Died May 10,1842, aged 84 buried in Agawam Cemetery, Massachusetts.

Wasson, John. Born in Lancaster, Pa., in 1747 died September, 1825, aged 78 buried in Center Hill Cemetery, Center County, Pa. Grave marked by suitable tombstone.

Waugh, Samuel. Born 1758 died Oct. 12, 1838 buried at Footville, Conn.

Waugh, Thaddeus. Born January 3, 1759 died November 9, 1810 buried at Footville, Conn.

Way, Asa (Aba). Born 1761 died June 29, 1811 buried at Northfield, Conn.

Weatherree, Joar. Born April, 1759 died April, 1843 buried at Chesterfield, N. H. Served under Col. Job Cushing.

Weathern, Benjamin. Born August 3, 1759 died March 12, 1834 buried at Riverside Cemetery, Farmington, Me. Enlisted 1779, Penobscot Expedition.

Weaver, Jabez. Private in Capt. Benjamin Hitchcock's regiment, under command of Gedeon Brounson. (Information from 114 Adjutant's Office, p. 57, State of Vermont.)

Webster, Benjamin, Jr. Born 1737 died October 29, 1782 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Werster, Reuren. Born May 12, 1757 died August 2, 1833 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Werster, Stephen. Born 1738 died November 28, 1823 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Welch, David. Bern 1724 died March 26, 1815 buried at Milton, Conn. Welch, John. Born September 23, 1759 died December 26, 1844 buried at Milton, Conn.

Weller, Dan. Born 1759 died June 9, 1829 grave of this Revolutionary soldier and his wife was located by Washington Heights Chapter, 11 miles north of Fort Anne, on the east side of the road to Comstock, N. Y., at telegraph :Pole No. 1391.

Wentz, John. Wounded by sabre cuts on the head. A woman found him on tha Rocky River road, North Carolina, am hid him in her chest from Tarleton's scouts. Grave located by the John Fester Chapter, Monroe, N. C.

White, Abijah. Buried at Center Church Cemetery, Massachusetts. On his mother's tombstone (Anna White) are found these words: "Killed in an engagement at sea, 1777."

White, Caleb. Born —: died 1848 served in Revolutionary War from State of Connecticut. Buried at Granville Cemetery, Pennsylvania.

White,, Lieut. James. Born 1743 died 1823 buried at Long Creek Church, near Kings Mountain, N. C.

White, Moses. Born 1753 died 1827 sergeant, Capt. Thomas White's company, Col. Heath's regiment, Massachusetts Militia, 1775. Buried in Old South Burying Ground, Windsor, Vt.

Whitesides, William. Buried in Stafford Cemetery, near Mount Auburn, Christian County, Ill. (Information furnished by Stephen Decatur Chapter, Decatur, Ill.)

Whittlesey, N. Roger. Born 1754 died March 15, 1835 buried at Morris, Conn.

Wilbur, Gideon. Born April 9, 1768 died July 6, 1862. Gideon Wilbur enlisted in the Dutchess County Militia. He was a member of the Sixth Regiment, under Col. Graham. He is buried in the town of Warren, Herkimer County, N. Y. A bronze tablet or marker has been placed on his grave by Ganowauges Chapter, D. A. R., of New York.

Wilcox, David. Grave located by Richard Wallace Chapter, North Thetford, Vt.

William, Hubbard. Born December 2, 1762 died July 10, 1833 buried on Barton Farm on Millersburg and Cynthiana Pike, Kentucky. (Services: Manuscript list of Revolutionary soldiers in Virginia Historical Society Library, "Auditor's Accts. XVIII, page 694. An old letter in possession of descendants, addressed to Hubbard Williams, by James Mullins, dated 1826.)

Willington, Samuel. Born November, 1757 died December, 1836 buried at Brattleboro, Vt. He was a pensioner.

Wilson, Henry. Born 1756 died between 1843 and 1848 buried in a family graveyard near Little Rock, on a farm owned by Mrs. John Brenan. (Services: See list Revolutionary soldiers in Collins' History of Kentucky, Vol. I, pp. 5, 6.)

Winchester, Asa. Born March, 1763 died October, 1831 buried at Marlboro, Vt. He was on the pay roll of Capt. Jonathan Warren.

Winchester, Joseph. Born October, 1765 died March 1825 buried at Marlboro, Vt. On the pay roll of Capt. Jonathan Warren.

Witcher, Chase. Buried at Glencliff, N. H. (Grave marked 1917.)

Witt, Capt. Ebenezer. Buried in Maple Street Cemetery, North Brookfield, Mass.

Wolcott, Oliver. Born December 1, 1726 died December 1, 1797 buried at East Litchfield, Conn. Wolcott, Oliver, Jr. Born January 4, 1760 died June 1, 1833 buried at East Litchfield, Conn.

Wolcott, Capt. Samuel. Died October 27, 1852 aged 87 buried In Agawam Center Cemetery, Mass.

Wolfe, Philip. Buried in Jackson Township, N. C. Entered the Revolutionary War from Cabarras County, N. C.

Woodard, Artimus. Died October 1845 aged 87 buried at Halifax, Vt . Served in Massachusetts continental lines was a pensioner.

Woodruff, Charles. Born 1718 died September 12, 1802 buried at Morris, Conn.

Woodruff, Jacob. Born 1717 died December 21, 1790 buried at Morris, Conn. Woodruff, James. Born August 21, 1749 died April 3, 1813 buried at Morris, Conn.

Woods, George. Born 1746 died August, 1819 aged 73 buried in Center Hill Cemetery, Center County, Pa. Grave marked with suitable stone.

Wooster, Lemuel. Born 1757 died October 1, 1832 buried at West Litchfield, Conn.

Wright, Jonathan. Born 1746 died April 15, 1836 buried at Milton, Conn.

Young, Robert. Buried at old home near Union, S. C.

Young, Maj. Thomas. Buried at Union Cemetery, Union, S. C.

Zwears, Daniel. Born about 1744 died December, 1819 buried at Dummerston, Vt. Served under Capt. Blakeslee.


Carnatic Wars

Anglo French War also known as Carnatic War was fought between English and French forces on Indian land. These wars are generally the extension of their European rivalry in India. Both the powers started as a traders in India but by passing time their political influence and settlement started increasing in India. But in the end it was British which survived as a lone warrior and continued their colonial rule in India till 1947.

Mains reasons for English success are

  • British East India Company was a private company whereas French EIC was a government entity. So, English officers were swift in decision making and more independent than their French counterparts.
  • English controlled major trading centers in India like Bengal, Madras and Bombay whereas French consolidated their power only in Pondicherry.
  • There were many competent officers in English forces like Sir Eyre Coote, Robert Clive & Stinger Lawrence whereas French had only Dupleix.

First Carnatic war was the extension of Austria’s War of Succession in India. It was a battle of Succession in Austria after the death of Emperor Charles VI of Habsburg Monarchy. It took place between 1740-48 .

English Commander in Chief Curtis Barnett captured French ships in 1745. In retaliation to this French Governor Dupleix with the aid of La Bourdonnais captured Madras in 1746. In 1748 British troops be seized Pondicherry.

With the Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle Austria’s War of Succession came to an end. Under this treaty French was ordered to give back Madras to British forces.

Significance of the Battle:

Battle of Adyar fought between Nawab of Arcot Anwaruddin’s son Mahfuz Khan and French leader Paradis. In this battle small but disciplined French army of 900 soldiers successfully defended Fort St. george against the large but ineffective 10,000 army of Nawab of Arcot.

Second Carnatic war was fought between 1749-1754.

Background of Second Carnatic War was the rivalry between the successors of Carnatic and Hyderabad dynasty .

After the death of Nizam-ul-Mulk in 1748, the war of succession between his grandson Muzaffar Jung and Nizam-ul-Mulk’s second son Nasir Jung started.

Whereas in Carnatic Anwaruddin held the position of Nawab of Carnatic from 1743, but with the death of Nizam-ul-Mulk his position became dicey. In the meantime Chanda Sahib son in law of previous year ruler of Carnatic Dost Ali Khan with the ally of French claimed his position as the next rightful heir of Carnatic.

French supported Muzaffar Jang while British sided with Nasir Jang in Hyderabad. While in the Carnatic French supported Chanda Sahib while Anwar-ud-Din.

in was supported by English.

European Ruler Hyderabad Carnatic
British Nasir Jung Anwaruddin
French Muzzafar Jung Chanda Sahib

In the end Salabat Jung son of Nizam-ul-Mulk became the Nizam of Hyderabad. Wheras in Carnatic accoring to the terms of Treaty of Pondicheery(1754) Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah an ally of British sat on the throne of Arcot.

French Governor Dupleix was called back in 1754 and Charles Godeheu was sent as his replacement.

Third Carnatic war was the extension of Seven Years War(1756-63) in Europe . In 1758, French army under Count De Lally captured Fort St.David which was under British protection.

Battle of Wandiwash(1760) acted as Waterloo moment for the french Empire in India. English Army under General Eyre Coote defeated French army under Count De Lally.

Although with Treaty of Paris in 1763 French was restored with its original territories but just like other European powers it was restricted to a small corner without any political significance.



Comments:

  1. Maccormack

    Completely I share your opinion. It seems to me it is good idea. I agree with you.

  2. Daoud

    I'm sorry, but in my opinion, you are wrong. I'm sure. I am able to prove it. Write to me in PM.

  3. Tiladene

    This brilliant idea will come in handy.

  4. Jugul

    The futesas!



Write a message