Rich I DE-695 - History

Rich I DE-695 - History


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Rich I

(DE 695: dp. 1,800, 1. 306', b. 36'10", dr. 13'6", s. 24 k. cpl. 215 a. 3 3", 4 40mm.' 8 20mm., 2 dct., 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.), 3 21" tt.; cl. Buckley)

The first Rich was laid down on 27 March 1943 by the Defoe Shipbuilding Co., Bay City, Mich., launched 22 June 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Ralph McMaster Rich, and commissioned 1 October 1943, Lt. Comdr. E. A. Michel, Jr., USNR, in command.

Following shakedown off Bermuda, Rich was primarily engaged in coastwise escort and patrol duty until the end of February 1944. Then assigned to transatlantic escort work, she completed three round-trip crossings by May and on the 12th of that month began her last transit of the North Atlantic.

On the 23d she arrived at Londonerry and commenced preparations for Operation "Neptune," the naval phase of the Normandy invasion.

Delayed by weather for 24 hours, the "U" force sailed for France on 5 June, with Rich in the screen of the bombardment group of TF 125. From the 6th to the 8th, she screened heavier units as they supplied gunfire support for the troops landed on the "Utah" beaches to the northwest of the Carentan Estuary. Soon after 0830 on 8 June, she was ordered to Fire Support Area 3 to assist Glennon (DD 840) which had struck

a mine northwest of the Saint-Marcouf Islands. Closing Glenron, Rich dispatched a whaleboat only to learn that her assistance was not needed at that point. Rich then started to round the disabled ship and take up station ahead of the minesweeper which had taken Glennon in tow. At approximately 0920, a mine exploded 50 yards off Rich's starboard beam. Three minutes later, a second went off directly under the ship. Approximately 50 feet of her stern was blown off. A thircl mine delivc~'d the final blow 2 minutes later. The forward section buckled. Rich was ordered abandoned. A few minutes later, she sank. Of her crew,27 were killed; 73 wounded; and 62 missing.

Rich (DE 695) earned one battle star during World War II.


Ray City History Blog

Memorial Day Remembrance of the Service and Sacrifice of Hubert Felton Comer

In the 2007-2008 Georgia Legislative Session, The Georgia Senate passed a resolution to dedicate the Ray City bridge over Cat Creek in memorial to Hubert F. Comer:

Dedicating certain portions of the state highway system and for other purposes.

WHEREAS, Hubert F. Comer served in the United States Navy and was assigned to the USS Rich, a destroyer escort during the Normandy invasion in June 1944 and

WHEREAS, the USS Rich hit three German mines off the Normandy coast two days after the Normandy invasion and

WHEREAS, Hubert F. Comer was listed among the missing, and his body was never recovered and

WHEREAS, Hubert F. Comer was awarded the American Area Campaign Medal, the European-African-Middle Eastern Area Campaign Medal, and the Purple Heart and

WHEREAS, it is fitting and appropriate to honor Hubert F. Comer for his service and ultimate sacrifice in that service to the United States of America, the State of Georgia, and Berrien County by the naming of the SR 37 bridge on Cat Creek in honor and memory of his service and sacrifice.

Hubert Felton Comer, age nine, was enumerated along with his family in the 1930 census living in the Lois community near Ray City, GA. He was a son of Margaret Jane Hudson and Audley H. Comer. His father was a farmer, and Hubert and his older brother, Harold, assisted with the farm labor.

Hubert Felton Comer, 8th Grade, New Lois School, Berrien County, GA.

Hubert, and siblings who were of age, attended the one room school house at Lois. A 1936-37 class photo (detail at right) depicting Hubert at about age sixteen is available at the Berrien County Historical Photos Collection.

Later, Hubert attended the Ray City School where he graduated from high school about 1940 (see Glee Club Gave 1939 Christmas Cantata).

Hubert Felton Comer enlisted in the U.S. Navy Reserve on April 6, 1942.

Hubert Felton Comer was born July 14, 1920 and died June 8, 1944.

The Nashville Herald
September 28, 1944

Hubert F. Comer Reported Dead

Hubert F. Comer, 24, Carpenters Mate Second Class, U.S.N.R. , missing in action since July 9, was reported dead in a letter received last week by his wife. The letter stated that he had been carried on the official records of the Navy Department in the status of missing since June 6, 1944. He was servicing on board the U. S. S. Rich when that vessel was lost in the European Invasion as a result of enemy action.
News of his death read:
“It is with deep regret you are here advised that, although the body of your husband was not recovered, his commanding officer has reported that the circumstances surrounding his disappearance have lead to a conclusion of death. It is hoped you may find comfort in the knowledge that he was serving his country at the time of his death.”
He is the son of Mr. and Mrs. A. T. Comer of Ray City, who received similar news of his death.
Young Comer was graduated from the Ray City high school in 1940 after which he was employed on construction projects at Augusta. He enlisted in the Navy in April of 1942 and was married to the former Miss Paula Skinner in June 1943. His last leave at home was in March of this year. He was a person of good moral character and his many friends are grieved to learn of his death.
Survivors include his wife and parents, four brothers, M. Sgt. Harold Comer of Eglin Field, Fla., Sgt. James E. Comer, somewhere overseas, Jerry and Murray Comer of Ray City, and two sisters, Ms. Algerine Garner, of San Diego, Calif., and Miss Barbara Comer, of Ray City.

Hubert Felton Comer aboard the USS Rich (DE 695), WWII.

The USS Rich was officially described as, “DE – 695: displacement 1,800 length 306’ beam 36’10” draft 13’6” speed 24 knots complement 215 armament 3 3”, 4 40mm., 8 20mm., 2 depth charge tracks, 8 depth charge projectors, 1 depth charge projector (hedgehog-type), 3 21” torpedo tubes class Buckley.”

The USS Rich (DE-695) was laid down on March 27, 1943 by the Defoe Shipbuilding Co., Bay City, MI. launched June 22, 1943 sponsored by Mrs. Ralph McMaster Rich and commissioned October 1, 1943, Lt. Comdr. E. A. Michel, Jr., USNR, in command.

The USS Rich was laid down on 27 March 1943 at the Defoe Shipbuilding Company, Bay City, Michigan, the third destroyer escort to be built at that yard. She was launched on 22 June 1943, sponsored by Mrs. Ralph McMaster Rich, widow of Lt. Rich.

After completion, the USS Rich was sailed from the builder’s yard at Bay City, IL to Chicago, Illinois, arriving September 24, 1943. From there, she passed through the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and down the Chicago River. At Joliet, IL, pontoons were attached to the ship so she could be pushed down the Des Plaines River, Illinois River, and Mississippi River as part of a barge train.

The ship was docked at the Todd Johnson Shipyard in Algiers, Louisiana, on the west bank of the Mississippi at New Orleans. Hubert Comer and the rest of the crew reported aboard, and the USS Rich was commissioned on October 1, 1943, Lieutenant Commander E. A. Michel, Jr., USNR, in command.

Crew of the USS Rich DE695 at commissioning ceremony in New Orleans, LA, October 1,1943. Image source: http://www.informediate.com/USSRichDE695/Photos/PhotoGallery.htm

Hubert Felton Comer listed on the muster roll of the USS Rich (DE 695) during WWII.

Following a shakedown cruise off Bermuda, the USS Rich was primarily engaged in coastal escort and patrol duty with Escort Division 19 (CortDiv 19) until the end of February 1944. Then assigned to trans-Atlantic escort work, she completed three round-trip crossings by May. On May 10, 1944, Rich departed New York City in escort of a convoy to Britain in what would be her last transit of the North Atlantic.

USS Rich (DE 695) somewhere in the Atlantic.

On May 23, 1943 the USS Rich arrived at Londonderry, Northern Ireland, and awaited a convoy to escort back to the United States. Instead, Rich was assigned to the Normandy Invasion force, and commenced preparations for “Operation Neptune”, the naval phase of the invasion of Normandy. She arrived at Plymouth, England on June 4, and was assigned as an escort to the battleship Nevada.

Delayed by weather for 24 hours, the “U” force sailed for France on 5 June, with Rich and her sister ship Bates in the screen of the bombardment group of Task Force 125 (TF 125), which consisted of the battleship Nevada and the heavy cruisers Quincy (CA-71), Tuscaloosa, and HMS Black Prince. On “D-Day”, 6 June 1944 and the two days following, she screened naval gunfire support ships off “Utah” Beach as they laid fire for the troops landed on Utah Beach to the northwest of the Carentan Estuary. On 6 June, Rich laid down a smoke screen which foiled an attack by German E-Boat.

On the morning of June, 8, 1944, soon after 08:45, she was ordered by the Commander of Task Group 125.8 (TG 125.8) aboard Tuscaloosa to proceed to Fire Support Area 3 to assist the destroyer Glennon which had struck a mine northwest of the Saint-Marcouf Islands. Rich proceeded at full speed to the area, and then followed in the wake of two minesweepers to the immediate area of the Glennon. Closing on Glennon, Rich dispatched a whaleboat, only to learn that her assistance was not needed at that point. Rich then started to round the disabled ship and take up station ahead of the minesweeper which had taken Glennon in tow. She moved at slow speed, with extra hands on the lookout for enemy planes and mines.

USS Rich with the USS Glennon

At approximately 0920, a mine exploded 50 yards off Rich’s starboard beam.

“Although men were shaken and power and lights lost temporarily, no serious damage occurred from the mine blast. The ship was not so lucky when a second mine was encountered three minutes later. A deafening explosion thundered from beneath RICH. Men were thrown from the bridge to the deck. A 50-foot section of the ship’s stern was torn off and set adrift. Survivors attempted to cling to debris or swim to safety and the seriously wounded were helpless in the mangled wreckage. A series of emergency reports reached the bridge – several torpedoes were making hot runs in their tubes the main deck had sagged, vicinity of No. 2 engine-room compartments forward of the engineering spaces had suffered only minor damage. But, there was never time to assess the reports. Only minutes later, a third mine unleashed its fury on RICH. She stayed afloat less than thirty minutes before settling into the sea. RICH and 89 crewmembers were gone.

Lt. Cmdr. Edward A. Michel, Jr. received the Navy Cross for heroism and devotion to duty. USS RICH DE 695 was the last DesLant ship to go down to Nazi mines off Normandy.”

Roscoe, Theodore, “United States Destroyer Operations In World War II”, 1953, US Naval Institute.

One year after the sinking of the USS Rich, a memorial service was held in Ray City for Hubert Comer:

The Nashville Herald
June 7, 1945 Pg1

Memorial Services for Hubert Comer At Ray City Friday

Memorial services for Hubert F. Comer, C. M. 2-C, U.S.N.R., will be held Friday, June 8, at 4 E.W.T. at the New Ramah Primitive Baptist Church, Ray City.
Seaman Comer served on the Destroyer Rich and participated in the invasion of France last June. The U.S.S. Rich served as an escort ship and screening vessel in protection of heavier ships.
During the invasion it stood by to render aid to another destroyer when it struck several mines and went down. Seaman Comer went down with his ship and was never seen again. He is survived by his wife, Mrs. Pauline S. Comer of Nashville, and his parents, Mr. and Mrs. A.T. Comer of Ray City, four brothers, Harold Comer of Eglin Field, Fla., James and Jerry Comer, who are overseas, and Murray Comer of Ray City, two sisters, Mrs. Algerine Garner, and Miss Barbara Comer of Ray City, and his grandparents, Elder and Mrs. Joe Hudson, of Bartow, Fla.
Primitive hymns will be sung. Elder M. S. Peavy and Elder C. H. Vickers will officiate. A marker will be placed in the cemetery.

Memorial marker, New Ramah Cemetery. In Memory of Hubert F. Comer who died at sea, Jul 14 1920 – Jun 8 1944. “Nobly he fell while fighting for liberty.”

Memorial marker for Hubert Felton Comer, Pleasant Cemetery, Berrien County, GA


Richard D. Foust

On the morning of 8 June 1944, USS Glennon DD struck a mine while screening heavy ships off Utah Beach. Minesweeper Staff moved in to assist Glennon and pass a tow line. Adm Deyo ordered USS Rich DE 695 to the scene, and she approached from eastward to offer assistance. However, Glennon signaled Rich that her assistance was not needed. Lt. Cmdr. E. A. Michel, CO of Rich, without hesitation, had gone to the aid of Glennon, knowing he faced danger from enemy gunfire and mines. When Rich was dismissed from the area she was told to be cautious due to mines. Rich circled astern of Glennon and headed away at five knots. Rich´s captain was taking every precaution. But, it was not enough.

0920: An explosion burst from the sea about 50 yards off Rich´s starboard beam. Although men were shaken and power and lights lost temporarily, no serious damage occurred from the mine blast. The ship was not so lucky when a second mine was encountered three minutes later. A deafening explosion thundered from beneath Rich. Men were thrown from the bridge to the deck. A 50-foot section of the ship’s stern was torn off and set adrift. Survivors attempted to cling to debris or swim to safety and the seriously wounded were helpless in the mangled wreckage. A series of emergency reports reached the bridge — several torpedoes were making hot runs in their tubes the main deck had sagged, vicinity of No. 2 engine-room compartments forward of the engineering spaces had suffered only minor damage. But, there was never time to assess the reports. Only minutes later, a third mine unleashed its fury on Rich. She stayed afloat less than thirty minutes before settling into the sea. Rich and 89 crewmembers were gone.
–Roscoe, Theodore, “United States Destroyer Operations In World War II”, 1953, US Naval Institute

Memorialized at Normandy American Cemetery in Colleville-sur-Mer, France
Parents: Everett E. and Elizabeth Foust
Siblings: Rebecca Foust

“I recently came across a letter written by Richard Foust’s mother, Mrs. E. E. Foust of Knoxville to my grandmother in Thomasville, NC, dated July 19th 1944.. She had just received news from the Navy that her son Richard was missing in action. Since their sons were best friends, she was asking if my grandmother had any info from my uncle Ralph about her son, not knowing Ralph Conrad had been transferred to the USS Vammen before the voyage to Normandy. Her letter is dated July 19th 1944. By some research online I found Richard Foust died June 8th 1944 off Utah Beach at Normandy. The letter is heart-breaking as Mrs. Foust is desperate for info on Richard, even though he had been dead for a month and a half. She actually found out in the Knoxville newspaper that the USS Rich had hit a mine and sunk before the Navy notified her. I’m reading that letter at our Memorial Day remembrance at our church May 24th. I was wondering where Richard Foust was buried.” — Submitted by Mark Black


According to some sources, Rich was born in the London parish of St Lawrence Jewry, the second son of Richard Rich by Joan Dingley. [1] [2] But according to Carter, he was born at Basingstoke, Hampshire, the son of John Rich (d. 1509?), of Penton Mewsey, Hampshire, and a wife named Agnes whose surname is unknown. [3] Early in 1551 he was described in an official document as "fifty-four years of age and more", and was therefore born about 1496 or earlier. [1]

According to Sergeaunt (1889): [4]

The origin of the family of Lord Rich has been matter of some discussion . The first of the family of whom there is definite information was Richard Rich, a wealthy mercer of London and Sheriff of the City in 1441. The date of his death is given by Burke as 1469, but it would seem that he has been confounded with his son John, who was buried in the Mercer’s chapel in that year. The family remained in the city, and the son of John Rich was probably also a mercer. To him was born sometime between 1480 and 1490 a son whom he named Richard.

He had a brother, Robert, whom Henry VIII granted a messuage in Bucklersbury [5] on 24 February 1539, [6] and who died in 1557. [1]

Little is known of Rich's early life. He may have studied at Cambridge before 1516. [1] That year, he entered the Middle Temple as a lawyer and at some point between 1520 and 1525 he was a reader at the New Inn. By 1528 Rich was in search of a patron and wrote to Cardinal Wolsey in 1529, Thomas Audley succeeded in helping him get elected as an MP for Colchester. [7] As Audley's career advanced in the early 1530s, so did Rich's, through a variety of legal posts, before he became truly prominent in the mid-1530s. [1]

Other preferments followed, and in 1533 Rich was knighted and became the Solicitor General for England and Wales in which capacity he was to act under Thomas Cromwell as a "lesser hammer" for the demolition of the monasteries, and to secure the operation of Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy. Rich had a share in the trials of Thomas More and Bishop John Fisher. In both cases his evidence against the prisoner included admissions made in friendly conversation, and in More's case the words were given a misconstruction that could hardly be other than wilful. [8] While on trial, More said that Rich was "always reputed light of his tongue, a great dicer and gamester, and not of any commendable fame." [9] Rich also played a major part in Cromwell's fall.

As King's Solicitor, Rich travelled to Kimbolton Castle in January 1536 to take the inventory of the goods of Catherine of Aragon, and wrote to Henry advising how he might properly obtain her possessions. [10]

Chancellor Edit

On 19 April 1536 Rich became the chancellor of the Court of Augmentations, established for the disposal of the monastic revenues. His own share of the spoil, acquired either by grant or purchase, included Leez (Leighs) Priory and about 100 manors in Essex. Rich also acquired—and destroyed—the real estate and holdings of the Priory of St Bartholomew-the-Great in Smithfield. He built the Tudor-style gatehouse still surviving in London as the upper portion of the Smithfield Gate. [11] He was Speaker of the House of Commons in the same year, and advocated the king's policy. Despite the share he had taken in the suppression of the monasteries, the prosecution of Thomas More and Bishop Fisher and the part he played under Edward VI and Elizabeth, his religious beliefs remained nominally Roman Catholic.

Rich was also a participant in the torture of Anne Askew, the only woman tortured at the Tower of London. Both he and Chancellor Wriothesley turned the wheels of the rack to torture her. [12]

Baron Rich Edit

Rich was an assistant executor of the will of King Henry VIII, and received a grant of lands. [13] He became Baron Rich of Leez on 26 February 1547. In the next month he succeeded Wriothesley as chancellor. He supported Lord Protector Edward Seymour in his policies, including reforms in Church matters and the prosecution of his brother Thomas Seymour, until the crisis of October 1549, when he joined with the Earl of Warwick. He resigned his office in January 1552.

Prosecution of bishops Edit

Rich took part in the prosecution of bishops Stephen Gardiner and Edmund Bonner, and had a role in the harsh treatment accorded to the future Mary I of England. But upon her accession, Mary showed Rich no ill will. He took an active part in the restoration of the old religion in Essex under the new reign, and was one of the most active persecutors. His reappearances in the privy council were rare during Mary's reign but under Elizabeth he served on a commission to inquire into the grants of land made under Mary, and in 1566 was sent for to advise on the question of the queen's marriage. He died at Rochford in Essex, on 12 June 1567, and was buried in Felsted church.

In Mary's reign he founded a chaplaincy with provision for the singing of masses and dirges, and the ringing of bells in Felsted church. To this was added a Lenten allowance of herrings to the inhabitants of three parishes. These donations were transferred in 1564 to the foundation of Felsted School for instruction, primarily for children born on the founder's manors, in Latin, Greek and divinity. The patronage of the school remained in the founder's family until 1851.

Descendants Edit

Rich's descendants formed the powerful Rich family, lasting for three centuries, acquiring several titles in the Peerage of England and intermarrying with numerous other noble families.

By his wife Elizabeth Jenks (Gynkes) he had 15 children. [14] The eldest son, Robert (1537?–1581), second Baron Rich, supported the Reformation. One grandson, Richard Rich, was the first husband of Catherine Knyvet: another, Robert Rich, third Baron Rich (1559–1619) was created First Earl of Warwick (of the third creation) in 1618. This line failed with the death of the 8th Earl on 7 September 1759.

Rich had an illegitimate son named Richard (d. 1598 [15] ) whom he acknowledged fully in his will with legacies and guardians for his minority, his education in the common law, and suitable marital arrangements. [16] In this line of descent was his grandson the merchant adventurer Sir Nathaniel Rich, and his great-grandson Nathaniel Rich (nephew of the elder Nathaniel), a colonel in the New Model Army during the English Civil War.

Since the mid-16th century Rich has had a reputation for immorality, financial dishonesty, double-dealing, perjury and treachery rarely matched in English history. [3] The historian Hugh Trevor-Roper called Rich a man "of whom nobody has ever spoken a good word". [17]

Rich is the supporting villain in the play A Man for All Seasons by Robert Bolt, which shows his slide into corruption. In the subsequent, Oscar-winning film adaptation, John Hurt portrays him. Bolt depicts Rich as perjuring himself against More in order to become Attorney-General for Wales. More responds, "Why Richard, it profits a man nothing to give his soul for the whole world. but for Wales?". The final line of the film notes that Rich "died in his bed" in juxtaposition with More's martyrdom and the other major characters' untimely deaths. In the 1988 remake of the film, Jonathan Hackett portrayed Rich.

Rich is a supporting character in C. J. Sansom's Shardlake series of historical mystery novels, which are set in Henry VIII's reign. Rich is portrayed as a cruel villain who is prepared to subvert justice to enhance his property and position. He has a significant role in the plot of Sovereign, the third of the series, and in Heartstone, the fifth.

Rod Hallett played Rich in seasons two, three and four of the Showtime series The Tudors.

Rich (spelled Riche in the novels) appears in Hilary Mantel's three volumes about Thomas Cromwell, Wolf Hall, Bring Up the Bodies and The Mirror and the Light. Bryan Dick portrays him in the BBC television adaptation of the first two novels, Wolf Hall.


Mục lục

Những chiếc thuộc lớp tàu khu trục hộ tống Buckley có chiều dài chung 306 ft (93 m), mạn tàu rộng 37 ft 1 in (11,30 m) và độ sâu mớn nước khi đầy tải là 11 ft 3 in (3,43 m). Chúng có trọng lượng choán nước tiêu chuẩn 1.400 tấn Anh (1.400 t) và lên đến 1.740 tấn Anh (1.770 t) khi đầy tải. [3] Hệ thống động lực bao gồm hai turbine hơi nước General Electric công suất 13.500 mã lực (10.100 kW), dẫn động hai máy phát điện công suất 9.200 kilôwatt (12.300 hp) để vận hành hai trục chân vịt [4] [5] công suất 12.000 hp (8.900 kW) cho phép đạt được tốc độ tối đa 23 kn (26 mph 43 km/h), và có dự trữ hành trình 6.000 nmi (6.900 dặm 11.000 km) khi di chuyển ở vận tốc đường trường 12 kn (14 mph 22 km/h). [6]

Vũ khí trang bị bao gồm ba pháo 3 in (76 mm)/50 cal trên tháp pháo nòng đơn có thể đối hạm hoặc phòng không, một khẩu đội 1,1 inch/75 caliber bốn nòng và tám pháo phòng không Oerlikon 20 mm. Vũ khí chống ngầm bao gồm một dàn súng cối chống tàu ngầm Hedgehog Mk. 10 (có 24 nòng và mang theo 144 quả đạn) hai đường ray Mk. 9 và tám máy phóng K3 Mk. 6 để thả mìn sâu. [6] [7] Khác biệt đáng kể so với lớp Evarts dẫn trước là chúng có thêm ba ống phóng ngư lôi Mark 15 21 inch (533 mm). Thủy thủ đoàn đầy đủ bao gồm 186 sĩ quan và thủy thủ. [6]

Rich được đặt lườn tại xưởng tàu của hãng Defoe Shipbuilding Company tại Bay City, Michigan vào ngày 27 tháng 3, 1943. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 22 tháng 6, 1943 được đỡ đầu bởi bà Ralph McMaster Rich, vợ góa Trung úy Rich, và nhập biên chế tại xưởng tàu của hãng Todd Johnson Shipyard ở Algiers, Louisiana vào ngày 1 tháng 10, 1943 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân Edward Andrew Michel, Jr. [1] [2] [8]

Sau khi hoàn tất việc chạy thử máy huấn luyện tại khu vực Bermuda và sửa chữa sau chạy thử máy, Rich hoạt động tuần tra chống tàu ngầm và hộ tống vận tải ven biển cùng Đội hộ tống 19 cho đến cuối tháng 2, 1944. Thành phần của đội hộ tống vào lúc này còn bao gồm các tàu khu trục hộ tống Bull (DE-693), Bunch (DE-694), Bates (DE-68), Amesbury (DE-66) và Blessman (DE-69). Sau đó nó được điều sang nhiệm vụ hộ tống vận tải vượt Đại Tây Dương, và cho đến tháng 5 đã hoàn tất ba chuyến hộ tống vận tải khứ hồi sang châu Âu. Vào ngày 10 tháng 5, nó khởi hành từ New York để hộ tống một đoàn tàu đi sang Anh, là chuyến vượt Đại Tây Dương sau cùng của con tàu. [1]

Đi đến Londonderry, Bắc Ireland vào ngày 23 tháng 5, thay vì chờ đợi để gia nhập một đoàn tàu cho chuyến quay trở về Hoa Kỳ, Rich được cử sang lực lượng tham gia Chiến dịch Neptune, hoạt động hải quân trong khuôn khổ cuộc đổ bộ Normandy. Nó đi đến Plymouth vào ngày 4 tháng 6 và gia nhập thành phần hộ tống cho thiết giáp hạm Nevada (BB-36), thuộc Lực lượng "U". [1]

Chiến dịch đổ bộ bị trì hoãn 24 giờ do thời tiết xấu, và đến ngày 5 tháng 6 Lực lượng "U" bắt đầu khởi hành hướng sang bờ biển nước Pháp. Rich cùng với tàu chị em Bates nằm trong thành phần hộ tống cho đội bắn phá thuộc Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 125, vốn bao gồm Nevada và các tàu tuần dương hạng nặng Quincy (CA-71), Tuscaloosa (CA-37) và HMS Black Prince (81). Từ ngày 6 đến ngày 8 tháng 6, nó hộ tống bảo vệ các tàu chiến chủ lực làm nhiệm vụ hỗ trợ hải pháo cho trận chiến trên bộ tại khu vực bãi Utah về phía Đông Bắc Carentan. Vào ngày 6 tháng 6, con tàu đã thả màn khói ngụy trang đối phó một cuộc tấn công của tàu E-boat Đức. [1]

Rich được tặng thưởng một Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II. [1] [2]


World War II

Following shakedown off Bermuda, Rich was primarily engaged in coastal escort and patrol duty with Escort Division 19 (CortDiv 19) until the end of February 1944. At this time, CortDiv 19 consisted of the destroyer escorts Rich, Bull, Bunch, Bates, Amesbury, and Blessman. Then assigned to trans-Atlantic escort work, she completed three round-trip crossings by May. On 10 May 1944, Rich departed New York City in escort of a convoy to Britain in what would be her last transit of the North Atlantic.

On 23 May, she arrived at Derry, Northern Ireland, and awaited a convoy to escort back to the United States. Instead, Rich was assigned to the Normandy Invasion force, and commenced preparations for "Operation Neptune", the naval phase of the invasion of Normandy. She arrived at Plymouth, England on 4 June, and was assigned as an escort to the battleship Nevada.

Delayed by weather for 24 hours, the "U" force sailed for France on 5 June, with Rich and her sister ship Bates in the screen of the bombardment group of Task Force 125 (TF𧅽), which consisted of the battleship Nevada and the heavy cruisers Quincy (CA-71), Tuscaloosa, and HMS Black Prince. From 6–8 June, she screened the heavier units as they supplied gunfire support for the troops landed on Utah Beach to the northwest of the Carentan Estuary. On 6 June, Rich laid down a smoke screen which foiled an attack by German E-Boat.

Soon after 08:45 on 8 June, she was ordered by the Commander of Task Group 125.8 (TG𧅽.8) aboard Tuscaloosa to Fire Support Area 3 to assist the destroyer Glennon which had struck a mine northwest of the Saint-Marcouf Islands. Rich proceeded at full speed to the area, and then followed in the wake of two minesweepers to the immediate area of the Glennon. Closing Glennon, Rich dispatched a whaleboat, only to learn that her assistance was not needed at that point. Rich then started to round the disabled ship and take up station ahead of the minesweeper which had taken Glennon in tow. She moved at slow speed, with extra hands on the lookout for enemy planes and mines.


Rich I DE-695 - History

HISTORY OF USS RICH DD/DDE-820

USS RICH DD/DDE-820 was the successor to a Buckley Class destroyer escort, the USS RICH DE-695, sunk on June 8, 1944 off the Utah beaches during the Normandy invasion. This second vessel carrying the name of Lieutenant junior grade Ralph McMaster Rich was laid down on May 16, 1944 by the Consolidated Steel Corporation of Orange, Texas. The ship was launched on October 5,1945 and was sponsored by the widow of Ralph McMaster Rich. RICH was commissioned in Orange, Texas on July 3, 1946 with Commander R. C. Houston being her first commanding officer. Her wartime compliment was nominally 350 officers and men. She was a Gearing (DD-710) Class destroyer, a lengthened version of the earlier Allen M. Sumner (DD-692) Class. There were 168 vessels produced in the Sumner-Gearing configuration. She displaced 2,425 tons, was 390’ 10” in length and had a breadth of 41’. He engineering plant of four boilers and two sets of geared turbines was designed to give the ship a maximum speed of 35 knots. At 15 knots her design range was 6,500 nautical miles.

As built, her main armament consisted of 6, 5”/38 caliber dual purpose guns in three turrets, two forward and one aft as well as 10, 21” Mark 15 torpedoes located on the deckhouse amidships. Her antiaircraft battery, at commissioning, consisted of 12 40mm and several 20mm antiaircraft guns. As a multipurpose fleet destroyer she was equipped to combat submarines with both stern racks and side throwing depth charge projectors. Throughout her some three decades of service to the country she went through two major and many minor modifications. The first occurred in 1950 when she officially became an “escort destroyer,” configured principally for anti-submarine warfare (ASW). At this time her numerical designation was changed from DD-820 to DDE-820. Her main gun armament was reduced to two 5”/38 gun mounts with the uppermost forward mount, Mount 52, being replaced by a Mark 15 trainable hedgehog projector. Her torpedo tubes amidships were removed in the mid-1950s. In addition to the armament changes, significant alterations were also made in her electronics and anti-submarine warfare sonar capabilities. RICH was again modified, this time extensively, in 1963 under the Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization (FRAM) Program when she was redisignated DD-820 still a destroyer but with enhanced ASW capabilities. In her FRAM Mark I configuration her two 5”/38 twin gun mounts were retained but all other guns were removed and she was equipped with an antisubmarine rocket launcher (ASROC) amidships. Her silhouette was now changed considerably from that of the 1945 era destroyer with the addition of a helicopter deck and hanger abaft the number two stack. There were also major changes made in her electronic and sonar equipment. In addition, she was now armed with Mark 32 triple tube antisubmarine torpedoes. RICH was in the Mark I FRAM configuration when she was stricken from the Navy’s registry on December 15, 1977 at the Philadelphia Naval Ship Yard.

RICH widely ranged the major oceans and seas during her long and useful operational life. She was, however, principally an Atlantic Fleet destroyer. Over this life much of her crew was drawn from the east coast. The crew, like that of many similar destroyers, was made up of a mixture of career and reserve officers and enlisted personnel. Many sailors received their initial introduction to the “tin can” Navy aboard the RICH. In the Atlantic Fleet she constantly trained to perfect her ASW capabilities both in hunter-killer (HUK) groups and antisubmarine task organizations like Task Force Alpha. She served in the screening and plane guard forces in several destroyer squadrons (DESRONS) for many aircraft carriers throughout the Atlantic and Mediterranean with excursions into the Red Sea and Indian Oceans. RICH was an active participant in the Lebanon Crisis of 1958 and the Cuban Quarantine in 1962. Her excursion into the Pacific took her to the Tonkin Gulf and the gun-line off Vietnam. At the end of her life, she like many of her contemporaries, provided a vessel dedicated to the training of naval reservists. It was after this final service to the Navy she was stricken from the Navy’s registry. The thirty-two year operational history of the USS RICH from 1945 to 1977 clearly mirrors that of a typical “peace-time” journeyman destroyer following the end of World War II.


Our Rich History

. when an urgent need for quality education met the vision, will and generosity of our legendary founder Martha Berry.

The daughter of a prosperous local business owner, Miss Berry began offering Sunday school lessons to serve nearby communities that lacked access to both church and school. Encouraged by the results of her efforts, Miss Berry decided in 1902 to devote the 83 acres she had inherited from her father to found the Boys Industrial School. Her premise was simple: In exchange for a quality education, the students would work to help run and maintain their school.

Across the years, we’ve remained true to Miss Berry’s founding values. Matters of the head, heart and hands lie at the center of our approach to intellectual development, community life and personal growth.

Students still contribute their effort and energy to help run their college. A culture of mentorship remains the essence of who we are.  And we are steadfast in our commitment to partnering with students and their families to make this education—and its lifelong value—possible.


リッチ (護衛駆逐艦)

バミューダ沖での整調後、リッチは第19護衛艦隊に加わり1944年2月末まで沿岸護衛、偵察任務に従事した。当時の第19護衛艦隊はリッチ、ブル (USS Bull, DE-693) 、バンチ (USS Bunch, DE-694) 、ベイツ (USS Bates, DE-68) 、アムスベリー (USS Amesbury, DE-66) 、ブレスマン (USS Blessman, DE-69) から構成された。その後、大西洋横断の護衛任務に配属されたリッチは、5月までに3度の往復を行う。1944年5月10日にリッチはニューヨークを出航したが、これが最後の北大西洋横断となった。

5月23日に北アイルランドのロンドンデリーに到着し、アメリカ合衆国に帰国する船団の護衛任務を待っていたリッチは、ノルマンディー上陸作戦への参加を命じられた。リッチは海軍のノルマンディー侵攻作戦であるネプチューン作戦の準備を始める。6月4日にプリマスに到着し、戦艦ネバダ (USS Nevada, BB-36) の護衛として配属された。

作戦スケジュールは悪天候のため24時間遅れとなり、「U」部隊は6月5日にフランスに向けて出航した。リッチは姉妹艦のベイツと共に第125任務部隊の砲撃グループの護衛として参加した。同部隊は戦艦ネバダ、重巡洋艦クインシー (USS Quincy, CA-71) 、タスカルーサ (USS Tuscaloosa, CA-37) 、軽巡洋艦ブラック・プリンス (HMS Black Prince, 81) から構成された。6月6日から8日まで部隊はカランタン河口北西部のユタ・ビーチに上陸する部隊への支援射撃を行い、リッチは部隊の護衛に従事した。6月6日にリッチは煙幕を張ってドイツのSボートによる攻撃を防いだ。

6月8日の08:45、リッチはタスカルーザに乗る第125.8任務群の指揮官から、第3火力支援エリアのサン・マルコフ諸島北西部で触雷した駆逐艦グレノン (USS Glennon, DD-620) の支援を命じられた。リッチは全速力で同エリアに急行し、2隻の掃海艇と共にグレノンの援護を行った。リッチは低速で航行し、乗員は敵機および機雷に警戒した。


Did the Rich Really Pay Much Higher Taxes in the 1950s? The Answer Is a Little Complicated.

American progressives like to remember the mid–20 th century as a time when the only thing higher than a Cadillac’s tail fin was the top marginal tax rate (which, during the Eisenhower years peaked above 90 percent for the very rich). Uncle Sam took 90 cents on the dollar off the highest incomes, and—as any good Bernie Sanders devotee will remind you—the economy thrived.

Conservatives, however, often try to push back on this version of history, pointing out that those staggeringly high tax rates existed mostly on paper relatively few Americans actually paid them. Recently, the Tax Foundation’s Scott Greenberg went so far as to argue that “taxes on the rich were not that much higher” in the 1950s than today. Between 1950 and 1959, he notes, the highest earning 1 percent of Americans paid an effective tax rate of 42 percent. By 2014, it was only down to 36.4 percent—a substantial but by no means astronomical decline.

Greenberg is not pulling his numbers out of thin air. Rather, he’s drawing them directly from a recent paper by Thomas Piketty, Emmanuel Saez, and Gabriel Zucman in which the three economists—all well-loved by progressives—estimate the average tax rates Americans at different income levels have actually paid over time. Their historical measure includes federal, state, and local levies—including corporate, property, income, estate, sales, and payroll taxes. And lest you think Greenberg is misrepresenting anything, here’s Piketty & co.’s own graph (rates on rich folks are shown in green).

There are a few obvious reasons why the taxes the rich actually paid in the 1950s were so much lower than the confiscatory top rates that sat on the books. For one, the max tax rates on investment income were far lower than on wages and salaries, which gave a lot of wealthy individuals some relief. Tax avoidance may have also been a big problem. Moreover, there simply weren’t that many extraordinarily rich households. Those fabled 90 percent tax rates only bit at incomes over $200,000, the equivalent of more than $2 million in today’s dollars. As Greenberg notes, the tax may have only applied to 10,000 families.

To Greenberg, the takeaway from this is simple: Progressives should stop fixating on the tax rates from 60 years ago. “All in all, the idea that high-income Americans in the 1950s paid much more of their income in taxes should be abandoned. The top 1 percent of Americans today do not face an unusually low tax burden, by historical standards.”

I’m not convinced. Effective tax rates on 1 percenters may not have fallen by half, as some on the left might be tempted to imagine. But they are down by about 6 percentage points 1 at a time when the wealthy earn a vastly larger share of the national income. That drop represents a lot of money. Moreover, as Greenberg admits, tax rates on top 0.1 percent have fallen by about one-fifth since their 1950s heights. That rather severely undercuts the idea that taxes on the wealthy haven’t fallen “much.”

Moreover, there may be reasons to support higher taxes beyond their ability to raise revenue. One popular theory among left-leaning intellectuals right now—advanced by Piketty, Saez, and their protegée Stefanie Stantcheva—is that high tax rates actually ease income inequality by discouraging CEOs and professionals from demanding exorbitantly high pay for their services.* In other words, thanks to high tax rates, people didn’t bother trying to get as rich. After all, there’s no point in bargaining for a giant bonus if the government is going to clip off most of it. I wouldn’t say the theory has been accepted as a consensus fact at this point, but it’s certainly alive and being taken seriously.

So the real tax rates rich Americans paid in the 1950s may not have been so stratospherically high as some progressives assume. But they also may have helped create a more egalitarian society. That seems worth considering.

1 Or more, depending on how you pick your frame of comparison. If you average the rates 1 percenters paid between 2010 and 2014, their effective average rate comes out to about 33.6 percent.

*Correction, Aug. 8, 2017: This post originally misspelled Stefanie Stantcheva’s first name.


Watch the video: The Commonwealth Aircraft Corporations rich history.