Robert Carter

Robert Carter

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Robert Carter was born in Hendon, County Durham, in 1881. He played football for Sunderland Royal Rovers and Selbourne, before joining Port Vale in 1904. An outside right, Carter scored 23 goals in 83 games for the club. He was only a small man and acquired the nickname "Toddler".

In 1907 Carter joined Stockport County. After scoring 8 goals in 27 games he signed for Fulham, who had just joined the Football League. According to Frank Garrick, the author of Raich Carter (2003): "Carter was a quick and enterprising winger who would shoot at every opportunity." He scored an amazing seven goals in ten games before joining Southampton in 1908.

Carter was plagued with injuries while playing with his new club. At the end of the 1909-10 season he suffered a serious knee injury. Carter did not play again until the 13th November when he turned out for Southampton reserves at Salisbury City. Soon afterwards he suffered a blow to the head from which he never fully recovered. Carter returned to Sunderland where he ran the Ocean Queen, with his wife, Clara.

Robert Carter died as a result of his head injury on on 14th March 1928. His son, Raich Carter, became one of the best inside-forwards in the Football League and played for Sunderland, Derby County and Hull City between 1932 and 1951. He also won 13 international cap for his country.

Dr Robert Carter

Dr Carter was converted to Christ at an early age, but did not know what to do with the theory of evolution. He always knew what he wanted to believe, but had no way to express what he was thinking and no evidence to support his views. In his freshman year of college, he was exposed to the information for creation for the first time and soon after adopted it as his modus operandi. He says he felt a tremendous joy when he realized his science and his religion were no longer at odds. This joy (and, he says, Creation magazine and the Journal of Creation) enabled him to get through the in-depth evolutionary training of his undergraduate and graduate programs with his faith intact.

He obtained a BS in Applied Biology from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1992. He then spent four years teaching high school biology, chemistry, physics and electronics before going to the University of Miami to obtain his PhD in Marine Biology. He successfully completed this program in 2003 with a dissertation on &ldquoCnidarian Fluorescent Proteins.&rdquo While in Miami, he studied the genetics of pigmentation in corals and other invertebrates, designed and built an aquaculture facility for Caribbean corals, performed well over 500 SCUBA dives, many of them at night, and licensed a spin-off product of his research (a patented fluorescent protein) to a biotech company.

He is currently a senior scientist and speaker for CMI-USA in Atlanta, Georgia, and is currently researching human genetics and other issues related to biblical creation.

Robert H. Carter: pioneering black pharmacist, entrepreneur- Black History

Robert H. Carter is believed to be the first African American certified pharmacist in Massachusetts. During the period from 1876 to 1907 he owned drugstores in New Bedford and Boston. Back then drugstores did not have a huge inventory of prefabricated drugs as are available today at CVS, Rite Aid or Walgreens. Pharmacists had to be able to formulate medications for doctors’ prescriptions.

Carter was born in New Bedford on Jan. 12, 1847, the second of three children. His parents Sarah (Taylor) Carter and Robert H. Carter Sr. were free Virginians, but they decided to improve their lot in 1846 by moving to New Bedford from Alexandria, Va. — a major port and market in the slave trade. Carter’s parents were able to find work in New Bedford, his mother as a seamstress and his father as a baker.

Only a year and a half after settling into their new home at 26 Chancery St. with Carter’s older sister Ann Elizabeth, his father died of cholera, leaving the child’s mother and uncle, Richard Carter, to raise him.

Robert Carter attended New Bedford High School, where he was one of only 10 enrolled African American students. As a teenager, he worked as a drugstore delivery boy for New Bedford pharmacist William P. S. Cadwell. One cold winter afternoon after school, he was shoveling snow in front of Cadwell’s Drugstore, at 49 Purchase St., when, to his surprise, he found a wallet containing $400 — a large sum of money in those days. Instead of keeping the cash and remaining mum about his new discovery, he turned the wallet over to his employer. His boss knew the wallet’s owner, George Howland Jr., the first president of the New Bedford Five Cents Savings Bank, and returned it to him.

Cadwell made note of Carter’s honesty, and when the teenager graduated from New Bedford High School in 1866, he rewarded him with a two-year apprenticeship in pharmacy. Carter immediately began his pharmaceutical career under Cadwell’s tutelage. He was paid $2.00 a week for the first six months, $2.50 a week for the next six months, and $4.00 a week for the last 12 months. At that time, pharmacists themselves manually composed or compounded all drugs. Carter diligently studied a textbook on the compounding of medicines and mastered his trade by the age of 21.

On July 8, 1869, he married Parthenia M. Harris, a 20-year-old hairdresser from Norfolk, Va. Their wedding ceremony was performed by Reverend Richard Vaughn at the Second Baptist Church in New Bedford. Parthenia gave birth to six children: Robert Lindsey, on May 4, 1871 Estelle May, on Dec. 15, 1873 Charles, on Oct. 15, 1875 George Thomas, on Feb. 19, 1878 Caroline, on Sept. 17, 1881, and Parthenia, on Oct. 30, 1885.

The couple’s first child, Robert Lindsey Carter, became a physician and practiced in Boston briefly. In 1901, he maintained an office at the Music Hall Building, while residing at 329 Columbus Ave. in the South End.

Robert H. Carter worked for William Cadwell through the year 1872. The following year, E. H. Chisholm employed him as a pharmacist. During this period, Carter and his family lived at 66 Purchase St., where his wife, Parthenia, ran a successful hair care business.

In 1876, the Carters moved to 135 Purchase St. There, the pharmacist established his first drugstore. In an advertisement he placed in the New Bedford Evening Standard Times on Nov. 11 that year, Carter vowed to give his “personal attention to the compounding of physicians’ prescriptions.” He assured potential customers, “All medicines dispensed can be relied upon, both for quality and the accuracy with which they are prepared.” Carter added, “With close application to my business and a careful interest to the wants of my customers, I shall strive to gain for my store a first-class reputation. A share of the public patronage is respectfully solicited.”

The Massachusetts Board of Registry in Pharmacy was established in 1885. Carter had at least three consecutive years of practical experience as a pharmacist by then, qualifying him for board certification without the requirement of taking an examination. Consequently, the board certified him as a registered pharmacist on Jan. 5, 1886, making him, undoubtedly, the first African American certified pharmacist in Massachusetts. According to the 1880 U.S. Census, there were only 18,697 African Americans in Massachusetts.

Carter owned a drugstore in New Bedford for 20 years — the first 13 years on Purchase St., then seven on Kempton St. Between 1896 and 1897, he ventured out to the Boston area, and became active in community affairs. He attended a reception and banquet at Odd Fellows Hall in Cambridgeport on Jan. 21, 1897 in honor of attorney Clement G. Morgan after he became the first African American elected to the Cambridge Board of Aldermen. The 1898 directory for Cambridge listed Robert H. Carter as a druggist, doing business at 111 Harvard St.

By that time, the Carter family had moved to 393 Northampton St. in Roxbury. Around 1901 the pharmacist established an apothecary, Robert H. Carter & Co., at 1443 Tremont St. in Roxbury. His company remained in business until about 1905. Carter and his family had returned to his hometown by 1906, as that year’s New Bedford directory listed him as a “drug clerk” conducting business at 1 Pleasant St.

Carter kept a notebook or “formulary” containing 119 of his handwritten entries for compounding medicines, potions, insect and animal poisons, and various household substances. Included in those entries are compounds for toothache drops, cough syrup, pain killers, bug and moth poison, rat poison, and silver and brass polish.

Carter was a founding member of the Massachusetts Pharmaceutical Association, as well as a member of the Boston Druggist Association and Booker T. Washington’s National Negro Business League. A Mason of the Prince Hall Grand Lodge, he became a Junior Grand Warden of the brotherhood in December 1895. He was also an Odd Fellow and a member of the Knights of Pythias.

Carter died of tuberculosis at his home, at 71 Foster St., on Jan. 13, 1908. He is buried at Oak Grove Cemetery in New Bedford.

  • Two texts are available. In the "Original Spelling" text, the spelling, grammar, capitalization, and punctuation of the original texts have been followed insofar as possible, given the extreme difficulty of duplicating some of the conventions of eighteenth-century handwriting on a computer screen. For "Modern Spelling," software at the Scholars' Lab replaces the original spelling with the modern when that has been indicated in a tag.


Brent Town was a speculative land development put together by Nicholas Hayward (d. ante 1697) of London, a notary public, merchant, and speculator. Hayward assembled a syndicate composed of London merchants Robert Bristow (1643-1707) and Richard Foote (his brother-in-law), and George Brent of


Stafford County

. The syndicate purchased on January 10, 1686/87, from Lord Culpeper, by then the controller of the Northern Neck Proprietary, 30,006 acres in Stafford County "Between the Courses of the said Two Rivers, Rappahannock and Potowmack . . . upon and Between the Southwest and Northeast Branches of Ocaquant Creek. . . ." Hayward obtained a dispensation from King James II that would allow the Hugenots that he hoped to settle on the land to have "the full exercise of their Religion."


The earliest letters of Robert Carter's that have been located -- fifty-three items dated between 1701 and 1710 -- concern the estate of his brother-in-law, Ralph Wormeley (1650-1701), member of the Council and Secretary of State of Virginia, who lived in very grand style at


Middlesex County

, on the Rappahannock River. Carter had married Judith, and Wormeley Elizabeth, the daughters of

John Armistead


Gloucester County

. Wormeley, second of that name in Virginia, left two sons, Ralph (ca. 1681-1714) and John (1689-1727), and named them his executors. Because his sons were minors at the time of his death, his "dear friends and relations,"

Edmund Jenings

, Robert Carter, Thomas and

Gawin Corbin

, and

Edwin Thacker

, who were asked in Wormeley's will "to aid and assist" his sons in their duties, actually assumed control of the estate. All the trustees were planters but

Thomas Corbin

who had become a merchant in


. Carter was responsible for the Wormeley estates on the Rappahannock while Jenings supervised those on the York River near his home, "Ripon Hall."

Film, Video Robert L. Carter oral history interview conducted by Patricia Sullivan in New York, New York, 2010 October 23.

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Credit Line

Civil Rights History Project collection (AFC 2010/039), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress

New look at a landmark Colonial Williamsburg house

For 50 years after it was erected in the late 1720s, the nearest neighboring house to the Governor's Palace in Williamsburg provided a town home for one of Colonial America's richest and most powerful families.

Built between finishing his landmark country manor Corotoman and starting on famed Christ Church — both in Lancaster County — the prominent, two-story frame structure belonged first to Robert "King" Carter, the president of the Governor's Council and acting governor when the work began off Palace Green.

It later passed to Carter's grandson Robert Carter Nicholas — a leading lawyer, burgessman and treasurer of the colony — followed by grandson Robert Carter III — a long-time councilor.

But despite the high profiles of its 18th-century residents — who also included a royal governor and wealthy surgeon and apothecary — relatively little is known about the construction and evolution of one of the Colonial capital's largest and most significant dwellings.

Even the information gleaned when the building was restored in the late 1920s and early '30s is inconclusive about the scope and date of all the changes that took place in the 1700s — plus the nearly 130 years of occupation that followed.

That's why architectural historian Carl Lounsbury and his Colonial Williamsburg colleagues — including students of the College of William and Mary's architectural history field school — have spent weeks surveying the building closely for the first time since 1931.

The systematic scrutiny of every visible, and sometimes hidden, part of the house will last until fall, studying everything from the original rafters and gutters found beneath a later roof to various campaigns of casework and two layers of heart-pine floorboards.

"It's a lot of standing and staring at things until they start to talk to us," Lounsbury said, using a raking flashlight beam to pick out signs of age on a thickly painted mantelpiece.

"We go from floor to ceiling, trying to account for every patch and mark we find — and the more we look, the more we see."

Mystery building

Just how elusive the secrets of the grand old house have been during the past 85 years can be seen in the decades-long failure to identify its starting date and builder.

In the original report of 1932, historian Helen Bullock could say only that it was built sometime before 1746 and that its first owner — "as far as can be determined at this time" — was one of "King" Carter's sons.

That uncertainty lasted until only recently, when an analysis of the tree-ring evidence found in the original roof rafters established that construction began in 1726-27, the same time "King" Carter served as acting governor.

"He was a very wealthy man who could do whatever he wanted to — but he can't move into the Palace. It's reserved for the governor," Lounsbury said. "So he does the next best thing and builds his own palace right next door."

Almost as murky as the structure's origin is the sequence of repeated changes that took place during the following 50 years.

Though documentary sources suggest possible dates and explanations for many of the alterations — such as the raising of the roof by Robert Carter Nicholas after he acquired the house in 1753 and the ambitious wallpapering campaign carried out by Robert Carter III beginning in 1761 — the exact scope and impact of the many remodeling campaigns has yet to be definitively established.

"All of the Carters were very rich. They all lived here for extended periods of time — and that's one of the things that makes our job both easy and difficult," Lounsbury said.

"Every one of them had the means and the motives to make substantial changes to the house whenever they wanted."

That's one reason why the original 1931 study left so many questions.

The speed with which the foundation was attempting to restore the old Colonial capital contributed to those uncertainties, too, prodding the first investigators to work quickly despite the pioneering nature of their studies.

"It's a story we see over and over again as we return to look at these structures," CW architectural historian Jeff Klee said.

"These were the best people in the country. They were good at what they did. But this was an unprecedented project. The pace was incredible — and they were just figuring out things that we have much more experience with now. So they misread some key evidence."

Unlocking secrets

Despite today's advantage in experience, methodology and tools — including sophisticated paint analysis and wood-dating techniques that previous generations could only dream of — the CW team still faces the same fundamental challenges that bedeviled the original study.

"Some of this material is 85 years old and dates to the 1931 restoration. Some of it is about 250 years old and dates to Robert Carter III," Lounsbury said.

"But the big questions now are, what things are old enough to have been seen by Robert 'King' Carter 290 years ago — and what's the date for the rest of the changes that followed?"

After weeks of looking intently at the building and about 100 photos documenting its partial disassembly during the restoration, the historians have concluded that "King" Carter's original floor plan survived all the succeeding updates and modifications with few changes.

Most of the transformations took the form of alterations to the building's finish, including the flooring as well as the casework around the windows, doors, fireplaces and stairs and the bases and tops of the walls.

Two layers of heart-pine boards span the floors, indicating that the original surface from the 1720s — in which the planks were butted together and then face-nailed — was fitted with battens or sleeper boards, then a second layer of flooring about four decades later.

That not only raised the surface by 2 1/2 inches but also resulted in the shortening of the first stairway step as well as the cutting down of the interior doors.

"These are very fine late-18th-century floors — and every single board was doweled rather than face-nailed," Lounsbury said.

"It tells you something about how rich these people were — because these dowels cost about four to five times as much as a blind-nailed floor."

Equally curious are the furred-out walls and double-thick doors, which are believed to have been laminated together when Robert Carter III updated the house with fashionable wallpaper beginning in 1761.

He also may have remodeled the staircase off the entry hall, introducing additions to the original molding that can be detected if you look closely at the layers of old paint.

"This is the place that has the most layers of paint, probably indicating that it was here from the beginning," Lounsbury said.

Robert Carter - History

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“Thanks to Mr. Price’s diligent research, students of the war finally have a volume that details one of the most important, if not the most important, moments in United States African American military history.” - Jim Lighthizer, President, Civil War Trust

Carter Descendants

Historic Christ Church & Museum has conducted research into Carter descendants for over four decades. In 1982, we published A Genealogy of the Known Descendants of Robert Carter of Corotoman, based on the original Carter family tree drawn by Robert Randolph Carter. This book is no longer in print.

Our current databases focus on the known descendants of Robert “King” Carter (1663–1732) and Thomas Carter (ca.1630–1700). Thomas lived in Christ Church Parish but was not related to Robert.

More than 39,000 persons have been recorded approximately two-thirds are direct descendants while the remainder married into the Carter line.

If you are a descendant of Robert or Thomas Carter and can contribute genealogical information, please e-mail material or questions to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. . If possible include birth, marriage, and death dates places of birth, residence, or burial spouse and children's names and other relevant information, as well as supporting documentation. Material may also be sent via US mail to:

Foundation for Historic Christ Church
Carter Descendants Database
Post Office Box 24
Irvington, Virginia 22480

Please note that while we can search our database to verify a connection for names and/or documentation, Historic Christ Church & Museum is not a genealogical research institution and does not conduct genealogical research for the public.

Our Carter Descendant databases are by no means comprehensive, and we look forward to learning of unrecorded descendants of Robert and Thomas Carter. We would also like to note that there are many lines of Virginia Carters who have no connection to Robert and John Carter of Corotoman or Thomas Carter.

Robert L. Carter

In 1944, upon completion of his wartime service in the United States Army Air Corps, Robert L. Carter (1917–2012 Columbia Law School 1941) went to work at the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, beginning a long career of civil rights advocacy. Carter was a key strategist for a number of important legal cases involving segregation. He was a lead attorney on Sweatt v. Painter, a successful challenge to segregation that later proved an important predecessor of Brown v. Board of Education, a case for which he gave part of the oral argument.

In 1956, Carter succeeded Thurgood Marshall as general counsel of the NAACP. Over the course of his tenure, Carter argued or co-argued and won twenty-one of twenty-two U.S. Supreme Court cases. Among the most important cases Carter worked on after Brown was NAACP v. Alabama (1958), in which the Supreme Court held that the NAACP could not be required to make its membership lists public. This removed a tool of intimidation employed by some Southern states after Brown was decided.

On June 15, 1972, Carter was nominated by President Richard M. Nixon to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York vacated by Thomas F. Croake. Carter was confirmed by the Senate on July 21, 1972 and served until his death.

Carter was a co-founder of the National Conference of Black Lawyers and served on several committees of the bar and the court. He has written extensively about discrimination in the United States, particularly school segregation, and of his longtime friends and colleagues, Thurgood Marshall and Charles Hamilton Houston.

Robert Carter Burwell

Long Branch Plantation in the Shenandoah Valley circa 1810.

History by Subject

Robert Carter Burwell

Robert Carter Burwell led a short, yet powerful life in Virginia. A great-great-grandson of Robert “King” Carter, one of Virginia’s leading tobacco planters, Burwell’s fortune was less extravagant than that of his close ancestors. He was, however, part of a group of elite families that established a new plantation society revolving around the tiny village of Millwood, Virginia, near which Burwell built one of Clarke County’s most well-known landmarks - Long Branch.

After living with his sister, Sarah, and her husband, Philip Nelson (who helped establish what is now known as the Burwell-Morgan Mill in Millwood), Robert began plans for a grand home on inherited land, choosing Long Branch’s location at the top of a rise in view of the magnificent Blue Ridge Mountains. He sought out the expertise of Benjamin Latrobe, the architect of the U.S. Capitol, during construction of the impressive manor seen today.

Burwell’s early life is a mystery, however it is known that he joined the Army and fought in the War of 1812. If he ever lived at Long Branch, it was not for long. Just before he left Clarke County, Burwell wrote a codicil to his will, bequeathing his land which included Long Branch and nearby Rosney to several family members, and giving “immediate freedom” upon his death to two of his slaves.

During the War, Burwell served as a company captain of the 51 st Regiment of the Virginia Militia. These men helped guard the Tidewater Region, the eastern most area of Virginia. As a Captain, Burwell proved to be an officer who looked after his men. In August of 1813, he learned that the company commanders were to be sent home, while their men were to go to the “fatal climate” of Norfolk. Robert, along with the other officers, protested the assignment, humbly petitioning to go with their men. They did, and while stationed at Camp Holly near Norfolk, Burwell contracted and died of one of the unknown diseases which flourished in the swamps around Norfolk. Robert passed away in the fall of 1813, and ownership of his home, Long Branch, in Clarke County, Virginia, passed to his sister, Sarah, and her husband Philip Nelson.