Shabonee II YTB-833 - History

Shabonee II YTB-833 - History

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Shabonee II

(YTB-833 : dp. 356 (f.); 1. 109'; b. 31'; dr. 14'; s.
12 k.; cpl. 12; cl. Natick)

The second Shabonee (YTB-833) was laid down at Marinette, Wis., on 12 June 1974 by the Marinette Marine Corp. and was launched on 24 October 1974. She is scheduled to be completed in June 1975.

Shabonee II YTB-833 - History

Norwegian Merchant Fleet 1939 - 1945
Ships starting with Se through Sj

Ships in Foreign Trade (allied service)

M/S Segovia has the details on her final fate as well as a casualty list.

A separate page about M/S Segundo has information on her voyages, as well as details on her loss, w/crew list.

Whale catcher owned by A/S Odd, Sandefjord. Hired by South African Navy in Oct.-1940 for use as minesweeper.

POST WAR: Returned in April-1946. Sold in 1953 to I/S Tromstrål, Tromsø and renamed Tromstrål II.

Thor Dahl later had another whaler by this name, built 1953, 626 gt, sold on Nov. 4-1965 to Alf Vestre, Hellandshavn.

Sekstant is listed in the U.K.-Norway Convoy ON 9 at the end of Jan.-1940, returning to the U.K. the following month with Convoy HN 12. In March that year we find her in Convoy ON 22 to Norway. Follow the links for more convoy details - several Norwegian ships took part.

Bombed by German aircraft at Kolvereid, north of Namsos on May 4-1940, all survived. Lauritz Pettersen in "Hjemmeflåten - mellom venn og fiende" (The Home Fleet - Between Friend and Enemy, 1992) says that the 3 ships Pan, Blaafjeld I and Sekstant were near Salsbruket in Oppløygsfjord (Rørvik) loading wood pulp for England in Apr.-1940. Pan was done at the end of Apr. but was ordered to wait for the others so that they could leave in the same convoy, probably in connection with the allied evacuation of Namsos. Because of this there were quite a few English warships in the area. Sekstant and Blaafjeld I were finished loading the cargo on May 1, and moved into the fjord while awaiting sailing orders Pan was in Sildvik and Blaafjeld I and Sekstant in Urshalsvåg, closely watched by German aircraft. On May 4 they attacked and Blaafjeld I and Sekstant became a total loss, while the wreck of Pan remained for 2 years, before she was raised and repaired.

Sekstand ended up in Nortraship's register, though she never made it out of Norway.

Related external links:
Blaafjeld - From a Norwegian website for divers. This website says Blaafjeld was attacked by Heinkel 115 bombers, under Sekstant it lists Ju 87 dive bombers.

Bombers & Ground Attack - info on the various types of German bombers (from the website Luftwaffe Resource Center).

Historical Index of the Great Lakes has quite a bit of details on an earlier ship by this name, built 1916, 2481 gt, managed by O. T. Hauge, Bergen. Later named Nordstrand in 1926, then American Maurice Tracy that same year. Sunk in a collision with Jesse Billingsley on June 16-1944. To find this ship, type "Sekstant" in the search field for 'vessel', then on the page that comes up, click in the little box with the item number. The next page has technical details on the ship and a picture thumbnail - clicking on the thumbnail will bring up a larger photo. Or, typing 'Norway" in the search field for 'Registry' will bring up all the Norwegian vessels listed on the site.

D/S Selbo has more details, incl. crew list at the time of loss.

Some of her voyages are listed on this original document received from the National Archives of Norway.

Selis is listed among the ships in Convoy SC 77 leaving Halifax for the U.K. on March 30-1942 (several Norwegian ships took part). According to the archive document above, she arrived Clyde on Apr. 17. She subsequently departed Greenock for Svalbard on Apr. 30, together with the icebreaker D/S Isbjørn (follow link for more details on this incident). On board was a force of 82 men, whose task it was to regain control of Svalbard (Operation Fritham). They got as far as Isfjord on May 13, but in Grønfjord the ice stopped them, and the next evening 4 German aircraft attacked (Focke Wulf Condors, according to the external link below), hitting Isbjørn with 2 bombs which immediately sank her. Selis was hit shortly thereafter and caught on fire. 12 were killed and 15 wounded. The rest scattered on the ice and were able to avoid the machine gun fire. The survivors rescued some weapons and equipment from Selis and managed to get to Barentsburg, where they were assisted by a British Naval Force on July 2.

Jan-Olof, Sweden has told me that "Lloyd's War Losses, Vol I British, Allied and Neutral Merchant Vessels Sunk or Destroyed by War Causes", 1989 reprint says "sunk May 13, 1942 off Barentsburg by German aircraft. Is said to have left Akureyri with a small Norwegian force to occupy strategic positions in Spitsbergen" ( Svalbard ).

There's a message in my Guestbook from the daughter of a Dr. who took part in the above incident. He was on board Selis, and his name was Per Hønningstad . She's interested in getting in touch with someone who knows this story. I have her address in my files.

Please go to D/S Selvik for more information on her wartime experiences (includes technical data).

SOLD IN 1939 to France and renamed Touraine.

Please continue to D/S Senta (w/crew list at time of loss).

SOLD in 1939 to Sweden, renamed Bohus (Rederi-AB Bifrost - Jarl R. Trapp, Gothenburg). Became German Gerrit Fritzen in 1940 (Johs Fritzen & Sohn, Emden) - sunk by Russian aircraft on March 12-1945.

Maritime Trading Ltd. (styled Compania Maritima Escandinavia Inc. until 1939).

Renamed Dauphine in 1940 (French flag). Damaged at Port de Bouc on Sept. 25-1944, recovered.

Please continue to D/S Sheng Hwa for more information.

My page about D/S Siak has more information.

Jan-Olof, Sweden has told me that the following can be found in "Lloyd's War Losses, Vol I British, Allied and Neutral Merchant Vessels Sunk or Destroyed by War Causes", 1989 reprint: "On a voyage from Kragerø for Grimsby. Cargo woodpulp. Struck a mine on Nov. 4-1939 and sank in position 53 43N 0 17E. Three dead."

Related external link:
Stavern Memorial commemorations
- Engineer Sigurd Johan M. Jensen , Stoker Nils Martinsen , and Stoker Stål Tingstad are commemorated.

For further info on this ship and its final fate, please go to M/T Sildra (includes a picture - crew list).

Please see my page M/S Siljestad for more information, incl. crew list at time of loss.

Captain Niels Stange Nielsen .

Her voyages are listed on this original document received from the National Archives of Norway.

Silvaplana became Atlantis' 6th Norwegian victim when she was captured on Sept. 10-1941, on a voyage from Singapore to New York via Batavia. On my page Norwegian Victims of Atlantis there's a lot more details on this incident and her final fate, as well as a crew list and information on all the other Norwegian ships captured by this raider. The page also includes some newspaper articles that appeared in a British paper after the sinking of Silvaplana (and of Atlantis).

More information on this ship is available on a separate page, D/S Simla, which includes details on her loss and a crew list at the time.

See M/S Siranger. Includes a picture and details on her final fate, as well as an account on the 3rd mate's stay on U-155 as prisoner. The page also has a complete crew & passenger list.

Norway had previously had another Sirehav, laid down in 1918 as War Post, cmpleted at Mariners Harbor. Became Emil Stray's Sagn in 1929, Sirehav in 1933, Russian Terek that same year - lost 1945.

Please continue to D/S Sirehei for more information on this ship. Sirehei was sunk as breakwater for the Normandie operations in 1944 and the page contains a list of those who were on board at the time.

A separate page about D/S Siremalm has more information, including details on her loss and a crew list at the time.

In Swedish waters when Norway was invaded. Requisitioned by the Swedish Government on October 25-1940, and traded for the Swedish State traffic commission. Released in 1944, but laid up in Sweden until May-1945. Ships in Sweden has a list of, and information on the Norwegian ships there at the outbreak of war in Norway.

POST WAR: Sold in 1952 to Ernst Rickertsen, Hamburg, and renamed Holnis. Laid up at Hamburg Jan. 3-1958. Sold to Walter Ritscher during Febr. 1960 for breaking up at Hamburg.

Norway (A/S Odderø, Kristiansand) had another ship by this name in the 1950's, built in Sunderland, delivered as Rodney (Thomason Shipping Co Ltd, England) in 1939, sold to Sweden in 1951 and renamed Reserv. Became Norwegian Sirenes in 1953, Panamanian Marcos in 1963, sold to Manila in 1965 and renamed Sampaguita, later Philippine Sampaguita. Broken up in 1972. Here's a picture of her when Sirenes, linked to the website Rederi AB Nordstjernan, Johnson Line which also has the full history of the ship, incl. technical details (under the link.

SOLD IN 1939 to Germany and renamed Charlotte Schliemann. Used as U-boat supply vessel. Scuttled on Febr. 2-1944 to avoid capture by HMS Relentless, 23 23S 74 37E. Survivors were taken on board U-532.

Picture of Sir Karl Knudsen - Source: Karl Henrik Henriksen, who says the picture was taken in 1929 when his father was on board (1928-1932), see his grandfather's story under M/S Vinni's Story

Related external link:
Survivors' story - Charlotte Schliemann. Radio Officer Alfred Moer's account. This is the 3rd chapter of A WW2 survival story of the U-Boat U188 and two of her victims.

SOLD IN 1939 to Trans-Ocean Shipping & Chartering Co. Ltd., Panama, and renamed H. G. Wagon (Panamanian flag), sold again to France in 1939 and renamed Vendée. Taken over by the Kriegsmarine in 1940 and used as supply ship Hermann von Salza. Bombed and damaged by allied aircraft on March 22-1943 at St. Nazaire, but repaired. Scuttled at St. Nazaire by the Germans on Sept. 30-1944.

Here's a picture of Sir Osborn Holmden - Source: Historical Department, MAN B&W Diesel, Copenhagen.

POST WAR: Raised on Jan. 4-1947 and repaired. Returned to France in May under the name Vendée.

D/S Sjofna has more on this ship, including details on her loss and a list of those who were on board at the time.

Escalante (AO-70), formerly SS Shabone, was constructed for the Maritime Commission by the Bethlehem Steel Sparrows Point Shipyard, Inc., Sparrow's Point, Maryland, in 1942 and sponsored by Mrs. Walter E. Than. She was acquired by the Navy and commissioned on 30 January 1943, Lieutenant Commander C. L. Bolton, USNR, in command.

After a brief shakedown cruise in the Chesapeake Bay area, she transported a cargo of aviation gasoline from Houston, Texas, to the Panama Canal Zone. She was then assigned to duty with the Atlantic Fleet, with Task Forces 60 and 61. Between May 1943 and 30 October 1944 she made six trips to North Africa and two to United Kingdom ports where she fueled ships for the Normandy invasion.

Escalante returned to Norfolk Navy Yard for overhaul to fit her for duty in the Pacific. On 4 December 1944 she loaded fuel at Aruba, passed through the Panama Canal and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 26 December. She reported to Service Squadron 10 to operate mainly from Ulithi in refueling units of the U.S. 3rd Fleet and the U.S. 5th Fleet at sea and thereby taking part in the action against Luzon, Iwo Jima, Okinawa and the Japanese homeland. From 26 September 1945 until 20 October she fueled ships in Tokyo Bay and then set sail for San Francisco, California, arriving on 31 October.

She was placed out of commission on 12 December 1945 and transferred to the Maritime Commission for disposal. She served in commercial service as the SS George McDonald until 30 June 1960 when she foundered approximately 165 miles east of Savannah, GA.

History [ edit | edit source ]

Escalante (AO-70), formerly SS Shabone, was constructed for the Maritime Commission by the Bethlehem Steel Sparrows Point Shipyard, Inc., Sparrow's Point, Maryland, in 1942 and sponsored by Mrs. Walter E. Than. She was acquired by the Navy and commissioned on 30 January 1943, Lieutenant Commander C. L. Bolton, USNR, in command.

After a brief shakedown cruise in the Chesapeake Bay area, she transported a cargo of aviation gasoline from Houston, Texas, to the Panama Canal Zone. She was then assigned to duty with the Atlantic Fleet, with Task Forces 60 and 61. Between May 1943 and 30 October 1944 she made six trips to North Africa and two to United Kingdom ports where she fueled ships for the Normandy invasion.

Escalante returned to Norfolk Navy Yard for overhaul to fit her for duty in the Pacific. On 4 December 1944 she loaded fuel at Aruba, passed through the Panama Canal and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 26 December. She reported to Service Squadron 10 to operate mainly from Ulithi in refueling units of the U.S. 3rd Fleet and the U.S. 5th Fleet at sea and thereby taking part in the action against Luzon, Iwo Jima, Okinawa and the Japanese homeland. From 26 September 1945 until 20 October she fueled ships in Tokyo Bay and then set sail for San Francisco, California, arriving on 31 October.

She was placed out of commission on 12 December 1945 and transferred to the Maritime Commission for disposal.

Show Notes for Tenskwatawa: The Rise and Fall of a Nation

All music in this episode was produced by award-winning Native artist Golaná from the Echota Cherokee tribe. Listen to and purchase Golaná’s music here:

The tracks heard in this episode are from the albums “Meditations for Two” and “Path to the Heart.”

Calloway, Colin, First Peoples: A Documentary Survey of American Indian History, (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2016).

Calloway, Collin, The Shawnees and the War for America, (New York: Penguin Books, 2007).

Cayton, Andrew, Frontier Indiana, (Bloomington: IU Press, 1998).

Dubar-Ortiz, Roxanne, An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2014).

Edmunds, David, Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership, (New York: Pearson Longman, 2008).

Edmunds, David, The Shawnee Prophet, (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983).

Gugin, Linda and St. Clair. James, Indiana’s 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State, (Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society), 346-348.

Harrison, William Henry, Messages and Letter of William Henry Harrison, 1773-1841, (Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Commission, 1922).

Jortner, Adam, The Gods of Prophetstown: The Battle of Tippecanoe and the Holy War for the American Frontier, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

Kinietz, Vernon, and Voegelin, Ermine, Shawnese Traditions C.C. Trowbridge’s Account, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1939).

Madison, James, and Sandweiss, Lee Ann, Hoosiers and the American Story, (Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press, 2014).

McNemar, Richard, The Kentucky Revival, or, A Short History of the Late Extraordinary Outpouring of the Spirit of God in the Western States of America: Agreeably to Scripture Promises and Prophecies Concerning the Latter Day: with a Brief Account of the Entrance and Progress of What the World Call Shakerism among the Subjects of the Late Revival in Ohio and Kentucky : Presented to the True Zion-traveler as a Memorial of the Wilderness Journey, (New York: Reprinted by Edward O. Jenkins, 1846).

Michigan Historical Commission, Michigan Historical Collections, vol. 40, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Library, 2006), 127-133.

Sugden, John, Tecumseh: A Life, (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997).

Warren, Stephen, The Shawnees and Their Neighbors, 1795-1870, (Illinois: University of Illinois, 2005).

Candey, Robert, and Young, Alex, “Total Solar Eclipse of 1806 June 16,” accessed

Academic Journals:

Cave, Alfred, “The Shawnee Prophet, Tecumseh, and Tippecanoe: A Case Study of Historical Myth-Making,” Journal of the Early Republic, 22, no. 4 (Winter, 2002), accessed

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Beckley:I’m Lindsey Beckley and this is Giving Voice.

For this installment of Giving Voice, I was lucky enough to speak with Chief Ben Barnes of the Shawnee Tribe. If you haven’t listened to THH’s two-part series covering the life of Tenskwatawa, I’d suggest going back to do that now, as I do reference those episodes a few times throughout the discussion and they give some good context for understanding where our conversation picks up.

Beckley:I’m here today with Chief Ben Barnes of the Shawnee Tribe. I’m so happy that you had time to come on and talk with us today.

Barnes:Thank you very much, Lindsey. I appreciate the invite.

Beckley:Of course. We’re absolutely thrilled to have you on the show. So, I thought we would start off with a super basic question. I know we use the term tribe or tribal nation a lot and I’m not sure that people know exactly what that means, what all that entails, and what being a member of a tribe entails. If you could give us a little bit of insight into that, I would really appreciate it.

Barnes:It’s probably easiest to summarize it in the way the federal government defines it. The constitution of the United States states that there are three types of sovereigns. There is the federal government, there is the states, and there are the tribes. So tribal nations are separate inherent sovereigns within the United States similar in some ways to state governments. So, the constitution dictates that these three entities are sovereigns within each other in our nation. So, for a tribal nation such as the Shawnee Tribe, we are one of those sovereigns and we have been here since prior to the United States, identifying as Shawnee People. We’ve had numerous flags over portions of our area – Spain to the French to Canada to Britain and the Republic of Texas as well as the United States.

Beckley:And to be a part of the Shawnee Tribe or, I guess, any tribal nation, could you give us a little bit of insight into what it means to become a member and what it takes to become a member?

Barnes:If you’re a citizen of Italy, you know you’re a citizen of Italy. You were born, you met the standards of citizenship or Italy. It is much the same with tribal nations. You are a member of that nation. Your ancestors are a part of that community, you have citizenship within that nation. So the government of that tribe recognizes you as a citizen of that indigenous nation of peoples.

Beckley: So, to talk a little bit more about Shawnee history in Indiana, or in present-day Indiana – I think a lot of people think about Potawatomi and Miami maybe, if they think about Native history in Indiana, and they might not know much about the Shawnee connections here. Could you speak to that a little bit?

Barnes: I think you also have to define terms. You’re talking about Indiana. Indiana was much larger than in was at time of statehood. Indiana territory was also Illinois, so Indiana was a very large area. And even before that, Indiana was part of a larger western holding of colonial powers. So, inside what is the current state of Indiana, you have present-day Prophetstown, you have Shawnee villages along the White River. Fort Wayne is also known by other names – Kekionga by the Miami or Chillicothe amongst the Shawnee people. So, the old city of Chillicothe, which is the Shawnee town that was located at Fort Wayne. So, you have Prophetstown where Tenskwatawa the Prophet – he had a town that he lived in, and his brother. During the War of 1812, that was a stronghold for them and they even, prior to the War of 1812, Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa lived along the White River, hatching their plan for pan-Indian resistance to colonialism.

Beckley:Yeah, and if folks have listened to our previous two episodes, they know a little bit more about that, so I’m glad that you touched on that a little bit. I know that you’re still active in the state and that you’re still coming here and doing some work every once in a while. Could you speak to the sort of causes you work for when you come here and how folks can learn more about that?

Barnes:There are federal and state laws that require tribal interactions with the other sovereigns, the federal and the state. And amongst those is a law called NAGPRA – Native American Protection and Repatriation Act. Because Shawnee’s lived in Indiana, and the Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced eastern tribal nations to be relocated to western states like Oklahoma and elsewhere, those villages and the graves of those villages – there are people still buried there. So, as cities expand, as someone puts in a mini mall, as highways are built, occasionally graves are discovered. So, for the Shawnee and other tribes of historic Indiana, we engage in at the state and federal levels with those entities to make sure we’re doing what is best for those people there, and try to be as respectful to the people and make sure those remains are being treated as respectfully as possible, just like you would do with any other cemetery relocation. So, there are federal laws that mandate this for tribal nations and tribal cemeteries.

There is also an educational component that we work with as well. We have a great relationship with the Indiana University staff in various departments – folklore, anthropology, archaeology et cetera, we work very well with them. There’s an ethno-musicology archive of traditional music there at the campus in Bloomington. You know, we’ve known them for more than a decade. And early anthropologists called – a great many of them came out of Indiana University. A lot of that was because one of the early fathers of industry in Indiana, Eli Lilly, had an obsession with Indian artifacts and he hired teams of anthropologists, cartographers, linguists, et cetera to do research on tribal nations. He sent researchers out and one of the peoples that were rich in culture and language were the Shawnee, so Indiana University has known the Shawnee for a long time. And it’s been a pleasure for my tribe to become acquainted with them in the last ten or fifteen years and renew those relationships, but this time on our terms, rather than just having a bungee jumping anthropologist come into our communities, extract data for their own purposes, with no intention of reciprocity with that community.

Beckley:Yeah, we talked a little about that with Chris Newell. . . . about anthropologists coming into communities and using the knowledge of the people living there, and then creating a basis of work that is created out of the ancestral knowledge of these people. Basically, they’re building a career on the knowledge of others.

Barnes:That’s correct. Like, we can take an example- Eli Lilly hired a linguist, Charles Vogel [Voegelin], and [Voegelin] came into Shawnee communities and collected linguistic data, and the purpose of the linguistic data was not to preserve the language. It was not to make sure this language continued to be spoken in the Shawnee community. It was not to develop curriculum so that children could more easily learn the language of their ancestors as they were facing the pressures of assimilation. His goal was to bring that information back to Indiana, use it to create Masters and PhD’s and prove the richness of the university experience and part of the linguistics of Indiana. And so, untold careers were launched literally off the bones of our ancestors – the voices of our ancestors, with no thought for reciprocity towards the people that were contributing that knowledge. So that richness of these indigenous communities that lifted up these scholars, there was no reciprocity back to our communities to make sure that these cultures could benefit from the research that was going on. There has been a change in academia – largely because of pressure and interest from tribal nations wanting to engage with academics and journals and other academic publishing – to tell a truer story of early America. To make sure that Native voices are included in those narratives, that the context is not lost and that we can re-contextualize those old documents and put Shawnee voices back into them.

Beckley:Absolutely. We talk a little bit about that in our past two episodes. We’re using these colonized documents, but we have to find a way to contextualize them with Native voice and make sure that we’re telling as complete of a story as we can.

Barnes:That’s how it started for me . . . I initially got into tribal government, there was a couple of key issues and one of them was language preservation. So, quickly, when you do the work of language preservation, you come in contact with the archive. So, Indiana, there is this troika of institutions. The triad of institutions that hold the corpus of Shawnee language and one of them happens to be Indiana, and that’s because of Charles [Voegelin] and his time and tenure as a linguist in the employ of Eli Lilly.

Beckley:So, what sorts of things are you doing to promote the language, the Shawnee language? Are you doing curriculum? Is that something that you’re interested in? What kinds of things are you working towards?

Barnes: Curriculum and pedagogy methods. So, the world’s turned, and it’s changed and it’s becoming more digital and while we are able to, like, you and I are talking from a vast distance today, across a couple of computers. In prior generations, it was the telephone, and before that we had to send letters, so the method of teaching needs to adapt to become more like 2020 than 1920. And unfortunately, a lot of language teaching methods are still based in early-20 th century teaching methodologies. Well, that doesn’t work in a diaspora community where people are spread across a continent. And so, we have to find new ways to deliver content and to deliver curriculum.

Beckley:I think that being here in a time when we are all separated by a distance and communicating through various methods – Zoom, Google Hangouts, and whatnot, I think that that has really opened our eyes to a few more opportunities as far as teaching methods and stuff like that. I know I’m taking an online baking class this weekend so it’s interesting to see how much people have kind of opened up different avenues for teaching different topics.

Barnes:Yeah, there’s a little irony for me . . . you know, we’re talking about these bungee jumping anthropologists that would jump into our communities and take data, you know, and they were observing our communities. Well, now, we find that the coin is flipped and we’re watching you guys in the glass bubble of academic institutions and seeing how you’re going to handle campuses that are closed. How are you going to be able to deliver curriculum? Universities have been loathe to move to an online learning model – they’re stuck in the Oxford method of teaching people. One person stands in front of a class and teaches forty or fifty people. Well, how are you going to accomplish that now with social distancing? So, it’s interesting and ironic to me. Now we’re watching you, instead of, a century ago, you were watching us.

Beckley:Hopefully we’ll be able to navigate it a little bit better than – I think we’ve pivoted a bit. It took a little bit, but it seems like people are slowly but surely figuring it out. Speaking of COVID-19 and the social distancing, I was wondering if you could speak a little bit to how the pandemic has hit your people and just Native populations in general.

Barnes:I suspect it’s much like other states. We’ve been watching other states and other locals deal with this and I see Kentucky responding differently than Tennessee, or I see this county respond differently than that county or this city compared to this city. So, each one has its own type of leadership. And it’s much the same in Indian country. One county’s more progressive in its measures, you know, they put in more restrictive methods. We have another county that wants to have the economic – has more economic concerns. They may have a tax issue in their city and there’s a real cash need to make sure that things go back to normal as quick as possible, seeing how those things are balanced. So, we’re watching those things.

But, at least with the Shawnee tribe, within our government itself, we find ourselves in an advantageous position that we are equipped financially to ride this out and keep our people employed. We’ve been lucky to secure food, and for Shawnee citizens, we have, where we’re providing food for the elderly to keep them indoors as much as possible. We try to keep everyone up to date. Language curriculum is now being delivered in an online – it’s forced us to move to an online format sooner than we wanted. We had a project that was in the planning process for 2020, to be deployed in 2021, to deliver online language classrooms to our citizens. Well, we’re finding ourselves having to do that now and we’re not even halfway through the year.

Beckley:It sounds like you guys are, along with all of us, pivoting well. I’m glad to hear that.

Barnes:We’ve been really lucky. We’ve found that some of our best resources have been our tribal citizens. I found a epidemiologist that is a tribal citizen and she lives in Norman [Oklahoma] and works at the University of Oklahoma, and she’s an epidemiologist. So, actually being able to have someone who is able to interpret some of the details that I just don’t understand, I don’t have the education to interpret. . . . And to be able to draft policy at a governmental level, send it to an epidemiologist, and have them give me professional advice on what that should look like and on what areas we can do better, what steps are unnecessary – that is invaluable. So, we are very fortunate that we have the citizens that have the skill sets to be able to contribute to their tribal nation in this difficult time of social distancing.

Beckley:I think that is about all the time we have, but I was hoping you could tell the folks at home how they can learn more about your work, and about the Shawnee Nation and about Shawnee history – is there any online resources for them that you would suggest?

Barnes:Online resources are always dodgy when it comes to indigenous peoples because you always have to question the source – who wrote it, what was the context of it? The three Shawnee Tribes are the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, the Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, and the Shawnee Tribe. Each of us have our own corresponding website. Those are the three Shawnee tribes. There has been a body of work that has been written by scholars. The best is a guy named Stephen Warren. Stephen Warren’s written a couple of books on Shawnee people. There’s others that have written on treaties like Collin Calloway, he’s written on Shawnee people. So, I would start with a couple of those books and look at the references at the back of the book – who did they cite, who did they read, who did they research? Because those are two top notch scholars.

Beckley:We’ll put a link to those things in our show notes which are found at Ben, I want to thank you so much for coming on today. It’s been a real pleasure talking with you.

Barnes:Thank you for the invite. We appreciate it.

Beckley:Once again, I want to thank Chief Barnes for taking the time to talk with me for this episode. As mentioned at the end of that discussion, check out the show notes for useful links for resources to learn about the Shawnee Tribe. We’ll be back on June 10 with a new episode! In the meantime, follow the Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook and Twitter for daily doses of Indiana history tidbits. Subscribe, rate and review Talking Hoosier History wherever you get your podcasts.

History [ edit | edit source ]

Chiwawa was launched 25 June 1942 by Bethlehem Steel Co., Sparrows Point, Maryland, under a Maritime Commission contract as SS Samoset sponsored by Mrs. H. G. Smith acquired by the Navy 24 December 1942 commissioned the same day, Commander Harold F. Fultz in command and reported to the Atlantic Fleet.

The Chiwawa was designated a T3-S-A1 design, where "T" stood for tanker, "3" meant longer than 500 feet (150 m), "S" stood for single-screw steam propulsion, and "A1" meant first design of its kind. Ώ] ΐ]

Military Service [ edit | edit source ]

Chiwawa cleared Norfolk, Virginia, 13 February 1943 to load oil at Aruba, and returned to New York 25 February to join a convoy for Casablanca, Morocco, which sailed 4 March. Attacked by a wolf-pack east of the Azores, the convoy lost four ships, but aircraft from Port Lyautey, Morocco, drove the U-boats away, and the remainder of the convoy arrived safely 21 March. Chiwawa put out of Casablanca in convoy 11 April for Norfolk, arriving 28 April after a quiet passage. Between 4 May and 17 July she ferried oil on the east coast, loading at Aruba, Netherlands West Indies, and Port Arthur, Texas, and discharging her cargo at Bermuda, Argentia, Newfoundland and Norfolk. She made three convoy crossings, to Scotland, Wales, and Casablanca, between 17 July and 4 December, then resumed operations to Port Arthur and Aruba, except for the period 25 January-8 March 1944, when she again crossed to North Africa.

After two convoy crossings to the British Isles in May and July 1944, Chiwawa sailed 14 July from Norfolk for Mers el Kebir, Algeria, and Naples, Italy, arriving 5 August. From Naples, Chiwawa fueled the ships carrying out the invasion of southern France until she retired to Oran, Algeria, on 2 September. She returned to New York 14 September to resume coastal oil runs until her next convoy to Casablanca in November.

A series of runs between Aruba and New York, then to Guantánamo Bay and Bermuda, and later to Argentia occupied Chiwawa until 31 May 1945, when she entered Norfolk Navy Yard for overhaul until 1 July. She cleared Norfolk to load oil at Baytown, Texas, and on 1 August reached Pearl Harbor. Five days later she sailed for Ulithi and Okinawa, where from 30 August to 29 November she served as station tanker, making one voyage in September to fuel the U.S. 7th Fleet at sea. Homeward bound, Chiwawa put in at San Francisco, California, and Balboa, arriving at New York 7 January 1946.

She sailed 19 January 1946 from Melville, Rhode Island, for ports in England, Germany, and France, called at Casco Bay and Argentia, and put back to Iceland before her arrival in New York 18 March. Chiwawa was decommissioned 6 May 1946 and transferred to the Maritime Commission 23 August 1946.

Civilian Service [ edit | edit source ]

She was then rebuilt as a straight decked bulk freighter for Great Lakes service, at American Shipbuilding, Lorain, Ohio, renamed SS Walter A. Sterling and launched, 15 July 1961. She was sold in 1985 to Ford Motor Company, renamed SS William Clay Ford (II). In 1989, she was sold again, this time to Lakes Shipping Co. and renamed SS Lee A. Tregurtha. Now owned by Interlake Steamship Co., the Tregurtha had her steam engine room removed in the winter of 2005-2006 and replaced with a diesel power plant.

As a civilian vessel, the Lee A. Tregurtha has a crew of 27, comprising 9 officers and 18 crew, compared to the Chiwawa's wartime complement of about 225 officers and enlisted men. Α]

Death [ edit ]

The circumstances surrounding Tecumseh's death are unclear due to several conflicting accounts. Some sources claim that Colonel Richard Johnson killed Tecumseh during a cavalry charge. ⏥] However, the Wyandott historian, Peter D. Clarke, offered a different explanation after talking with Indians who had fought in the battle: "[A] Potawatamie brave, who, on perceiving an American officer (supposed to be Colonel Johnson) on horse . turned to tomahawk his pursuer, but was shot down by him with his pistol . The fallen Potawatamie brave was probably taken for Tecumseh by some of Harrison's infantry, and mutilated soon after the battle." ⏦]

John Sugden, who provided an in-depth examination of Tecumseh's death in his book, Tecumseh's Last Stand (1985), suggested that crediting Johnson for taking Tecumseh's life would have, and did, greatly enhanced Johnson's political career. In 1836, when Johnson was elected U.S. Vice President, and again in 1840, his campaign supporters used the slogan, "Rumpsey Dumpsey, Rumpsey Dumpsey, Colonel Johnson killed Tecumseh". ⏥] ⏧] However, after an exhaustive study, Sugden could not conclude that Johnson killed Tecumseh. ⏨]

In another account, "A half-Indian and half-white, named William Caldwell . overtook and passed Tecumseh, who was walking along slowly, using his rifle for a staff—when asked by Caldwell if he was wounded, he replied in English, 'I am shot'—Caldwell noticed where a rifle bullet had penetrated his breast, through his buckskin hunting coat. His body was found by his friends, where he had laid [sic] down to die, untouched, within the vicinity of the battle ground . " ⏩] Several of Harrison's men also claimed to have killed Tecumseh however, none of them were present when Tecumseh was mortally wounded. ⏩]

Other sources have credited William Whitley as the person responsible for Tecumseh's death, but Sugden argued that Whitley had been killed in battle prior to Tecumseh's death. ⏪] In his 1929 autobiography, James A. Drain Sr., Whitley's grandson, continued to claim that his grandfather single-handedly shot and killed Tecumseh. As Drain explained it, Whitley was mortally wounded, but he saw Tecumseh spring towards him, "intent upon taking for himself a scalp", and drew his gun "to center his sights upon the red man's breast. And as he fired, he fell and the Indian as well, each gone where good fighting men go." ⏫]

Edwin Seaborn, who recorded an oral history from Saugeen First Nation in the 1930s, provides another account of Tecumseh's death. Pe-wak-a-nep, who was seventy years old in 1938, describes his grandfather's eyewitness account of Tecumseh's last battle. Pe-wak-a-nep explained that Tecumseh was fighting on a bridge when his lance snapped. Tecumseh "fell after 'a long knife' was run through his shoulder from behind". ⏬]

Sugden concluded that Tecumseh was killed during the fierce fighting in the opening engagement between the Indians and Johnson's mounted regiment. Shortly after his death, the Indians retreated from the battle and headed toward Lake Ontario. The details of how he died remain unclear. Tecumseh's body was identified by British prisoners after the battle and examined by some Americans who knew him and could confirm that its injuries were consistent with earlier wounds that Tecumseh has suffered to his legs (a broken thigh and a bullet wound). The body had a fatal wound to the left breast and also showed damage to the head by a blow, possibly inflicted after his death. ⏭]

According to Sugden, Tecumseh's body had been defiled, although later accounts were likely exaggerated. Sugden also discounted some conflicting Indian accounts that indicated his body had been removed from the battlefield before it could be mutilated. From his analysis of the evidence, Sugden firmly claimed that Tecumseh's remains, mutilated beyond recognition, were left on the battlefield. ⏮] Sugden's Tecumseh's Last Stand (1985) also recounted varied accounts of Tecumseh's burial and the still unknown location of his gravesite. ⏯]

Example 1: Hu5F9-G4 in Combination with Azacitidine in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a common hematological malignancy whose incidence rises from 3:100,000 in young adults to greater than 20:100,000 in older adults. For patients <60 years of age, overall survival (OS) is 40 to 50%, but is only 5% for patients >60 years of age. The majority of newly diagnosed patients with AML are over the age of 60. In this patient population, standard induction chemotherapy is often not an option due to increased treatment-related mortality as a result of age and co-morbidities. Standard of care for AML patients unfit for combination chemotherapy is treatment with hypomethylating agents (azacitidine or decitabine) or low dose cytarabine. Despite these frontline treatments, median overall survival (OS) is only about 10 months. In all types of AML, disease relapse is common despite an initial therapeutic response and is the most common reason for death. Standard chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplant (when used) often fail to eradicate all tumor-propagating cells and select for chemotherapy-resistant leukemia-propagating subclones. Patients refractory to salvage therapy are treated palliatively, as current treatment options are extremely limited. These patients have a median survival of 2 months. In addition, patients with newly diagnosed intermediate or higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and those who relapse after standard care have a poor prognosis and high risk of progression to AML. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new treatment modalities for relapsed/refractory (R/R) AML and MDS patients, newly diagnosed AML patients ineligible for induction chemotherapy based on age and co-morbidities, and newly diagnosed intermediate/high/very high risk MDS patients.

Hu5F9-G4 is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the anti-phagocytic signal CD47, which is highly expressed on cancer cells including AML and serves as a key immune evasion signal for cancers. Hu5F9-G4 binds CD47 and blocks it from interacting with its ligand, signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), on phagocytic cells, leading to phagocytic elimination of cancer cells. Hu5F9-G4 treatment in nonclinical xenograft models of human AML leads to robust elimination of leukemic disease in the peripheral blood and bone marrow which results in long term remissions in a high percentage of mice treated. Hu5F9-G4 has been tested in Phase 1 trials of solid tumors and AML. Hu5F9-G4 monotherapy has been well tolerated and a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been reached in a Phase 1 trial. Based on nonclinical testing, it is hypothesized that Hu5F9-G4 will demonstrate significant anti-leukemic activity in patients with AML or intermediate/high/very high risk MDS. Furthermore, the addition of Hu5F9-G4 to standard-of-care hypomethylating agents (azacitidine) may enhance anti-leukemic activity. This trial will evaluate the anti-leukemic activity of Hu5F9-G4 monotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory AML or MDS, and will provide continued treatment for patients on a Phase 1 AML trial who are deriving ongoing clinical benefit from Hu5F9-G4 monotherapy. In addition, the safety and anti-leukemic activity of Hu5F9-G4 in combination with azacitidine will be investigated in patients with R/R AML or MDS, previously untreated AML patients who are ineligible for standard induction chemotherapy, and newly diagnosed intermediate/high/very high risk MDS patients.

FIG. 1 shows the study design schema for: Phase 1b Trial of Hu5F9-G4 Monotherapy or Hu5F9-G4 in Combination with Azacitidine in Patients with Hematological Malignancies.

    • 1. R/R Cohorts: Relapsed and/or refractory AML or MDS patients who have not previously received Hu5F9-G4, received Hu5F9-G4 monotherapy in the safety run-in cohort or Hu5F9-G4 in combination with azacitidine in the expansion cohort on this study (total N=up to 46).
    • 2. TN/U Cohorts: AML patients ineligible for standard induction chemotherapy and previously untreated intermediate/high/very high risk MDS patients by IPSS-R, who received Hu5F9-G4 in combination with azacitidine on this study, with at least 91 intermediate to very high risk MDS patients treated (total N=up to 121). TN/U stands for treatment-naïve/unfit (for standard induction chemotherapy).
    • 3. Rollover Cohort: Patients who received Hu5F9-G4 in the Phase 1 R/R AML study, who continue Hu5F9-G4 monotherapy on this study (total N=up to 8).

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