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On September 7th 1901, a formal agreement was signed ending both the Boxer Rebellion and foreign intervention. Under the terms of the agreement, the Chinese were forced to destroy their forts at Taku. Foreign troops were given the task of insuring free passage to and from Peking and China was forced to pay an indemnity of 330 million dollars.
In response to an anti-foreign rebellion, the Boxer Rebellion during which missionaries and foreign legations all the significant powers sent soldiers to put down the rebels. Japanese, Russian, British, French, German, Italian, Austrian and American troops took part in an expedition to put down the rebels. The allies had a difficult time at first, but eventually the foreign forces prevailed and captured Peking on August 14, 1901, and other large cities. Along the way the foreigners executed thousands of Chinese, anyone suspected of any ties to the Boxers were executed.
The Chinese government agreed to surrender and sign the Boxer Protocol on September 7, 1901. Under the terms of the agreement. The ten top officials who were considered responsible for the rebellion were to be executed. In addition, the Chinese government was to pay reparations of 450,000,000 taels of fine silver over a period of 39 years. The US used its share of the reparations to pay for scholarships for Chinese students to study in the United States. The Chinese government also agreed to educational reforms. It also agreed to the long-term stationing of foreign forces in China.
The Fall of China's Qing Dynasty in 1911–1912
When the last Chinese dynasty—the Qing dynasty—fell in 1911–1912, it marked the end of the nation's incredibly long imperial history. That history stretched back at least as far as 221 BCE when Qin Shi Huangdi first united China into a single empire. During much of that time, China was the single, undisputed superpower in East Asia, with neighboring lands such as Korea, Vietnam, and an often-reluctant Japan trailing in its cultural wake. After more than 2,000 years, though, Chinese imperial power under the last Chinese dynasty was about to collapse for good.
Key Takeaways: Collapse of the Qing
- The Qing dynasty promoted itself as a conquering force, ruling China for 268 years before collapsing in 1911–1912. The elites' self-proclaimed position as outsiders contributed to their eventual demise.
- A major contribution to the downfall of the last dynasty were external forces, in the form of new Western technologies, as well as a gross miscalculation on the part of the Qing as to the strength of European and Asian imperialistic ambitions.
- A second major contributor was internal turmoil, expressed in a series of devastating rebellions beginning in 1794 with the White Lotus rebellion, and ending with the Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 and Wuchang Uprising of 1911–1912.
The ethnic Manchu rulers of China's Qing dynasty reigned over the Middle Kingdom beginning in 1644 CE, when they defeated the last of the Ming, up until 1912. What brought about the collapse of this once-mighty empire, ushering in the modern era in China?
As you might expect, the collapse of China's Qing dynasty was a long and complex process. Qing rule gradually collapsed during the second half of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th, due to a complicated interplay between internal and external factors.
The Boxer Rebellion
February 10, 2005
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It was the night of Barbara Boxer’s greatest political victory. She had been re-elected to a third term as a senator from California, beating a credible challenger by a twenty-point margin and securing a higher raw vote total.9 million–than any federal candidate save George W. Bush and John Kerry. But Boxer’s party was in trouble. Democrats had failed to retake the White House and lost seats in Congress, and a decade after the GOP revolution of 1994 put both the House and Senate in Republican hands, the party that had for so long ruled Congress still did not seem to understand how to mount an effective opposition. “On election night,” Boxer recalls, “I said that I knew there were hard and tough times coming and that if I had to stand alone, I was going to do it. I’m not going to worry about what other people are doing. I’m going to be comfortable with being the only vote.”
To anyone unfamiliar with the continuing crisis of the contemporary Democratic Party–which, for the past decade, has been exacerbated by the supine character of its Congressional caucuses–Boxer’s statement might have sounded bizarre. Sure, things look bad for Democrats, but the party still has a substantial caucus in the Senate. So why would she be talking about standing alone? The answer is that Boxer, a liberal who shares the view of many grassroots Democrats that their party’s fortunes will be renewed only by showing strength, was implicitly acknowledging the reality that a lot of Congressional Democrats still don’t recognize: that Democrats have to become a genuine opposition party before they can ever again hope to become a majority party.
Barely two months after she made her go-it-alone pledge, the Senator would illustrate that point–perhaps unintentionally, but certainly effectively–when she lodged one of the most high-profile dissents in the history of the Senate. Inspired by electoral justice activists, who, she says, “definitely put the issue on the agenda for me,” and by conversations with Representative Stephanie Tubbs Jones, a Cleveland Democrat who was concerned about the disenfranchisement of minority voters in Ohio, Boxer objected to the certification of the presidential election results from that state. Boxer’s objection forced a two-hour debate that saw several Senate Democrats making pious statements about the need to count every vote, but she alone voted against certification.
Boxer’s move thrilled Democrats outside Washington–thirty bouquets arrived at her office afterward–but it did not meet with enthusiasm from her Democratic colleagues. Senate minority leader Harry Reid reportedly worried that Boxer’s move would paint Democrats as sore losers. Senator Mark Dayton, usually a reliable liberal, dismissed the challenge as “seriously misguided.” Press coverage focused more on the tear Boxer shed as she talked about disenfranchised minority voters than on the compelling evidence of the denial of democracy. White House spokesman Scott McClellan announced, “It is time to move forward and not engage in conspiracy theories or partisan politics of this nature.” But Boxer didn’t back off.
Less than two weeks later, she turned a Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearing on Condoleezza Rice’s nomination as Secretary of State into an unprecedented debate about the Administration’s manipulation of intelligence data regarding Iraq. Recalling Rice’s suggestion that Saddam Hussein might launch a nuclear weapon against America, resulting in a “mushroom cloud,” Boxer told Rice, “That image had to frighten every American into believing that Saddam Hussein was on the verge of annihilating them if he was not stopped. And I will be placing into the record a number of such statements you made which have not been consistent with the facts.” So tough–and on the mark–was Boxer’s attack that it inspired Saturday Night Live regular Amy Poehler to portray the chart-toting legislator confronting Rice with a bar graph contrasting a stubby line representing “the truth” with a long bold line for “what you say.” (Boxer loved it.)
And this time other Democrats paid attention to her objections. Senator Robert Byrd blocked Senate action on the nomination, upsetting White House plans to swear in Rice on Inauguration Day. That set up a heated debate on the nomination and the truthfulness of the Administration. Rice was confirmed, but a dozen senators, including Byrd, Edward Kennedy and Dick Durbin, the new minority whip, joined what has come to be known as the Boxer Rebellion.
Asked if she thinks that her questioning of Rice got fellow Democrats off their duffs, Boxer replies, “Absolutely.” Noting that Rice got thirteen No votes, she says, “That’s the most votes cast against a Secretary of State nominee since 1825.” She adds, “I think it’s a very powerful statement, even though to the outsider it doesn’t look like much. This is very unusual, and it sends a strong message to the Administration that we are going to be carefully watching their statements and their policies.”
Boxer got Republicans exercised. House majority leader Tom DeLay referred to the Senator indirectly as the spokesperson for the “X-Files wing” of the Democratic Party, while Fox’s Bill O’Reilly labeled her “a nut.” But grassroots Democrats were ecstatic to witness some fire from a Democrat in Washington. “Boxer for President” talk lit up the Internet, and when Boxer walked into parties and fundraising events around the country she was greeted with standing ovations. “More than anyone in the Senate right now, she is satisfying the hunger that so many grassroots activists feel to see someone stand up to this Administration,” says Ralph Neas, president of People for the American Way. And Boxer, to a far greater extent than most Democratic senators, relishes her relationship with the grassroots.
Perhaps it is because that’s where she comes from. While much is made of the students who got “Clean for Gene” when Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy waged an antiwar challenge to President Lyndon Johnson in the Democratic primaries of 1968, the backbone of the McCarthy campaign was actually young mothers. Boxer, who had recently moved from her native New York to the San Francisco Bay Area, was one of them. And like so many who got energized during that turbulent year, she remained in the fray–campaigning for a local antiwar referendum, building an influential environmental and antiwar group known as Marin Alternative, editing an alternative newspaper and winning a county board seat in 1976. Six years later, after her election to a Bay Area House seat, she arrived in Washington with all of her activist edge. It was Boxer who in 1984 earned national headlines and reforms in Defense Department procurement policies by revealing that the Air Force had spent $7,622 for a coffee pot. And it was Boxer who in 1991 marched House women to the Senate to demand a serious examination of sexual harassment charges against Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas.
The next year she was elected to the Senate. But at least in her first two terms, her edge seemed to be blunted. Even Boxer’s fans admit she was more a conventional liberal than a bold dissenter. San Francisco Bay Guardian executive editor Tim Redmond, who thinks Boxer worried too much about her 1998 and 2004 re-election prospects after a close race in 1992, sums up a common complaint about her caution on issues ranging from the Patriot Act, which she supported, to San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom’s gay-marriage initiative, which she criticized, when he says, “In her first two terms, she voted right, but she wasn’t the leader that everyone knew she could have been.”
Now that Boxer looks like a leader, there is a struggle to explain the shift. Predictably, there are suggestions that she has either decided to grab the spotlight in order to position herself for a presidential run or decided that, as this may well be her last term, she has nothing to lose. Boxer is dismissive of talk about running for President. “Not everybody in the Senate wants to be President,” she says. “A few of us like being senators.” The fact that she is an in-law of undeclared 2008 Democratic front-runner Hillary Clinton lends credibility to Boxer’s declaration–although if Clinton isn’t the nominee, watch for Boxer’s name on vice-presidential short lists. And, though she entertained the notion of standing down in 2004 before DeLay’s excesses caused her to reconsider, Boxer does not seem to be in a retiring mood.
Rather, the Boxer rebellion of 2005 appears to have less to do with the Senator’s own career than with her sense that Congressional Democrats need to reflect the grassroots passion she witnessed on the 2004 campaign trail. The woman who attended one of the first showings of Michael Moore’s Fahrenheit 9/11–she says it made her feel guilty for not objecting to the certification of the contested results from Florida’s 2000 presidential vote–and who posts thank-you notes to Internet blogs that have cheered on her recent dissents has been feeling more and more in tune with her party’s rabble-rousing base. “Look, I started out as an activist,” says Boxer. “And I came away from that knowing that activism is essential to any kind of change.” If people get disengaged because they don’t believe their representatives in Washington are listening, she says, “then bad things happen. And bad things are happening, to be honest. So we have to all wake up here.”
Whether Boxer can actually wake her party up remains to be seen. But as her profile rises, she is finding that at least some players in the party establishment recognize–as Republican leaders did long ago–that fighting the fights “the base” values can be politically smart. During the Rice nomination debate, the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee dispatched an e-mail appeal for contributions featuring a picture of Boxer and a letter from her that began, “The Republicans were expecting the Senate to confirm Dr. Rice with little debate and questioning from the Foreign Relations Committee. They didn’t count on me to ask the tough questions.”
Just as Republicans respond to the religious right, Boxer believes Democrats must pay attention to the legitimate fears and passions of those in the labor, environmental, civil rights and antiwar movements–even when this puts them outside the cozy relationships of official Washington, draws the fire of the White House and its amen corner in the media, and scares Democratic insiders, who often appear more afraid of their own party’s energized base than of empowered Republicans.
“I’ve won a lot of elections. And just about every time, the pundits said: ‘Barbara Boxer, she’s more liberal than her constituents. She’s never going to make it.'” Boxer says. “But I got elected. And this last time I got elected by a wide margin. So I think there is a message here–that people, even if they don’t agree with every single thing that you say or do, they do appreciate candor. They do appreciate someone who is going to say really what they think and not filter it through to the point where it’s mush.”
Barbara Boxer has taken the filter–and the gloves–off. Now, the question is whether she can get the Democratic Party to do the same.
Fall of the Qing Dynasty
The Boxer Rebellion weakened the Qing dynasty, which was the last imperial dynasty of China and ruled the country from 1644 to 1912. It was this dynasty that established the modern territory of China. The diminished state of the Qing dynasty after the Boxer Rebellion opened the door to the Republican Revolution of 1911 that overthrew the emperor and made China a republic.
The Republic of China, including mainland China and Taiwan, existed from 1912 to 1949. It fell to the Chinese Communists in 1949, with mainland China officially becoming the People's Republic of China and Taiwan the headquarters of the Republic of China. But no peace treaty has ever been signed, and significant tensions remain.
The Boxer Rebellion Ends - History
Today, August 14, in the year 1900, an international force featuring British,
Russian, American, Japanese, French, and German troops relieved the
Chinese capital of Peking after fighting its way 80 miles from the port of
Tientsin. The Chinese nationalists, which had been besieging Peking's
diplomatic quarter for almost 2 months, were crushed, and the Boxer
Rebellion effectively came to an end.
By the end of the 19th century, the Western powers and Japan had forced
China's ruling Ch'ing dynasty to accept wide foreign control over the
country's economic affairs. In the Opium Wars, popular rebellions, and the
Sino-Japanese War, China had fought to resist the foreigners, but it lacked a
modern military and millions died as a consequence.
In 1898, Tz'u Hsi, the dowager empress, gained control of the Chinese
government in a conservative coup against the Emperor Kuang-hsu, her
adoptive son and an advocate of reforms. Tz'u Hsi had previously served as
ruler of China in various regencies and was deeply anti-foreign in her
ideology. In 1899, her court began to secretly support the anti-foreign rebels
known as the I Ho Ch'uan, or the "Righteous and Harmonious Fists."
The I Ho Ch'uan was a secret society formed with the original goal of
expelling the foreigners and overthrowing the Ch'ing dynasty. The group
practiced a ritualistic form of martial arts that they believed gave them
supernatural powers and made them impervious to bullets. After witnessing
their fighting displays, Westerners named members of the society "Boxers."
Most Boxers came from northern China, where natural calamities and
foreign aggression in the late 1890s had ruined the economy. The ranks of
the I Ho Ch'uan swelled with embittered peasants who directed their anger
against Christian converts and foreign missionaries, whom they blamed for
their misery and saw as a threat to their traditional ways.
After the dowager empress returned to power, the Boxers pushed for an
alliance with the imperial court against the foreigners. Tz'u Hsi gave her
tacit support to their growing violence against the Westerners and their
institutions, and some officials even incorporated the Boxers into local
militias. Open attacks on missionaries and Chinese Christians began in late
1899, and by May 1900 bands of Boxers had begun gathering in the
countryside around Peking. In spite of threats by the foreign powers, the
empress dowager began openly supporting the Boxers.
In early June, an international relief force of 2,000 soldiers was dispatched
by Western and Japanese authorities from the port of Tientsin to Peking. The
empress dowager ordered Imperial forces to block the advance of the
foreigners, and the relief force was turned back. Meanwhile, the Peking-
Tientsin railway line and other railroads were destroyed by the Chinese. On
June 13, the Boxers, now roughly 140,000 strong, moved into Peking and
began burning churches and foreign residences. On June 17, the foreign
powers seized forts between Tientsin and Peking, and the next day Tz'u Hsi
called on all Chinese to attack foreigners. On June 20, the German
ambassador Baron von Ketteler was killed en route to a meeting with the
Chinese government and the Boxers began besieging the foreign legations in
the diplomatic quarter of the Chinese capital.
As the foreign powers organized a multinational force to crush the rebellion,
the siege of the Peking legations stretched into weeks, and the diplomats,
their families, and guards suffered through hunger and degrading conditions
as they fought desperately to keep the Boxers at bay. Eventually, an
expedition of 19,000 multinational troops pushed their way to Peking after
fighting two major battles against the Boxers. On August 14, the eight-
nation allied relief force captured Peking and liberated the legations. The
foreign troops routed the Boxers then commenced to looting the city, while
the empress and her court fled to the north. The victorious powers began
work on a peace settlement.
Due to mutual jealousies between the nations, it was agreed that China
would not be partitioned further, and in September 1901 the Peking Protocol
was signed, formally ending the Boxer Rebellion. By the terms of
agreement, the foreign nations received extremely favorable commercial
treaties with China, foreign troops were permanently stationed in Peking,
and China was forced to pay $333 million as penalty for its rebellion. China
was effectively a subject nation. The Boxers had failed to expel the
foreigners, but their rebellion set the stage for the successful Chinese
revolutions of the 20th century.
On a related note, while doing my research for this episode, I came across a
piece of information that I found interesting. I mentioned the city of
Tientsin a few times in this episode. It was an important city on the railway
line to Peking and the defenses of the international settlement there were laid
out by a young American engineer named Herbert Hoover who would later
become President of the United States.
Rebels: The Boxer Rebellion
The Hundred Days’ Reform also coincided with an upsurge of anti-Western sentiment in the north of China directed, in part, at the growth of missionary settlements. Every major Christian denomination established a range of educational and church-affiliated institutions across the country after the Treaty of Nanking in 1842.
Beginning in the French and German Catholic missionary communities in Shandong, local Chinese felt the Western missionaries protected only the local Christian converts. When legal decisions needed to be made or family disputes arose, Western missionaries could bypass local authorities since they were exempt from various laws, which only compounded the animosity. The resentment was further deepened when the region experienced severe droughts, followed by disastrous floods and economic strife. With the building of railroads by Western investors, and other aspects of imperialism, the anger grew. This despair created the foundation for another civil rebellion composed largely of unemployed peasants and farmers, anti-foreign in belief and violent in action. They were called the Boxers by foreigners because of the martial arts many of the rebels practiced.
The beginning of the Boxer Rebellion can be traced to the 1899 killing of two priests by two Boxer members visiting a German missionary in Juye County, China. In response, Kaiser Wilhelm II, the German leader at the time, dispatched German troops to the scene of the crime, which further angered the rebels. The ongoing presence of foreign military to intimidate and attempt to control the local population ignited a spark of rebellion. By late October they occupied a Catholic church that had once been a temple to the Jade emperor and continued on their path of violence. “Support the Qing, destroy the foreigners” became their slogan as they continued to resist foreign military control.
Feng Jinyu and Li Mingde were interviewed in 1966 about their activities with the Boxers in their youth. They recall:
Girls who joined the Boxers were called “Shining Red Lanterns” as they dressed all in red, held a little red lantern in one hand and in the other a red fan. All of them were unmarried girls about eigh- teen or nineteen years old. In every village there were girls who joined the Shining Red Lanterns but they did not want others to see their rituals so they would practice only at night when it was dark. There was a song then that went:
Learn to be a Boxer, Study Red Lantern.
Kill all the foreign devils and make churches burn. 1
As the Chinese aversion and anger to foreigners escalated, their safety became increasingly precarious as the Boxers’ armed struggle continued. One British newspaper gave the following account:
Peking, May 20 [1900.] From all parts of the surrounding coun- try news is constantly arriving of fresh atrocities committed by the “Boxers.” On the 20th inst., at Shan-lai-ying, sixty miles from Peking three Christian families were murdered, only two persons escaping. . . .
Besides this, much of the rolling stock was burned or otherwise damaged by the rioters, and some large godowns [warehouses] full of valuable merchandise were burned after their contents had been looted. The total amount of the damage is roughly estimated at half a million taels [a weight measurement in China.] Among the rolling stock destroyed was the Imperial Palace car, which alone cost 1,700 taels. . . .
I am informed that the attack on the place was made by villagers living in the neighborhood, led by some of the “Boxers.” This gives the affair an even more serious complexion, as it shows that the movement is more widespread than had been imagined. 2
Initially Qing troops suppressed the Boxers, but in January 1900 the dynasty ordered that the Boxers should not be considered bandits. When the Boxer Rebellion reached Beijing’s (Peking’s) foreign legations (embassies) in the spring of 1900, more violence was unleashed against foreigners. 3 They burned Christian churches, killed Chinese Christians, and violently intimidated any Chinese official who attempted to suppress their revolt. The violence continued to escalate into what is known today as the “siege of the legations,” or the occupation of foreign embassies. The empress dowager implored all foreigners to leave the city immediately, and when many remained barricaded out of fear for their lives, she declared war on all foreigners and allied herself with the Boxers. In response, the Eight-Nation Alliance (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) sent their own military forces to end the siege. The Boxers were overwhelmed. Fearing for her safety, the empress fled to Xi’an, a safe location at the time, with her high-ranking Qing officials and remained there until a final peace agreement, the Boxer Protocol, was signed in 1901. 4
The empress dowager and the Qing court had suffered another humiliating defeat. For the past 60 years, Western powers had slowly eroded Chinese sovereignty and undermined Qing legitimacy and power. By the turn of the twentieth century new leaders of resistance movements, such as the Boxers, introduced the possibility for their nation to be strong once again.
Chinese Imperial Army Cadets at Tientsin
Initially, the Qing government was aligned with the foreign powers in seeking to suppress the Boxer rebels the Dowager Empress Cixi soon changed her mind, however, and sent the Imperial Army out in support of the Boxers. Here, new cadets of the Qing Imperial Army line up before the Battle of Tientsin.
The city of Tientsin (Tianjin) is a major inland port on the Yellow River and the Grand Canal. During the Boxer Rebellion, Tientsin became a target because it had a large neighborhood of foreign traders, called the concession.
In addition, Tientsin was "on the way" to Beijing from the Bohai Gulf, where foreign troops disembarked on their way to relieve the besieged foreign legations in the capital. In order to get to Beijing, the Eight Nations foreign army had to get past the fortified city of Tientsin, which was held by a joint force of Boxer rebels and Imperial Army troops.
Overall Portrayal of the Boxers
As said earlier, unlike the commonly held beliefs that cartoonists betray the soul of a nation, cartoonists on the boxer uprising refurbished the soul of the nation. Both cartoonists of the allied powers and those of the invaded China portrayed a positive image of the boxers. They were fighting for the things that were rightfully theirs but were being taken away because of greed.
A cartoon of a powerful Chinese dominating figure done by a German cartoonist appeared in the simplicissimus. Below him was a German trader who the Chinese had just evicted from his premises. The trader looks scared and retorts that he will report to his elder brother. The Chinese man rightfully stands where he is since it is his rightful place to be. This drawing, and many others, clearly shows that the boxers were not the ‘bad guys’ in the war but rather the great powers. The great powers are portrayed as having been ruled by greed to take up China and divide it up amongst themselves for their selfish interests. Besides, the intended spread of western civilization over Chinese civilization was perceived as unfair and unnecessary.
1899-1901: Boxer Rebellion. What are they hiding?
Posting this to emphasize that all of our contemporary country vs. country conflicts are made up, and are a part of the game. In my opinion, countries answer to the same Controller (TPTB). Back in the day, when our current PTB was in the process of taking over the World, they were more revealing in their actions. It is somewhat easy to pinpoint areas that needed to get subdued/conquered. Indeed, it is obvious where the New World powers were pulling their resources together to annihilate the remnants of the Old World setup.
- Between 1862 and 1912, the Qing dynasty represented itself with thedragon flag. What about 1644 through 1862?This?is an archaic (right) geographical term used especially during the time of the Qing Dynasty.
- Stillon the mapsin 1806.
I do not know what the true name of the overall old regime was, so I will simply use Tartary in its stead. What you see in the table above can also be seen during the 1854-55 Siege of Sevastopol.
Boxer Rebellion: Aftermath
- Uncontrolled plunder of the capital and the surrounding countryside ensued, along with the summary execution of those suspected of being Boxers .
- The Qing dynasty, established in 1644, was weakened by the Boxer Rebellion.
- Following an uprising in 1911, the dynasty came to an end and China became a republic in 1912.
- The Boxer Protocol of 7 September 1901 provided for the execution of government officials who had supported the Boxers.
- Executions were usually carried out at 11:30AM. On the day of the execution, the convict would be carted from the jail cell to the execution grounds. The cart stopped at a wine shop named Broken Bowl on the east side of Xuanwu Gate, where the convict would be offered a bowl of rice wine. The bowl would be smashed after it was drunk. During the executions of infamous convicts, it was common for a large crowd to gather and watch. The torture death by a thousand cuts was also carried out at the execution ground.
- Caishikou Execution Grounds - Wikipedia
- , or Hongguang Emperor, the first emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty.
- Zhu Changfang, a member of the Royal family of Southern Ming Dynasty.
- Zheng Zhilong, father of Koxinga.
- Jahangir Khoja, East Turkic rebel leader.
- The Six gentlemen of the Hundred Days' Reform, including Tan Sitong and Lin Xu.
- Xu Jingcheng, Qing diplomat, during the Boxer Rebellion.
- Qixiu, Manchu pro-Boxer official
- Boxer Rebellion
- Boxer Rebellion - Wikipedia
- Eight-Nation Alliance - Wikipedia
- Siege of the International Legations - Wikipedia
- Boxer Protocol - Wikipedia
- Caishikou Execution Grounds - Wikipedia
- Boxer Rebellion | Significance, Combatants, & Facts
- Grim & Brutal! Boxer Rebellion Execution And Torture Photos
Obviously Wikipedia account is meant to be politically correct, and user friendly. In reality these executions are one of the most gruesome atrocities you will ever see. Just a mere thought of our so-called civilized countries participating in something like this makes me sick. But beyond that I want to know why. I do not believe for a second, that it was just a punishment. If anything, it looks like an eradication of species to me. As in they wanted to make a certain kind to go instinct.
This stuff is thick enough, that I am hesitant to post these photographs. So there is your spoiler. Look at your own risk.
KD: For over a year Britain, United States, Australia, India, Russia, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Japan were involved in combat in China. Some of them were taking " heavy fire from the east wall of the Tartar City ".
I think the events of 1899-1901 were misrepresented to satisfy the narrative. Victors write and print our history books. There are three points I would like to make.
The Boxer Rebellion – China Against the World Powers
The uprising known as China’s Boxer Rebellion came about as a reaction to Western Imperialism and trade policies as well as the spread of Christianity.
Founded in the province of Shandong, in northern China, the Boxer’s official name was the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists. Its members were mostly peasants who had lost their jobs due to economic policies and other procedures instituted by foreigners, as well as to natural disasters.
As the members of the society practiced martial arts and calisthenics, the term Boxer was applied to them by the Western media. Boxers believed that the exercises, as well as diet and summons to Buddhist and Taoist spirits would make them invulnerable and allow them to carry out superhuman feats.
Grounds for Rebellion
In the last half of the 19th Century, Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Russia and Japan controlled large sections of Chinese territory and the country’s economy. With the backing of the Western Powers, Christian missionaries, both Catholic and Protestant, proselytized a faith that was foreign to the Chinese. Furthermore, there was unease among the peasantry who were worried that missionaries and native Christians, who were not under Chinese law, might perhaps appropriate non-believers land and assets.
One particularly detested consequence of foreign intrusion was the compulsory importation of opium that produced pervasive dependence among large segments of the population. Nature didn’t help China’s peasants either. Shadong province was first assailed by drought and later by floods. Impoverished farmers moved to the cities, thus swelling the ranks of the poor and destitute in the urban areas.
The powers, with the exception of Great Britain – which controlled most of the trade – and the United States – which dominated no territories in China – wanted to simply cut China into pieces. This, of course, was anathema to patriotic Chinese. Washington was not acting out of noble beliefs, though. The Americans wanted China to remain whole, because they had been left out of the partition and a weak China was a freer trading partner than sections of the country controlled by other nations and their corporations.
Young, Qing Dynasty, Emperor Gangue signed what is known as the Hundred Days Reform on June 11, 1898. The Reform, destined to westernize China, was violently opposed by the Boxers and by the emperor’s mother, Empress Dowager. She led a successful coup against her son and then patched up her differences with the Boxers.
Now the Boxers, who had been enemies of the 200-year-old Qing government, were able to turn their fury against foreigners and Christians with the backing of the authorities. The disorders started in the provinces and, at first were mostly directed against German missionaries and their churches.
Some army units attached themselves to the rebel cause and by June 1900 they attacked the areas in Peking (Beijing) and Tianjin where the foreign delegations offices were located. In Peking, the area was known as the Legation Quarter and it was situated near the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists.
The British, French, American, Russian, Italian, Austro- Hungarian and Dutch, embassies were all in the Legation Quarter. They rapidly established a defense perimeter. The employees of the Belgian and Spanish delegations, which were a few blocks away, were able to move to the compound, but the Germans, whose office was farther away, did not. The German representative, Klemens Freiher von Ketteler, and many of his staff were killed.
There are reports that the commander of the Boxer group that invaded the German embassy ate von Ketteler’s heart. In Peking, the rebels also killed numerous Christians and looted the city. A massacre of Christians in the northern city of Taiyuan is one of the most infamous incidents of the rebellion. Some 18,000 Catholics and 48 Catholic missionaries 500 Protestant and 182 Protestant missionaries along with 222 Eastern Orthodox Christians were murdered.
Contrary to popular belief the Boxers and their supporters were well armed with modern weapons, such as rifles and cannons manufactured in Europe.
The Powers Counter
Six European nations (Spain, the Netherlands, and Belgium opted out) Japan and the United States decide to intervene and rescue their diplomats. This is known as the Eight-Nation Alliance. Approximately 45,000 troops, almost half of them Japanese, and numerous warships were dispatched. The first contingent, about 435 soldiers, arrived by train – from the Takou 80 miles away, on May 3. They promptly joined the besieged Legation Quarter.
During the following days, the international troops continued to pour into China and fought their way from Tianjin to Peking. Once in the Chinese capital, the rebels’ resistance stiffened and it would take the Alliance until August 14 to take the city.
Then, the foreign troops went on a rampage, looting, raping and pillaging, in which many Chinese also participated. The Forbidden City was plundered and many of its treasures taken to Europe. All indications are that neither the Americans, nor the Japanese participated in the atrocities and that at least in one case American marines tried to stop the soldiers of other nations.
But, there are also reports of American participation in atrocities and one American diplomat was caught while trying to get away with a train wagon full of priceless artifacts.
Consequences of the Rebellion
Emperor Gangue was forced to sign the Boxer Protocol on September 7, 1901, which further diminished the government’s control over Chinese territory, forced Peking to pay hefty reparations and surrendered 10 high ranking Chinese officials to be executed.
Even though the Western nations backed away from total intervention, believing that the best way to control China was through the emperor, the Qing dynasty was much weakened and this accelerated the 1911 Republican Revolution which ousted the emperor.