Ford's Address at the Helsinki Conference

Ford's Address at the Helsinki Conference

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On August 1, 1975, at the Helsinki Accords, a major diplomatic agreement was signed by 35 nations, including the United States and the Soviet Union, in an attempt to secure peace between the eastern and western blocs. In a speech delivered at the Finland conference, President Gerald Ford promises to do his part for the good of all nations.

Henry Ford Quotations

Because of his immense popularity during his lifetime and since, numerous sayings have been ascribed to Henry Ford. However, many of these quotes are difficult to properly verify or attribute. Work on collecting and authenticating Henry Ford quotations was begun at Ford Motor Company, possibly as early as the mid-1920s. Staff, interns, and volunteers of the Benson Ford Research Center at The Henry Ford have continued this work, resulting in the list below (also available as a spreadsheet download.).

The list includes quotations that have been traced to a primary source or a reliable secondary source. Examples of reliable secondary sources would be a published interview with or other direct quotations of Henry Ford in newspapers contemporary to him, including but in no way limited to house organs such as the Ford Times and Ford News, or a book whose ghostwriting or collaboration was authorized by Henry Ford. If you are searching for a quote and do not see it in the attached list, it means that staff was not able to trace it to a reliable source.

"That man is best educated who knows the greatest number of things that are so, and who can do the greatest number of things to help and heal the world."

Subject: Education Teaching
Source: Ford News, p.2
Date: 1/1/1922

"Education is preeminently a matter of quality, not amount"

Subject: Education Teaching
Source: Ford News, p.2
Date: 1/1/1924

"Any man can learn anything he will, but no man can teach except to those who want to learn."

Subject: Education Teaching
Source: Ford News, p.2
Date: 1/1/1924

"The short successes that can be gained in a brief time and without difficulty, are not worth much."

Subject: Technology Advancement Success
Source: Ford News, p.2
Date: 1/1/1922

"Nothing can be made except by makers, nothing can be managed except by managers. Money cannot make anything and money cannot manage anything."

Subject: Business/Monopoly/Trusts
Source: Ford News, p.2
Date: 1/15/1922

"We are entering an era when we shall create resources which shall be so constantly renewed that the only loss will be not to use them. There will be such a plenteous supply of heat, light and power, that it will be a sin not to use all we want. This era is coming now. And it is coming by way of Water"

Subject: Natural Resources/Water/Technology
Source: Ford News, p.2
Date: 2/1/1922

"Two classes of people lose money those who are too weak to guard what they have those who win money by trick. They both lose in the end."

Subject: Investment Money Knowledge of finances
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 4/1/1922

"When people are 'stung' in false investment schemes there are three causes greed of something for nothing sheer inability to know their mind or infantile trustfulness."

Subject: Investment Money Knowledge of finances
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 4/1/1922

"What right have you, save service to the world, to think that other men's labor should contribute to your gains?"

Subject: Investment Money Knowledge of finances
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 4/1/1922

"The remains of the old must be decently laid away the path of the new prepared. That is the difference between Revolution and Progress."

Subject: Progress
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 5/15/1922

"Most people think that faith means believing something oftener it means trying something, giving it a chance to prove itself"

Subject: Tradition/Faith/Ethics Practicing old ideas
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 6/1/1922

"It is regrettable that people think about our monetary system, and of our economic structure, only in times of depression."

Subject: Economics money politics
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 6/15/1922

"The only prosperity the people can afford to be satisfied with is the kind that lasts"

Subject: Economics money politics
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 6/15/1922

"The gifted man bears his gifts into the world, not for his own benefit, but for the people among whom he is placed for the gifts are not his, he himself is a gift to the community."

Subject: Gifted People Obligation of Talents Service to Others
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 7/1/1922

"People are never so likely to be wrong as when they are organized. And they never have so little freedom. Perhaps that is why the people at large keep their freedom. People can be manipulated only when they are organized."

Subject: Organizations Unions
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 9/15/1922

"The most closely organized groups and movements in the world are those which have been the least friendly to the people's progress and liberty."

Subject: Organizations Unions
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 9/15/1922

"With all the wealth of the world at hand, there are human beings who hunger, whole nations who suffer cold. The judgment for this condition, for misusing Nature's gifts, is the judgment upon man's failure, man's unsteadiness. Leadership is the thing."

Subject: Leadership
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 10/1/1922

"Profits made out of the distress of the people are always much smaller than profits made out of the most lavish service of the people at the lowest prices that competent management can make possible"

Subject: Business Profit
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 10/15/1922

"Our modern industrialism, changed to motives of public service, will provide means to remove every injustice that gives soil for prejudice"

Subject: Race Injustice
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 11/1/1922

"Many people are busy trying to find better ways of doing things that should not have to be done at all. There is no progress in merely finding a better way to do a useless thing."

Subject: Problem-Solving
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 11/15/1922

"Politics in the true sense, have to do with the prosperity, peace and security of the people."

Subject: Politics
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 12/15/1922

"If a young man wants to fit himself for the Politics of tomorrow, let him fit himself into essential industry for the purpose of learning how best to conduct it for the whole public good."

Subject: Politics
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 12/15/1922

"Be ready to revise any system, scrap any method, abandon any theory, if the success of the job requires it."

Subject: Pride
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 1/15/1923

"We are here for experience, and experience is a preparation to know the Truth when we meet it."

Subject: Truth & Character Experience
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 2/1/1923

"Competition whose motive is merely to compete, to drive some other fellow out, never carries very far."

Subject: Business Competition
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 2/15/1923

"The competitor to be feared is one who never bothers about you at all but goes on making his own business better all the time."

Subject: Business Competition
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 2/15/1923

"Businesses that grow by development and improvement do not die."

Subject: Business Competition
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 2/15/1923

"There is no failure except failure to serve one's purpose."

Subject: Government Progressive Government
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 3/15/1923

"Thinking calls for facts facts are found by digging but he who has gathered this wealth is well equipped for life."

Subject: Education Ideas
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 4/1/1923

"Experience is the harvest of life, and every harvest is the result of a sowing. The experience which young people must crave is that of success in some service for which they are naturally fitted."

Subject: Education Experience Learning
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 4/15/1923

"There is safety in small beginnings and there is unlimited capital in the experience gained by growing."

Subject: Business Progress
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 5/1/1923

"Progress is a new season and the rule of progress is everything in its season."

Subject: Progress Change
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 5/15/1923

"We live in an era of tremendous facts. And the facts are facts. They are also unpleasant facts, which does not decrease their factual percentage one bit. Our job is to understand them, to recognize their presence, to learn if we can what they signify and not to fall into the error of minimizing facts because they have a bitter flavor."

Subject: Truth
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 6/15/1923

"Of all the follies the elder generation falls victim to this is the most foolish, namely, the constant criticism of the younger element who will not be and cannot be like ourselves because we and they are different tribes produced of different elements in the great spirit of Time."

Subject: Youth Time Change Children
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 7/15/1923

"..The philosophy of life indicates that our principal business on this planet is the gaining of experience."

Subject: Living/Life Philosophy Truth
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 8/1/1923

"If the people really set their minds on anything it is impossible to prevent their getting what they want."

Subject: Politics Change
Source: Ford News, p.2.
Date: 8/15/1923

"..Yet if today has no meaning, the past was a Blank and the future is a Chaos."

Subject: History Past Today Present
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 10/15/1923

"Work mixed with management becomes not only easier but more profitable. The time is past when anyone can boast about 'hard work' without having a corresponding result to show for it."

Subject: Work Labor
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 12/1/1923

"Christmas stands for the human factor which makes life tolerable midst the hurry of commerce and production. All of us need the annealing effect of Christ's example to relieve the hardening we get in the daily struggle for material success."

Subject: Life Religion Christmas
Source: Ford News, p. 1. Christmas Greeting
Date: 12/15/1923

"The world is held together by the mass of honest folk who do their daily tasks, tend their own spot in the world, and have faith that at last the Right will come fully into its own. "

Subject: Honesty Morality
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 1/15/1924

"I do not believe that material accumulation is the whole of success, and on the other hand I do not believe that true success ever excludes a sufficient possession of wealth-but wealth as a means, not as an end."

Subject: Success Wealth Self-sufficiency Work
Source: The article "What is Success?" is from Coleman Cox
Date: 1/15/1924

"One needs to be successful in the conventional way to learn just how far away from success it may be."

Subject: Success Wealth Self-sufficiency Work
Source: The article "What is Success?" is from Coleman Cox
Date: 1/15/1924

"I will build a motor car for the great multitude. constructed of the best materials, by the best men to be hired, after the simplest designs that modern engineering can devise. so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one-and enjoy with his family the blessing of hours of pleasure in God's great open spaces."

Subject: Multitude Automobile
Source: Burlingame, "Henry Ford", p. 62. The precise year in which Ford issued the "multitude" statement is not known. Earliest source 6/6/13 Ford Times. Probably said 1903-1906, when expressed same views to associates.
Date: 6/6/1913

"Youth should not be slandered. Boy nature and girl nature are less repressed and therefore more wholesome today than before. If they at times seem unimpressed by their elders, it is probably because we make a matter of authority what should be a matter of conference. These young people are new people sent to this scene by Destiny to take our places. They come with new visions to fulfill, new powers to exploit."

Subject: Youth Future Change Learning Children
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 2/1/1924

"An imitation may be quite successful in its own way, but imitation can never be Success. Success is a first-hand creation."

Subject: Originality Success Innovation
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 3/15/1924

"The most dangerous notion a young man can acquire is that there is no more room for originality. There is no large room for anything else."

Subject: Originality Success Innovation
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 3/15/1924

"Little difficulties are made to swell until they fill our horizon while the real big blessings of life are dwindled down to nothing."

Subject: Troubles Difficulties
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 5/1/1924

"Nations are great as they are prosperous as they are industrious as they are just."

Subject: Americanization America, Nationalism
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 6/15/1924

"There is nothing ever wrong with ability, ambition, achievement but they can easily be wronged by being used to bad ends."

Subject: Human Nature Success Achievement
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 8/1/1924

"To be good is not enough a man must be good for something"

Subject: Human Nature Success Achievement
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 8/1/1924

"The sense of injustice, more than the unjust condition itself, is what wears on men's minds."

Subject: Justice Money
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 8/15/1924

"The partnership of mind and matter is one which has existed since the beginning of time and cannot be dissolved."

Subject: Intelligence Brain and Brawn
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 9/1/1924

"The only true test of values, either of men or of things, is that of their ability to make the world a better place in which to live."

Subject: Values Morals Success
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 10/1/1924

"The satisfaction that arises from honest accomplishment is of far more value in the promotion of human happiness than the thrill that comes with the realization of materialistic aspirations."

Subject: Values Morals Success
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 10/1/1924

"As members of the Ford Motor organization we are engaged in the production of an article of use for the people of all countries. Our principle is to make our work as profitable for the buyer as for the seller."

Subject: Inflation Christmas New Years
Source: Ford News, p. 1. Christmas & New Year's Day message
Date: 12/15/1924

"Much depends on people knowing what opportunity means it doesn't mean a silver platter, it oftener means a spade. Self-help means something sterner than 'help yourself'--reach over and take it."

Subject: Opportunity Success Self-Sufficiency
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 1/15/1925

"The genius of the American people is Self-Reliance."

Subject: Self-Sufficiency Opportunity Success
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 2/1/1925

"The difference between a good govt. system and its poor administration is easily explained the chief administrators are not Bosses in the best sense."

Subject: Government Politics
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 3/1/1925

"A happy & contented nation is an example to the whole world. Where there is contentment there must be peace."

Subject: Ambition Happiness Success
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 4/1/1925

"We are always seeking for those things which are in the clouds, not for those that lie at our feet."

Subject: Natural Resources America
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 4/15/1925

"Whatever it is, people who have more spare time than people ever had before get the sense of whirlwind pressure,& repeat the common criticism that 'we are going too fast.' Yet the people live longer than ever before, live with less effort, live on a higher plane. Is it possible that this common saying about our rapid pace is just another thoughtless mob suggestion?"

Subject: Society Leisure
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 5/1/1925

"To resent efficiency is a mark of inefficiency."

Subject: Efficiency
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 6/1/1925

"People who are capable of and fit for freedom liberate themselves from physical thralldom by substituting mind for muscle."

Subject: Machines Slavery Industrialism
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 8/1/1925

"Man minus the Machine is a slave Man plus the Machine is a freeman."

Subject: Machines Slavery Industrialism
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 8/1/1925

"Every success is the mother of countless others."

Subject: Business Opportunity Independence Self-Sufficiency
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 8/15/1925

"Whatever your goal in life, the beginning is knowledge and experience- or, briefly work."

Subject: Business Employment Knowledge
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 9/1/1925

"Getting permanent value out of a job means purpose and fitting means to ends."

Subject: Business Education
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 9/15/1925

"Man is a comparative being. Substandard things must go before super-standard things can come."

Subject: Standardization Progress
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 10/1/1925

"All life is experience, and one level is exchanged for another only when its lesson is learned."

Subject: Experience Learning Knowledge
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 11/15/1925

"War is not a matter for the professional pacifist or militarist. It is for the unprofessional people. They finance and fight it, they bear its losses. Therefore, they should have the deciding voice concerning it. To do this, they require all the information upon which decisions are made. They should know in a difference, whether it is soluble by rational intelligence, or inevitable by force. Not once in a thousand instances would our people (this may not be true of all peoples, however) approve an offensive war. Never would they be lax in defensive action. For this is their country. However, most of their enemies are within it."

Subject: War
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 12/1/1925

"Hard knocks have a place and value, but hard thinking goes farther in less time."

Subject: Knowledge Wisdom
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 1/15/1926

"As betting at the race ring adds neither strength nor speed to the horse, so the exchange of shares in the stock market adds no capital to business, no increase in the production and no purchasing power to the market."

Subject: Finance
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 2/1/1926

"A peaceful nation is one that has the means to make war and restrains."

Subject: War & Peace America History Foreign Affairs
Source: Ford News, p.2
Date: 2/15/1926

"But to do for the world more than the world does for you--that is Success."

Subject: Success Opportunity
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 3/1/1926

"The industrial value of leisure as a promoter of the consumption of goods,& thus as a stimulant to business have been proved."

Subject: Economics Leisure consumerism
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 4/1/1926

"Suppression of progress plays into the hands of the social enemy. Every advance in social justice establishes the nation."

Subject: Progress Social Justice Politics
Source: Ford News, p. 2.
Date: 4/15/1926

"'The country is ready for the five-day week,' says Mr. Ford. 'It is bound to come through all industry. Without it the country will not be able to absorb its production & stay prosperous. The industry of this country could not long exist if factories generally went back to the ten-hour day, because people would not have the leisure, the desire, or the means to consume the goods produced. Just as the eight-hour day opened our way to prosperity in America, so the five-day week will open our way to still greater prosperity.

Of course there is a humanitarian side to the shorter day & the shorter week, but dwelling on that side is likely to lead one astray, for leisure may be put before work instead of after it-where it belongs. Twenty years ago, introducing the eight-hour day generally would have made for poverty & not for wealth. Five years ago, introducing the five day week would have had the same result. The hours of labor are regulated by the organization of work and by nothing else. It is the rise of the great corporation with its ability to use power, to use accurately designed machinery, & generally to lessen the wastes in time, material & human energy that made it possible to bring in the eight hour day. Further progress along the same lines has made it possible to bring in the five day week.

It is high time to rid ourselves of the notion that leisure for workmen is either 'lost time' or a class privilege. This is not to say that leisure may not be dangerous. Everything good may also be dangerous-if mishandled. When we put our $5 minimum wage for an eight-hour day into effect in 1913, we had to watch many of our men to see what use they made of their spare time & money. We found a few men taking on extra jobs--some worked the dayshift with us & the night shift in another factory. Some of the men squandered their extra pay. Others banked the surplus money & went on living just as they had lived before. But in a few years all adjusted themselves & our supervision was less needed.

There is, of course, a profound difference between leisure & idleness. Nor must we confound leisure with shiftlessness. Our people are perfectly capable of using to good advantage the time that they have off, after work. That has already been demonstrated to us by our experiments during the last several years. We find that the men come back after a two-day holiday so fresh & keen that they are able to put their minds as well as their hands to work. We are not of those who claim to be able to tell people how to use their spare time. We think that, given the chance, people will become more expert in the effective use of their leisure time. & they are being given the chance.

The influence of leisure on consumption makes the short day & the short week necessary. The people who consume the bulk of goods are the people who make them. With the decrease of the length of the working day in the United States an increase of production has come because better methods of disposing of men's time have been accompanied by better methods of disposing of their energy. Thus one good has brought another.

Of positive industrial value is leisure because it increases consumption. Where people work longest & with least leisure they buy the fewest goods. Businesses the exchange of goods. Goods are bought only as they meet needs. Needs are filled only as they are felt. They make themselves felt largely in leisure hours. The man who worked fifteen & sixteen hours a day desired only a corner to lie in &, now & then, a bit of food. He had no time to cultivate new needs, hence he had only the most primitive.

When, in American industry, women were released from the necessity of factory work & became buyers for their families, business began to expand. The American housewife, as household purchasing agent, has both leisure & money, & the former has been just as important as the latter in the development of American business. The five day week simply carries this further. The people who work only five days a week will consume more goods than the people who work six days a week. People who have more leisure must have more clothes. The eat a greater variety of food. They require more transportation facilities. This increased consumption will require greater production an we now have. Instead of business being allowed up because people are 'off work', it will be speeded up because people consume more in their leisure than in their working time. This will lead to more work. & this to more work. & this to more wages.

Thus the result of more leisure is the exact opposite of what most people might suppose. Management must keep pace with this new demand--& it will. It is the introduction of power and machinery by manufacturers that has med the shorter day & the shorter week possible. That is a fact which working men must not forget. The eight-hour day was not the ultimate, & neither is the five day week. It is enough, however, to manage what we are equipped to manage and to let the future take care of itself. It will anyway. That is its habit. But probably the next move will come in the direction of shortening the day rather than the week."

Subject: Labor Industry Prosperity Wealth
Source: Ford News, p.2. "Mr. Ford Explains the Five-Day Week"
Date: 10/15/1926

"The Model T car was a pioneer. There was no conscious public need of motor cars when we first made it. There were few good roads. This car blazed the way for the motor industry & started the movement for good roads everywhere. It is still the pioneer car in many parts of the world which are just beginning to be motorized. But conditions in this country have so greatly changed that further refinement in motor car construction is now desirable & our new model is a recognition of this.

Besides the Model T itself another revolutionary element which the Ford Motor Company introduced twenty years ago was the idea of service. Some of the early manufacturers proceeded on the theory that once they had induced a man to buy a car they had him at their mercy they charged him the highest possible price for necessary replacements. Our company adopted the opposite theory. We believed that when a man bought one of our cars we should keep it running for him as long as we could & at the lowest upkeep cost. That was the origin of Ford Service.

The Model T was one of the largest factors in creating the conditions which now make the new model Ford possible. The world-wide influence of the Ford car in the building of good roads & in teaching the people the use & value of mechanical power is conceded. Nowadays everybody runs some kind of motor power but twenty years ago only the adventurous few could be induced to try an automobile. It had a harder time winning public confidence than the airplane has now. The Model T was a great educator in this respect. It had stamina & power. It was the car that ran before there were good roads to run on. It broke down the barriers of distance in rural sections, brought people of these sections closer together & placed education within the reach of everyone.

We are still proud of the Model T Ford car. If we were not we could not have continued to manufacture it for so long. With the new Ford we propose to continue in the light-car field which we created on the same basis of quantity production we have always worked, giving high quality, low price, & constant service. We began work on this new model several years ago. In fact, the idea of a new car has been in my mind much longer than that. But the sale of the Model T continued at such a pace that there never seemed to be an opportunity to get the new car started.

Even now the business is so brisk that we are up against the proposition of keeping the factory going on one model while we tool up for another. I am glad of this because it will not necessitate a total shutdown. Only a comparatively few men will be out at a time while their departments are being tooled up for the new product. At one time it looked as if 70,000 men might be laid off temporarily but we have now scaled that down to less than 25,000 at a time. The lay-off will be brief because we need the men & we have no time to waste. At present I can only say this about the new model--it has speed, style, flexibility, & control in traffic. There is nothing quite like it in quality & price. The new car will cost more to manufacture but it will be more economical to operate."

Subject: Model A
Source: Ford News, p. 1. "New Ford Car Announced Details Forthcoming Soon"
Date: 6/1/1927

"The Model T blazed the way for the motor industry & started the movement for good roads everywhere. It is still the pioneer car in many parts of the world which are just beginning to be motorized."

Subject: Model T
Source: Ford News, p. 4.
Date: 10/1/1927

"For a long time now, I have believed that industry & agriculture are natural partners & that they should begin to recognize & practice their partnership. Each of them is suffering from ailments which the other can cure. Agriculture needs a wider &steadier market industrial workers need more steadier jobs. Can each be made to supply what the other needs? I think so. The link between is Chemistry. In the vicinity of Dearborn we are farming twenty thousand acres for everything from sunflowers to soy beans. We pass the crops through our laboratory to learn how they may be used in the manufacture of motor cars &, thus provide an industrial market for the farmers' products."

Subject: Industry/Agriculture Dearborn Farming
Source: Ford News, p. 49: also Ford News, back cover, August 1934
Date: March 1933

"Henry Ford in a statement said: 'No one loses anything by raising wages as soon as he is able. It has always paid us. Low wages are the most costly any employer can pay. It is like using low-grade material--the waste makes it very expensive in the end. There is no economy in cheap labor or cheap material. The hardest thing I ever had to do was to reduce wages. I think we were the last big company to come to it. Now I am mighty glad that wages are climbing again."

Subject: Labor Wages Ford Motor Co
Source: Ford News, p. 43
Date: April 1934

"The depression was just a state of mind. It is over for everyone who has changed his state of mind."

Subject: Depression Automobile industry Ford Motor Co
Source: Ford News, back cover
Date: April 1934

"Individualism is what makes cooperation worth living."

Subject: Miscellaneous American Spirit Industry
Source: Ford News, back cover. Around the wall of the Rotunda of the Ford Exposition Building at the Century of Progress, between a series of photographic murals done on a colossal scale is a series of terse epigrammatic sayings of Henry Ford.
Date: October 1934

"Many people seem to believe that Greenfield Village & the Edison Institute & Museum at Dearborn, with their specimens of earlier type of American life & industry, are just a kind of antiquarian hobby of mine. I do not deny that they have given me a great deal of interest & pleasure. But the project is vastly more than a hobby. It has very definite purposes, & I hope will have results lasting down the years. One purpose is to remind the public who visit it & sometimes there are thousands a day--of how far& how fast we have come in technical progress in the last century or so. If we have come so far & so fast, is it likely that we shall stop now?"

Subject: HFM&GV Progress Edison Institute
Source: Ford News, back cover
Date: November 1934

"We wish all users of Ford cars to know what they are entitled to."

Subject: Customer Service Ford Motor Co
Source: Ford News, inside back cover
Date: March 1935

"See what a 25-cent raise will do to us," said Mr. Ford. So they figured the daily & monthly cost of a 25-cent increase. "Put on another quarter & see what that will cost," he said. And so they went on,25 cents a step. Finally the wage of $2.34 stood at $4.75--more than 100 percent increase. One of the associates--a good financial head--remarked rather sarcastically that if they were going to be fools, why not be first-class fools & make it $5. "All right," said Mr. Ford, "let's make it $5."

Subject: $5 Day Wages
Source: Ford News, p. 124
Date: July 1935

"I foresee the time when industry shall no longer denude the forests which require generations to mature, nor use up the mines which were ages in making, but shall draw its raw material largely from the annual produce of the fields. I am convinced that we shall be able to get out of yearly crops most of the basic materials which we now get from forest and mine."

Subject: Industry & Agriculture Farming
Source: Ford News, p. 125
Date: July 1935

"What I greatly hope for these children everywhere, is a new attitude toward life--free from the gullibility which thinks we can get something for nothing free from the greed which thinks any permanent good can come of overreaching others and, above all, expectant of change, so that when life gives them a jolt they will be fully prepared to push on eagerly along new lines."

Subject: Education Greenfield Village Teaching Progress
Source: Ford News, back cover, "From. 'Things I've Been Thinking About.' American Magazine, February
Date: March 1936

"Fairs and public displays", Henry Ford has said, "are the best means we have yet found of showing large numbers of people the real methods of industry."

Subject: Industry Public Display
Source: Ford News, p. 5.
Date: January 1937

"No unemployment insurance can be compared to an alliance between a man and a plot of land. With one foot in the land, human society is firmly balanced against most economic uncertainties. With a job to supply him with cash, and a plot of land to guarantee him support, the individual is doubly secure. Stocks may fail, but seedtime and harvest do not fail."

Subject: Industry & Agriculture Self-Sufficiency Economics
Source: Ford News, inside front cover
Date: April 1937

"An educated person, I think, is one who not only knows a lot, but knows how to do a lot of things."

Subject: Education Experience Religion
Source: Ford News, back cover, "From an interview with Mr. Henry Ford"
Date: September 1937

"We have had just one main purpose during these years, and that is to give the people transportation of the most dependable quality at the lowest possible cost. Our car was called the "Universal Car" thirty years ago, because it fulfilled so many needs it is "The Universal Car" today for the same reason."

Subject: Customer Service Model T Ford Motor Co Transportation
Source: Ford News, back cover
Date: October 1938

"History is more or less bunk."

Subject: History is Bunk
Source: Chicago Tribune
Date: 5/25/1916

" I don't know anybody so old he can't do something useful. Just give them a chance and see."

Source: Age Hard Work
Source: Hartford Courant, interview with Fred C. Kelly
Date: 10/27/1935

"America is not a land of money but of wealth-not a land of rich people, but of successful workers."

Subject: America Success Wealth
Source: Forbes Magazine
Date: 7/15/1943

"The basically simple things are best, whether it's automobiles or diets or philosophy."

Subject: Automobiles Simplicity
Source: N.Y World-Telegram
Date: 3/18/1943

"The young people got me interested in aviation. It is part of the motor age. Development is dependent on power."

Subject: Aviation Youth
Source: N.Y American, Geo. Sylvester Vierick interview
Date: 8/5/1928

"What America needs most is aviation."

Subject: Aviation America
Source: Florida Times Union, Robert Barry interview
Date: 1/6/1929

"I can visualize the time when almost every family will have a small plane in their back yard."

Subject: Aviation American Life
Source: Detroit Times
Date: 9/12/1941

"When bankers get into business they usually destroy it.

Subject: Banks and Bankers Business the Depression
Source: N.Y Times
Date: 1/31/1933

"The Bible does not need advertising by me, but I wish more people could be persuaded to read it. Perhaps if they had been, we should not have this war on our hands. For greed and idleness brought it on."

Subject: Bible, Idleness, Greed, World War II
Source: N.Y Times Magazine, interview by S. J. Woolf
Date: 7/25/1943

"Whenever you get the idea that you are 'fixed' or that anything is 'fixed' for life, you'd better get ready for a sudden change."

Subject: Change Life
Source: N.Y World-Telegram
Date: 7/26/1933

"Greatest thing we can produce is character. Everything else can be taken from us, but not our character."

Subject: Character
Source: Cincinnati Times Star, Beckman interview
Date: 11/11/1937

"Look beyond the individual to the cause of his misery."

Subject: Charity and Welfare Philanthropy
Source: Cosmopolitan Magazine, Crowther quoting Mr. Ford
Date: March 1932

"If we had more justice there would be less need of charity."

Subject: Charity and Welfare Justice
Source: New Orleans Times Picayune, Meigs Frost interview
Date: 7/22/1934

"The only thing you can give a man without hurting him is an opportunity."

Subject: Charity and Welfare Opportunity
Source: New Orleans Times Picayune, Meigs Frost interview
Date: 7/22/1934

"You've got to teach youngsters the difference between right and wrong, but you shouldn't try to poke it down their throats. Let them ask the questions and then give them the answers."

Subject: Children Youth
Source: Think magazine
Date: March 1934

"Children have helped me a lot."

Subject: Children Youth
Source: True Story, Wm. L. Stidger interview
Date: April 1935

"Trouble with the world today is people don't go to children enough. I don't like old people. I stay away from them."

Subject: Children Adults Youth
Source: Detroit Times, Paul Gallico interview
Date: 1/11/1938

"There should be rivalry between men and between business."

Subject: Competition
Source: American Magazine, Wm. S. Dutton interview
Date: March 1928

"Competition is the lifeblood of industry."

Subject: Competition Industry
Source: Detroit News
Date: 7/30/1941

"As far as competition is concerned, that must continue. But we must learn what competition really is. It is a striving to attain the best. To throttle it would mean to stop all progress. Certain men do not need to compete. They are pioneers."

Subject: Competition
Source: Rotarian, S.J Woolf interview
Date: June 1936

I'd like to devote about three years to the elimination of the cow. There's not reason in the world why the chemist can't discover the cow's secret of converting vegetation into dairy products. And there's less reason why the chemist can't do a better job of it after he learns how."

Subject: Cows Science Farming Livestock
Source: Detroit Free Press
Date: 7/16/1936

"The present method of producing milk is too laborious. I believe that we can make milk by scientific process, eliminating the cow."

Subject: Cows Science Farming Livestock
Source: N.Y American, George Sylvester Viereck interview
Date: 8/5/1928

"..we do not hire a man's history, we hire the man"

Subject: Criminals Opportunity
Source: My Life and Work, p. 95
Date: n/a

"The way out of the depression is to start spending and doing things."

Subject: Depression and Prosperity
Source: Detroit Times
Date: 5/16/1934

"Depressions aren't acts of God like wars, they are the work of a small group of men who profit by them."

Subject: Depression and Prosperity Wars
Source: New Orleans Times Picayune, Meigs Frost interview
Date: 7/22/1934

"Mr. Edison was comfortably well off-he was not a money maker."

Subject: Thomas Edison
Source: Detroit News, interview by A M Smith
Date: 10/20/1931

"Without doubt, Thomas Edison is my greatest contemporary."

Subject: Thomas Edison
Source: N.Y American, interview by George Sylvester Vierick
Date: 8/5/1928

"Edison, to a greater extent than has ever been recognized, is the father of American industrial methods."

Subject: Thomas Edison
Source: N.Y American, interview by George Sylvester Vierick
Date: 8/5/1928

"Although Mr. Edison was called 'The Wizard' of the electrical world and everyone thought that electricity was the coming thing, he actually encouraged me to go with my second car."

Subject: Thomas Edison
Source: True Story magazine, Wm. Stidger interview
Date: April 1935

"What is life but education, anyway?"

Subject: Education Life
Source: Detroit Times
Date: 7/30/1943

"I believe in 100% Theory and 100% Practice. Theory without practical application is futile."

Subject: Education Practice
Source: N.Y American, George Sylvester Vierick interview
Date: 8/5/1928

"A man's college and university degrees mean nothing to me until I see what he is able to do with them."

Subject: Education
Source: New Orleans Times Picayune
Date: 7/22/1934

"Teach children not to be gullible."

Subject: Education Children
Source: American Magazine
Date: October 1934

"A nation that knows how to work will never suffer."

Subject: Labor Work
Source: Saturday Evening Post, Samuel Crowther interview
Date: 2/1/1936

"In teaching the children at Greenfield Village, we are trying to get back some of the solid McGuffey qualities."

Subject: Education Greenfield Village McGuffey
Source: American Magazine
Date: October 1934

"Greatest thing in life is experience. Even mistakes have value."

Subject: Experience Failure Life
Source: American Magazine, Beverly Smith interview
Date: October 1934

"..That is what we are put in the world for, to get experience and to help others get it. It is the one thing no one can take away from us."

Subject: Experience
Source: New York Times Magazine, S. J Woolf
Date: 7/24/1938

"Faith is one of the most effective tools in the human equipment. I believe that faith works."

Subject: Faith
Source: American Magazine-also in Ford News March 1941
Date: February 1941

"The greatest day of my life was the day I married Mrs. Ford."

Subject: Clara Bryant Ford Wife
Source: N.Y Times Magazine, S.J Woolf interview
Date: 7/24/1938

"I attribute whatever I may have been able to accomplish in life far more to my wife than to anything else and to everything else put together. But I cannot flatter myself that I found her because I was a 'good picker', I believe profoundly that we are guided, led, in such momentous matters."

Subject: Clara Bryant Ford Marriage Success Wife
Source: Forbes Magazine
Date: 3/1/1940

"There can be no bosses in our country except the people. The job of the government is to serve, not to dominate."

Subject: Government
Source: Detroit Times
Date: 11/5/1944

"If governments would only understand that if people are left alone they'll work out their own salvation."

Subject: Government Future
Source: The Passing Show, Valentine Williams
Date: 2/2/1935

"Most of the sickness in the world is caused by eating too much."

Subject: Health Diet
Source: N.Y Times Magazine, interview by S.J Woolf
Date: 7/25/1943

"Every one knows that insufficient rest and gorging are not good for anyone, either physically or mentally."

Subject: Health Diet
Source: N.Y Times Magazine, interview by S.J Woolf
Date: 7/24/1938

"The time is coming when man will be able to determine the length of his lifespan by controlling his diet."

Subject: Health Diet
Source: Detroit News, David J. Wilkie interview
Date: 7/28/1944

"History doesn't mean dates and wars and textbooks to me it means the unconquerable pioneer spirit of man."

Subject: History is Bunk
Source: New Orleans Times Picayune, Meigs Frost interview
Date: 7/22/1934

"When I went to our American history books to learn how our forefathers harrowed the land, I discovered that the historians knew nothing about harrows. Yet our country has depended more on harrows than on guns or speeches. I thought that a history which excluded harrows, and all the rest of daily life, was bunk. And I think so yet."

Subject: History is Bunk
Source: American Legion Magazine, Arthur Van Vlissingen J.r Interview
Date: October 1932

"President Hoover has done everything any one could do to bring about improvement in business and industry. Everything President Hoover has advised or tried to put into effect has been sound."

Subject: Herbert Hoover, Depression
Source: Washington Evening Star, David J. Wilkie
Date: 5/28/1930

"The unhappiest man on earth is the one who has nothing to do."

Subject: Idleness Happiness
Source: Detroit Free Press, N.Y Times-Dave Wilkie interview
Date: 5/28/1944

"Idleness is the reason for many of our troubles."

Subject: Idleness
Source: Detroit Times
Date: 11/5/1944

"A monopoly of jobs in this country is just as bad as a monopoly of bread!"

Subject: Labor Unions Monopoly
Source: "Fordisms" from 'Ford Gives Viewpoint on Labor"-A.M Smith
Date: 4/29/1937

"This group (the union organizers) is asking us to sit still while it sells our men the jobs that have always been free."

Subject: Labor Unions
Source: 'Fordisms' from 'Ford Gives Viewpoint on Labor -A.M Smith
Date: 4/29/1937

"The great need of the world has always been for leaders. With more leaders we could have more industry. More industry, more employment and comfort for all."

Subject: Leadership Industry
Source: Barron's, Fred C. Kelly interview
Date: 1/26/1931

"Life, as I see it, is not a location, but a journey. Life flows."

Subject: Life
Source: My Life and Work-p. 43
Date: n/a

"Machines were devised not to do a man out of a job, but to take the heavy labor from man's back and place it on the broad back of the machine."

Subject: Machinery
Source: Detroit Free Press, Dave Wilkie interview
Date: 5/29/1930

"Machinery was invented by labor for labor-serving purposes. The wheel is the basis of the machine."

Subject: Machinery The wheel
Source: The Rotarian, S.J Woolf
Date: June 1936

"Four women have helped me: mother, sister, mother-in-law and wife."

Subject: Family Success Women Mother Wife
Source: True Story, William L. Stidger
Date: April 1935

"Music and song are, in my opinion, so fine and necessary a part of life that without them we cannot be said really to live at all."

Subject: Music, Song
Source: Detroit Public Schools, Dept. of Music Education Bulletin No. 1, Volume No. IV
Date: Nov-Dec 1937

"Poetry without music may be beautiful, but music gives poetry wings and elevates it into song. That may be the reason for our love of song-it has wings and lifts us with proper songs, it is a nourishing spiritual exercise."

Subject: Song, Music, Poetry
Source: Detroit Public Schools, Dept. of Music Education Bulletin No. 1, Volume No. IV
Date: Nov-Dec 1937

"Life is neither old or new, ancient or modern, but simply more or less vivid-any song or musical composition will live that expresses or reproduces this vividness of life.-From this you will see that I believe that music fills a great place. The teaching of it goes far to restore the balance and richness of life, and-I might add- the unit of life also."

Subject: Music, Song, Dance, Education
Source: Detroit Public Schools, Dept. of Music Education Bulletin No. 1, Volume No. IV
Date: Nov-Dec 1937

"I haven't put a pencil to a piece of paper, working out a problem, in years I do it in my head."

Subject: Paper Work, Problem Solving
Source: New Orleans Times Picayune, Meigs Frost interview
Date: 7/22/1934

"'Every man is entitled to make a darn fool of himself at least once in a lifetime.' -Regarding Great War Peace Ship"

Subject: Peace Ship, Great War, Life
Source: B.C Forbes column, Detroit Times
Date: 5/18/1942

"Public officials are all right if they stay in their proper sphere and perform their proper functions but when they get greedy for wider scope and more power and money they lose their value and become parasites."

Subject: Politicians, Politics, Public Officials
Source: Detroit Times, interview with John C. Manning
Date: 1/31/1943

"People didn't want war..we were forced in fast we finish it depends on how free a hand our generals and admirals have. The less interference they get from the politicians the quicker they'll end it."

Subject: Politicians, War, World War II
Source: Detroit Times
Date: 1/31/1943

"I wouldn't have the Presidency or any political office-don't want anything to do with it nor have politics have anything to do with me."

Subject: Politics, Presidency
Source: Detroit Times, Bob Rose interview
Date: 9/19/1935

"When prices go up, business goes down."

Subject: Prices, Business
Source: Wall Street Journal-Gronseth
Date: 4/4/1934

"You can't tell me you can make any system or country work with low wages and high prices, and high wages with high prices don't mean anything when the prices eat up the wages and don't leave anything over."

Subject: Prices, Wages
Source: Detroit Times, Paul Gallico
Date: 1/12/1938

"Profits are not financial-they're social. Everybody profits from industry. Politicians don't understand profits because they can pay bills out of taxation."

Subject: Profits Industry Politicians
Source: Wall Street Journal
Date: 2/6/1936

"Three most deleterious things of modern life in their present order of importance are: tobacco, alcohol and intemperate eating. Both alcohol and tobacco are taboo in plants."

Subject: Prohibition Tobacco
Source: New York American, Sylvester Vierick interview
Date: 8/5/1928

"I adopted the theory of reincarnation when I was 26. I got the idea from a book by Orlando Smith. Until I discovered this theory I was unsettled and dissatisfied-without a compass, so to speak. When I discovered reincarnation it was as if I had found a universal plan. I realized that there was a chance to work out my ideas. Time was no longer limited. I was no longer a slave to the hands of the clock. There was time enough to plan and to create. I wouldn't give five cents for seeing all the world, because I feel there is nothing in the five continents and on the five seas that I have not somehow seen. Somewhere is a master mind sending brain wave messages to us. There is a Great Spirit. I never did anything by my own volition. I was pushed by invisible forces within and without me. We inherit a native knowledge from a previous existence. Gospel of reincarnation is essence of all knowledge. I do not know where we come from or go to but we accumulate experience. Someday it will be possible to measure the soul. We all retain memories of past lives."

Subject: Reincarnation Experience Time
Source: Detroit Times, Geo. Sylvester Viereck interview
Date: 8/26/1928

"(Instinct is) 'Probably the essence of past experience and knowledge stored up for later use. There are many, you know, who think that this life journey through the world is not the first one we have made. Haven't you ever come across children who knew things that it was impossible for them to have learned? Have you ever gone to a place for the first time and felt sure that you had been there before? That's one of the reasons I do not travel much."

Subject: Reincarnation Children Youth
Source: New York Times Magazine, S. J Woolf interview
Date: 7/24/1938

"If we could get all religions together on a common purpose-the elimination of jealousies and the things that make men covet another's belongings, we would be a long way toward the goal of outmoding war, depression and poverty."

Subject: Religion Depression War Poverty
Source: Detroit Free Press, Dave Wilkie interview
Date: 5/28/1944

"In the Ford Motor Company we emphasize service equally with sales."

Subject: Customer Service Ford Motor Company
Source: (taken from Ford Service Manual, loose-leaf type) Ford Motor Co. Library
Date: n/a

"A manufacturer is not through with his customer when a sale is completed. He has then only started with his customer. In the case of an automobile the sale of the machine is only something in the nature of an introduction. If the machine does not give service, then it is better for the manufacturer if he never had the introduction, for he will have the worst of all advertisements-a dissatisfied customer."

Subject: Customer Service
Source: My Life and Work, p. 41
Date: n/a

"From the start I had my own ideas about how the business should run. I wanted it to benefit everybody who contributed to its success-stockholders, labor and the American public."

Subject: Stockholders Ford Motor Company
Source: Henry Ford Talks About War, Defense, Stockholders by B.C Forbes, Forbes Magazine
Date: 9/1/1941

"A big business never becomes big by being a narrow society looking after only the interests of its organization and stockholders."

Subject: Stockholders Business
Source: Moving Forward by Henry Ford and Samuel Crowther, p. 64
Date: n/a

"Stock market never made business-business makes the stock market."

Subject: Business Stockholders Stock Market
Source: Detroit Free Press
Date: 5/23/1933

"Stock in the Ford Motor Company would increase the cost of the car. I am only interested in reducing the price of our car."

Subject: Stockholders Stock Ford Motor Company Prices
Source: Detroit Times, Bob Ross
Date: 9/19/1935

" I believe that any stock that is sold should have real value as automobile or bushel of potatoes, and stock market should be run as a vegetable market."

Subject: Stockholders
Source: Hartford Courant, Fred C. Kelly
Date: 10/27/1935

"No American ought to be compelled to strike for his rights. He ought to receive them naturally, easily, as a matter of course."

Subject: Strikes Rights
Source: Mr. Ford's Own Page, Dearborn Independent
Date: 11/22/1919

"Anything that is not right, whether it temporarily favors the employees or the employers, cannot last-because it is not right."

Subject: Strikes Rights
Source: Mr. Ford's Own Page, Dearborn Independent
Date: 3/13/1920

"Trees are among the most useful things grown."

Subject: Trees
Source: Detroit News
Date: 11/24/1940

"Paying good wages is not charity at all-it is the best kind of business."

Subject: Wages Business
Source: Mr. Ford's Own Page, Dearborn Independent
Date: 1/18/1919

"If the boss stands in the way of men getting what they earn, he is not fit to be boss."

Subject: Wages Business
Source: Mr. Ford's Own Page, Dearborn Independent
Date: 11/22/1919

"A low wage business is always insecure."

Subject: Business Wages
Source: My Life and Work, p. 126-127
Date: n/a

"Cutting wages is not the way to recovery. Raise wages and improve the product."

Subject: Wages Depression
Source: Chicago Tribune, Arthur Evans interview
Date: 2/7/1934

Subject: War
Source: Detroit News and Times
Date: 7/30/1942

"Wars are necessary to teach us lessons we seem unable to learn any other way."

Subject: War
Source: New York Herald-Tribune
Date: 7/29/1941

"Money will ruin the life of any man who treats it like anything but a tool with which to work."

Subject: Wealth Money
Source: New Orleans Times Picayune, Meigs Frost interview
Date: 7/22/1934

"I don't expect to retire. Every man must work, that's his natural destiny."

Subject: Work Retirement
Source: N.Y World-Telegram, Willis Thornton
Date: 7/24/1933

"Only one thing makes prosperity, and that is work."

Subject: Work Prosperity
Source: Detroit Free Press, Bill Richards
Date: 6/21/1931

"The basis of peace should be a world federation."

Subject: World Federation Peace
Source: New York World Telegram
Date: 3/18/1943

"Worry is the most wasteful thing in the world."

Subject: Worry
Source: American Magazine
Date: February 1936

"No one can be helped unless he can be put in the way of helping himself."

Subject: Charity Opportunity
Source: New York American interview with Geo. Sylvester Vierick
Date: 8/5/1928

"People will try to fix world but world will fix people."

Subject: Depression Prosperity World
Source: Detroit News A. M Smith interview
Date: 6/16/1933

"Efficient industry is the sole key to prosperity"

Subject: Industry Prosperity
Source: Photostatted message written for American Magazine by W.M S Dutton
Date: 2/21/1928

"Education not just preparation for life, but part if life itself-a continuous art."

Subject: Education Life
Source: Good Housekeeping p. 20
Date: October 1934

"Anyone who does anything useful will not go unpaid."

Subject: Experience
Source: New York Times Magazine p. 2
Date: 7/24/1938

"Mark my word: A combination airplane and motor car is coming.."

Subject: Invention Modernization
Source: Forbes Magazine
Date: 3/1/1940

"Should a man quit at 40 he is failure-Retire at that age is sorry failure."

Subject: Retirement
Source: Photostatted message of William S Dutton
Date: 2/21/1928

"There should be no unemployment. There is large percentage of labor now which cannot make a living because wages are not high enough. That is industry's 2nd job. 1st job is to make good product. 2nd pay a good wage."

Subject: Unemployment Wages Youth Education
Source: Detroit Times, W Champlin interview
Date: 7/28/1936

"Most fashionable commodity in US is going to be old-fashioned common sense & work."

Subject: Work Common Sense Labor
Source: Detroit Free Press
Date: 5/23/1933

"..the home of tomorrow will make women free for to work as they like, not as they are bound to do by the is the only real happiness..industry itself has been modernized so that almost any job in industry may be taken over by a woman."

Subject: Women Work Labor
Source: Toronto Star, Gregory Clark interview
Date: 1/9/1943

"There can be no lasting peace where hatred exists. Hatreds will continue to arise as long as the causes of war are not rooted out and exposed."

Subject: War Peace Hatred
Source: Detroit News
Date: 8/11/1944

"(On collecting): "I have been at it ten years. I collect them so that they will not be lost to America..We have no Egyptian mummies here, nor any relics of the Battle of Waterloo..nor any curios from Pompeii. It is strictly American.."

Subject: Collecting Edison Institute Greenfield Village The Henry Ford Museum America
Source: Ford Explains His 'Curio Shop' of America-Detroit Times. William L. Stidger interview, p.1
Date: 2/26/1928

"[At Edison Institute] We shall reproduce the life of the country in its every age."

Subject: Collecting Edison Institute Greenfield Village The Henry Ford Museum America
Source: Ford: Expansion and Challenge-Allan Nevins and Frank Ernest Hill (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York) p. 500
Date: 1915-1933 1957

"The farther you look back, the farther you can look ahead."

Subject: The Past Edison Institute Greenfield Village The Henry Ford Museum
Source: Henry Ford and Greenfield Village"- William A. Simonds (Frederick A. Stokes Co, New York) p.14
Date: 1938

"When you once get an idea in which you believe with all your heart, work it out."

Subject: Ideas
Source: Ford Explains His 'Curio Shop' of America -Detroit Times. William L. Stidger interview, p.1
Date: 2/26/1928

"We want to reproduce all those instruments which were prepared and used in America once upon a time."

Subject: Collecting Edison Institute Greenfield Village The Henry Ford Museum America
Source: Ford's Historical Museum-American Russian Falcon-Homestead, Pennsylvania-M. Vladimirov
Date: 6/28/1932

"When we are through, we shall have reproduced American life as lived and that, I think, is the best way of preserving at least a part of our history and tradition."

Subject: Greenfield Village Henry Ford Museum Learning Education America Tradition
Source: Henry Ford and Greenfield Village -William A. Simonds (Frederick A. Stokes), New York p.117
Date: 1928

"We ought to know more about the families who founded this nation, and how they lived. One way to do this is to reconstruct as nearly as possible the conditions under which they lived.."

Subject: Greenfield Village Henry Ford Museum Learning Education America, Tradition
Source: The Ford Museum-The American Historical Review vol XXXVI, no. 4- J.G DeRoulhae Hamilton
Date: July 1931

"I don't read history. That's in the past. I'm thinking of the future."

Subject: History The Past The Future
Source: Henry Ford-America's Don Quixote-Louis P. Lochner (International Publishers-New York) p.18
Date: 1925

"Work is our sanity, our self-respect, our salvation. The day's work is the center of everything."

Subject: Work
Source: Commercialism made this War! Marshall Edward, New York Times
Date: April 11, 1915

"We now know that anything which is economically right is also morally right. There can be no conflict between good economics and good morals."

Subject: Morality, Economics
Source: "Moving Forward" p. 280-Ford
Date: n/a

"I don't like to read books. They muss up my mind."

Subject: Books Reading
Source: Benson-"The New Henry Ford" p. 330
Date: n/a

"I wouldn't give five cents for all the art in the world."

Subject: Art
Source: Detroit the Dynamic - Street p. 27
Date: n/a

"That's the way to study history-by noting evolutionary processes."

Subject: History Evolution
Source: They Told Barron"-Barron p. 123-124
Date: n/a

"If you find out what men want and give them that, you are pleasing them. If you find out what is good for them and give them that, you are performing a service. That's what we are trying to do."

Subject: Charity Self-Help
Source: Henry Ford's Experiment in Good-Will - Everybody's Magazine, XXX-Garet Garret p. 470
Date: April 1914

"No one will ever get anywhere in this world unless he becomes a teacher, one who can show others how to do things."

Subject: Education Teaching
Source: New York Times
Date: December 14, 1928

"This is the only reason Greenfield Village exists-to give us a sense of unity with our people through the generations, and to convey the inspiration of American genius to our young men. As a nation we have not depended so much on rare or occasional genius as on the general resourcefulness of our people. That is our true genius, and I am hoping that Greenfield Village will serve that."

Subject: Greenfield Village Edison Institute America Growth Education
Source: The Idea Behind Greenfield Village - American Legion Monthly Henry Ford as told to Arthur Van Vlissingen Jr.
Date: October 1932

"We want to have something of everything-we have types of every sort of wagon and carriage ever used in this country, from the covered wagon of the pioneer to the last style of buggy. We have nearly every type of agricultural instrument, every type of musical instrument, we have all kinds and sorts of furniture and household effects. One of these days the collection will have its own museum at Dearborn, and there we shall reproduce the life of the country in its every age."

Subject: Edison Institute America
Source: n/a
Date: n/a

"Every business is a monarchy with, not a man, but an idea as king."

Subject: Business Ideas
Source: Electrical World
Date: February 16, 1929

"When we are through, we shall have reproduced American life as lived and that, I think is the best way of preserving at least a part of our history and tradition."

Subject: America History Tradition Greenfield Village
Source: Henry Ford and Greenfield Village - William A. Simands (Frederick A. Stokes) New York, p. 117
Date: 1928

"Improvements have been coming so quickly that the past is being lost to the rising generation, and it can be preserved only by putting it in a form where it may be seen and felt. That is the reason behind this collection."

Subject: Edison Institute Preservation of the Past Greenfield Village
Source: The Ford Museum, The American Historical Review, Vol. XXXVI, No. 4-J.G De Roulhac Hamilton
Date: July 1931

"We have enough in our country to let us deep into the springs of human life if we only cherished what we have."

Subject: America Edison Institute Greenfield Village
Source: Ford Explains His 'Curio Shop' of America, Detroit Times-William L. Stidger p.1
Date: February 26, 1928

"If you go into a union, they have got you, but what have you got?"

Subject: Unions
Source: Ford Gives Viewpoint on Labor: Cautions Workers on Organization Detroit News & North American Newspaper Alliance-A.M Smith
Date: April 29, 1937

"The best way to make money in business is not to think too much about making it."

Subject: Money Profit
Source: The Wild Wheel -Garet Garret p. 116
Date: n/a

"We have only started with the development of our country-we have not as yet, with all our talk of wonderful progress, done more than scratch the surface."

Subject: Development Progress
Source: My Life and Work p. 1
Date: 1922

"Any man can learn anything he will, but no man can teach except to those who want to learn. Education is preeminently a matter of quality, not amount"

Subject: Education Teaching
Subject: Ford News, p.2
Date: 1/1/1924

"Mass production is craftsmanship with the drudgery taken out of it."

Subject: Production
Source: Ford News. Back cover
Date: June, 1937

"In the long run people are going to buy the cheapest and the best article no matter where it is made."

Subject: Business
Source: Ford News, Back cover
Date: June, 1937

"Burdening people with debt is an old deal not a new deal."

Subject: Debt
Source: Ford News, back cover
Date: June, 1937

"The South has a future which it can shape for itself, and avoid the mistakes which the more populous parts of the country have made."

Subject: America South
Source: Ford News, back cover
Date: June, 1937

"The best way is always the simplest. The attics of the world are cluttered up with complicated failures."

Subject: Simplicity
Source: Ford News, back cover
Date: June, 1937

"Money will ruin the life of any man who treats it like anything but a tool with which to work."

Subject: Money
Source: Ford News, back cover
Date: June, 1937

Commentary: In Helsinki, high stakes and history for Trump and Putin

When Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin meet in Helsinki July 16, will they betray the most famous summit associated with the Finnish capital – the 1975 meeting among the Western and Soviet-bloc leaders that gave us the Helsinki Accords? That question is not likely to preoccupy either leader, but their approach to the summit could be as significant as the Helsinki Accords were in shaping Europe’s future.

The Helsinki Final Act – the formal name of the accords – was an agreement signed by 35 nations, including the nations of Europe, the Soviet Union, Canada and the United States. Their most notable provisions effectively affirmed the 1945 Yalta conference among Franklin Roosevelt, Josef Stalin and Winston Churchill that accepted the post-World War Two division of Europe, with the Soviet Union dominant in Eastern Europe. Because of that affirmation, the Kremlin was widely seen to have gotten the better of the Helsinki deal, and published the entire text in Pravda, the official Communist Party newspaper.

However, the Helsinki Accords also committed the signatories to respect “human rights and fundamental freedoms” – a major step for the Soviet bloc. A section of the accords confirming “the right of the individual to know and act upon his rights” spawned a series of Helsinki monitoring groups in Moscow, Warsaw and Prague. Their members were all promptly imprisoned Helsinki Watch, the precursor to Human Rights Watch, was formed in an effort to defend these embattled activists. But this recognition that sovereign nations had a duty to respect the rights of their people gradually gave rise to a movement that contributed to the demise of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc, the very empire that the Helsinki Accords ostensibly recognized.

During negotiations of the Helsinki Accords, the importance of including human rights was advanced by many Western governments including the United States. The political records of the current occupants of the White House and the Kremlin suggest they are unlikely to place similar emphasis on those rights at the Helsinki summit.

Putin, not unlike his Soviet predecessors, is once again interested in dividing Europe, though in a different way. He favors a Europe paralyzed by the rise of xenophobic populist leaders, a Europe with less moral authority to comment on his own autocratic methods of retaining power. And he seeks a distracted Europe that will not challenge – let alone sanction – him for sponsoring rights abuses in Eastern Ukraine, underwriting mass atrocities in Syria, or obstructing investigation of the use of chemical weapons.

Sadly, Trump seems to share Putin’s interest in a divided Europe, as the U.S. president openly cheers far-right challengers to leaders like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who stands up to Russia’s transgressions, while threatening to undermine transatlantic institutions such as NATO and the G-7. Indeed, Trump seems to admire – if not envy – autocrats like Putin for their ability to override democratic checks and balances on their authority such as an independent judiciary, a critical press, and a vigorous civil society.

The risk is thus considerable that the Helsinki summit could effectively bury the lofty principles behind the Helsinki Accords. To Trump, the accord that Gerald Ford and Leonid Brezhnev signed in Helsinki might seem one of those “bad deals” not worth respecting. As during his summit with North Korea leader Kim Jong Un, Trump may calculate that he can use his meeting with Putin to reduce tensions, declare victory, and head on to the next Tweet-induced media frenzy before most people realize that the feel-good declaration was a giveaway, that it did nothing to address Russia’s disturbing conduct.

The only real hope for this Helsinki summit is that Trump also probably fears the perception that Putin can play him, that far from being a master dealmaker, the U.S. president who governs from the gut and doesn’t sweat the details will be seen as having been snookered. Because whatever spin Trump places on his mano-a-mano with Putin, he will be perceived as having been taken to the cleaners if Putin emerges from the summit with an effective green light to continue suppressing dissent at home and backing atrocities in Ukraine and Syria.

Trump may not bother with history, but the history of the Helsinki Accords is our best antidote to a sellout in Helsinki today. Trump may have little patience for the values and principles of human rights and democracy that that agreement affirmed, but we have a responsibility to remind him what’s at stake before he and Putin embrace their shredding.

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Ronald Reagan

In1980, Republicans made Ronald Reagan the oldest person nominated for president by a major party. At 69, Reagan looked and acted much younger because he was physically fit and displayed a sharp wit. The former Hollywood actor, Screen Actors Guild president, and California Governor presented an amiable, aggressive style that quickly became popular with Americans.

During three televised presidential debates, Reagan constantly attacked Carter's performance record. Citing rising inflation and unemployment rates and poor foreign relations, Reagan bluntly asked the American people, "Are you better off now than you were four years ago?" The question proved to have more effect on the election than specific discussions about policies he would pursue. When the votes were counted, Reagan won the 1980 presidential race in a landslide, collecting 489 electoral votes to Carter's 49.

Reagan focused much of his attention on reducing the size of the federal government. While decentralizing and deregulating federal agencies, Reagan declared, "Government is not the solution to our problem, government is the problem." In an effort to turn around the economy, the president demanded deep reductions in several areas, including welfare, food stamps, and student loans. The functions normally provided by the federal government to maintain these programs were turned over to state authorities. Reagan also asked Congress to cut income taxes. Critics argued that such a move would increase the deficit, but the president believed lower taxes would give people more money to spend. The increase in spending would in turn generate more goods and jobs and grow the economy. This theory became known as Reaganomics.

While many advisors recommended dramatic cuts in the defense budget, Reagan refused, and instead revived Truman's containment policy. The president renewed the Cold War by warning against the threat to spread communism posed by the USSR, which he named the "evil empire." He reasoned that military expansion was necessary to protect the interests of the free world.

Reagan wanted to create an impressive nuclear force so powerful that the Soviets would be forced to back down from any confrontation. In 1983, he announced his intention to build a high-tech missile defense system called the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), more commonly referred to as "Star Wars." One version of the plan included stations in space that would use lasers to destroy intercontinental missiles as they were launched. While many politicians against the SDI strategy claimed it would be too costly to maintain, skeptics from the science and technology industry questioned whether it would work at all.

Reagan continued his attack on communism by accusing Nicaraguan authorities of aiding communist countries. When anti-American revolutionaries, called Sandinistas, took control of Nicaragua in 1979, Jimmy Carter tried to establish diplomatic relations with them. President Reagan, however, charged that the Sandinistas secured an agreement with Cuba and the Soviet Union to allow Nicaragua to become a portal for communist penetration into Central America.

To fight communists in Nicaragua and El Salvador, Reagan provided aid to the "contra" rebels who opposed the anti-American militants. When Congress refused to continue supplying the Contras with money and weapons, Reagan looked for other sources.

Meanwhile, the war between Iran and Iraq intensified. Many in the United States held Iran responsible for several Americans being held hostage in Lebanon.

In 1986, Reagan secretly approved a deal to sell weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of the hostages. Authorities instructed Marine Colonel Oliver North to take the money from the Iran transaction and purchase weapons for the Contras. The decision directly violated the ban Congress enacted on such aid. When news of the deal became public, national security advisor Admiral John Poindexter resigned, Colonel North was fired from his position with the Security Council, and President Reagan denied knowing anything about the plan.

Reagan also flexed his military muscle in Grenada, where a coup resulted in the death of the prime minister. Reagan ordered the military to storm the tiny island and remove the Marxists who had taken control. The plan was successful and demonstrated to the world America's might and Reagan's determination to fight communism.

Many Democrats referred to Reagan as the "Teflon President" because scandals or questionable decisions never seemed to damage his popularity with the American public. Helped by a strong and growing economy, Reagan overwhelmingly won a second term in 1984 by defeating Walter Mondale 525 electoral votes to just 13. One year later, Mikhail Gorbachev became the new chairman of the Soviet Communist Party. The two leaders would play large roles in changing world policies.

Gorbachev was more personable than prior Soviet leaders and supported radical reforms in the Soviet Union. He presented two revolutionary policies: Glasnost (openness) which aimed to end the secretive, suppressive Soviet society by allowing free speech and political liberty and Perestroika (restructuring), which was designed to accept free-market practices to revitalize the sluggish Soviet economy. He also announced that the Soviet Union would not force communist governments in Eastern Europe to remain in power. Repressive regimes in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, and East Germany collapsed, and in 1989, the Berlin Wall was torn down. The notorious Iron Curtain that had divided Eastern Europe for decades was no more.

For Gorbachev's plan to work he had to reduce the size and funding for the nation's military and massive weapons stash, and concentrate on stabilizing the economy. The dismantling of the Soviet military effectively brought an end to the Cold War. In 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev signed a treaty to ban all intermediate-range nuclear missiles from Europe. The agreement was a victory for Reagan who maintained his rigid stand against communism, and for Gorbachev who proved to the world that he was serious about reform.

Reagan oversaw a great deal of change during his presidential tenure. When he entered the White House in 1981, he rigidly condemned the "evil empire" and all that it stood for. But by the completion of his second term, the anxiety surrounding the Cold War had been eliminated and the president routinely praised Soviet leadership for reform. In his farewell address, Reagan said, "We are the change." The vague statement referred to the experience and accomplishment he and the American people shared during the previous eight years.

April Underwood

April Underwood is a founding partner of the angel investing collective #Angels and a member of the board of directors for Zillow Group. Until 2019, April was the Chief Product Officer at Slack Technologies, Inc., a cloud-based software company that builds professional collaboration tools. Prior to joining Slack, April was Director of Product at Twitter from 2010 to 2015. Previously, April has held product, partnerships, and engineering roles at Google, Travelocity, and Intel.

April holds a B.B.A. in Management Information Systems and Business Honors from The University of Texas at Austin (2001), and an M.B.A. from The University of California at Berkeley (2007). April has received numerous honors, including Fast Company’s “Most Creative People” (2015), Fortune’s “ 40 Under 40″ (2016), and the highest alumni honor for professional achievement from The University of Texas at Austin, the “Outstanding Young Texas Ex Award” (2019).

Kevin Lin
Co-founder of Twitch

Gerald Ford: Domestic Affairs

After taking the oath of office to become the thirty-eighth President of the United States, Gerald Ford forthrightly declared, "Our long national nightmare is over." With this simple statement, the new President both recognized the anguish caused by Watergate and indicated that he intended to lead the country forward.

The future, however, held many challenges and uncertainties. The American economy was sputtering, with both inflation and unemployment on the rise. Fiscal problems were hampering a number of state and city governments, and divisive social issues—such as busing, abortion, and women's rights—were splintering the American polity. Just as important, the Watergate scandal had profoundly altered the political environment. The public, by all accounts, was demanding honesty and accountability from its political leaders. And Congress was determined to take back some of the power it had ceded to the President over the previous four decades.

Ford had risen through the Republican ranks in Congress in large part because of his reputation for decency, integrity, and fairness, and his willingness to compromise. He thus was uniquely situated to lead the country in the aftermath of Watergate. Ford attempted to cultivate this image with the public by inviting the press to see his common-man, next-door-neighbor lifestyle. He toasted his own English muffins in the morning, opened doors for himself, and talked casually to White House security guards.

Ford was not entirely successful in maintaining this image, however. Within months of taking office, he had become something of a comic figure. Comedian Chevy Chase impersonated Ford every week on the popular television show "Saturday Night Live," stumbling and falling down stairs, saying the wrong thing at the wrong time, and accidentally injuring himself and innocent bystanders. Journalists often joined in the ridicule, circulating Lyndon Johnson's remark that Ford had played too much football without his helmet. In fact, Ford had, indeed, fallen upon exiting Air Force One in Austria, but Chase's act—which Ford later admitted was funny—was unfair. An all-Big Ten football player, Ford was certainly one of the most athletic Presidents in history. These negative portrayals, however, tarnished Ford's image and standing with the American public.

Pardoning Richard Nixon

Ford's ascent to the presidency implicitly promised the end of the Watergate scandal. The new President, however, re-opened old wounds when, exactly one month into his tenure, he granted Richard Nixon a "full, free, and absolute pardon . . . for all offenses" Nixon committed, or "may have committed," while President. Ford told Americans on September 8, 1974, that he had granted the pardon because Nixon had suffered enough, because the threat of prosecution was damaging Nixon's health, and because a trial of the ex-President would reignite bitter and divisive passions and prevent the country from moving forward. Privately, Ford worried that a trial would seriously harm his ability to govern, and he yearned for a presidency free from daily questions about the fate of Richard Nixon. Ford clearly hoped that the pardon would bring a sense of closure to the whole sordid affair.

Instead Ford's pardon of Nixon touched off a firestorm of protest. Polls showed that most Americans wanted Nixon punished. Observers also questioned Ford's judgment in pardoning Nixon so soon after taking office, with one Republican senator asking a presidential aide, "doesn't he have any sense of timing?" Indeed, his first press secretary, Jerald terHorst, resigned in protest over Ford's decision. Ford's popularity plummeted in public opinion polls, dropping from the high sixties into the high thirties.

Just as important, members of Congress from both parties reacted angrily to the pardon. A group of liberal Democrats, in particular, wanted to learn more about the pardon—and especially whether Ford had discussed Nixon's pardon with the ex-President or his staff. The specter of a deal between Nixon and Ford hung in the background as a special subcommittee of the House Judiciary Committee ("The Hungate Committee") sent Ford a set of questions about the pardon. Attempting to answer his critics, Ford agreed to appear before the committee, a decision his White House aides did not support. Ford thus became the first President since Abraham Lincoln to testify before a congressional committee of inquiry. In a nationally televised appearance on October 17, 1974, Ford admitted that a pardon was one of the many options presented for discussion by Nixon's chief of staff, Alexander Haig. But Ford denied having promised a pardon or having made any commitment at all regarding Nixon's resignation, declaring "There was no deal, period, under no circumstances." The committee voted to close the investigation shortly thereafter. While historians have generally discounted the likelihood of any "deal," the episode damaged Ford nonetheless. The presidential honeymoon—with the American public, the press, and with Congress—was over.

The Ford Administrative Team

Early in his administration, President Ford faced another challenge which threatened to burden him with the sins of his predecessor: what to do with Nixon's cabinet and staff, whose assistance he needed in the near term to run the White House effectively. Ford's closest advisers counseled that key members of Nixon's team be kept in office for a period of time after Nixon's resignation and then eventually be replaced by Ford's own appointees. Ford essentially followed this advice.

In the modern White House, the most important position was that of "chief of staff," a post that Alexander Haig held for the last eighteen months of the Nixon presidency. Haig remained in that position for the first six weeks of the new administration until Ford appointed him commander of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) in Europe. Ambassador to NATO Donald Rumsfeld, an old colleague of Ford's from the House of Representatives and a veteran of the Nixon White House, became Ford's "staff coordinator," essentially the new chief of staff. Ford kept other Nixon appointees in key positions as well, including Roy Ash as head of the Office of Management and Budget and Kenneth Cole as head of the Domestic Council. At the same time, Ford named several trusted aides to important staff positions. Unfortunately for the new President, his appointees and the Nixon holdovers (or those with ties to Nixon such as Rumsfeld) often clashed.

Ford also nominated Nelson Rockefeller, the former governor of New York and leader of the moderate wing of the Republican Party, to fill the vacant office of vice president. Rockefeller's selection alienated many conservative Republicans who would later back Ronald Reagan (then a second-term governor of California) as a Republican presidential candidate in 1976. Rockefeller assumed leadership of the Domestic Council, a position from which he often tried to play a major role in formulating the administration's domestic policies. His suggestions, for the most part, went unheeded. In addition, Rockefeller and Rumsfeld despised each other, making life difficult in the Executive Office.

During the first months of his tenure, Ford kept much of Nixon's cabinet in place as well. But throughout 1975, Ford slowly replaced his predecessor's selections with his own appointees. Indeed, on the domestic policy side, only Secretary of the Treasury William Simon and Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz remained in office into 1976—and Butz was dismissed in October of that year. Likewise, Richard Cheney, Rumsfeld's assistant, became White House chief of staff in late 1975 after Rumsfeld left to head the Department of Defense. Ford also had his share of difficulties in working with Congress. He hoped that his long years in the House of Representatives would produce good relations between the government's executive and the legislative branches, but he was sorely disappointed. The pardon of Nixon, of course, had gotten that relationship off to a bad start. The 1974 midterm congressional elections, coming just a few months after the pardon, compounded the problem as Democrats gained 43 seats in the House, for a 291 to 144 advantage, and four seats in the Senate, for a 61 to 39 lead.

Ford not only faced significant Democratic majorities in Congress, he confronted a Democratic opposition—as well as some Republican factions—that, in the wake of Watergate and Vietnam, were determined to reassert themselves in the policymaking process. The legislature as a whole wanted to reclaim powers it had ceded to the President over the previous forty years. The newcomers to Congress who triumphed in the 1974 elections were called the "Watergate Babies" in recognition of these goals and their self-proclaimed mission to clean up Washington politics.

Stagflation and the Energy Crisis

The deteriorating American economy, however, was the key domestic issue Ford had to address. The nation's economic decline could be traced to the end of American predominance in the international economy and the rise of a low-paying service sector in the American economy. These structural factors contributed to three additional problems Ford had to confront: inflation, unemployment, and the energy crisis.During Ford's presidency, both inflation and unemployment rose to heights not seen in the post-World War II years. The rapid growth of inflation, attributable to the aforementioned macro-economic issues as well as to the escalation in federal outlays since 1965, was exacerbated by the rising price of oil. American consumption of oil grew rapidly in the 1960s and 1970s—a need the country met by importing oil from the Middle East. By 1974, 35 percent of the oil Americans consumed came from overseas. But in 1973, the consortium of oil-exporting nations called OPEC embargoed its shipments of oil to the United States in protest of the Nixon administration's decision to support Israel in the Yom Kippur War. The embargo ended before Ford took office but the price of foreign petrol remained high. Crude oil prices skyrocketed to ten times their pre-1973 levels and gas prices doubled at the pump—conditions which, combined with severe oil shortages, made for a gloomy economic environment.Conventional thinking about the economy held that high prices meant a growing economy, a healthy business environment, and low unemployment. America's economy in the 1970s confounded these expectations, however, as both unemployment soared and inflation grew. The rise in unemployment resulted largely from increased foreign competition that slowed economic growth and job creation, and from a larger American workforce—replete with baby-boomers—looking for work. Economists coined a new term, "stagflation," to describe this unprecedented situation.

At first, Ford's economic team advised him to attack the inflation problem. Whereas Nixon had implemented wage and price controls in an attempt to manage inflation, Ford, in October 1974, proposed a tax hike and asked for a reduction in federal spending. To build public support for his economic program, Ford asked Americans to join the fight by wearing buttons festooned with the acronym "WIN," for "Whip Inflation Now." More than twelve million buttons were produced, but only 100,000 requests for these pins came into the White House. The media, moreover, portrayed the "WIN" campaign as a silly public relations gimmick.Additional roadblocks thwarted Ford's plans for economic recovery. First, with congressional midterm elections fast approaching, politicians had little use for higher taxes and cuts in federal government services. Second, Ford's critics accused him of ignoring the problems of the unemployed as he focused on inflation. Indeed, unemployment had grown from 5.4 percent in August to 6.5 percent by November—and White House economists soon expected that number to top 7 percent. The economy, Ford finally admitted in December 1974, was in recession with economic production falling and unemployment rising.The President offered a new plan to deal with the nation's economic woes in January 1975. He now called for a tax cut of $16 billion to jump-start the economy. Additionally, Ford asked Congress to hold the line on government spending. Democrats responded by decrying Ford's flip-flop on taxes and by criticizing his efforts to stimulate the economy as too little, too late. In March, Congress passed a tax cut of more than $22 billion but raised spending on government programs. Ford regarded this mix of tax cuts and federal spending as irresponsible. Politically, however, he had little choice but to sign the bill, for a veto would only play into Democratic critiques that he had done too little to help the economy. Thereafter, Ford insisted that he would not accede to any more hikes in government spending. The Democratic Congress, however, believed that economic recovery necessitated additional government expenditures it kept sending spending proposals to the White House, most of which Ford vetoed. For the rest of his term, Ford waged a war with Congress over the appropriate balance between tax cuts and government expenditures. He won a small victory when Congress passed the Revenue Adjustment Act of 1975, which featured another modest tax cut of $9 billion and assurances that Congress would limit future spending.

Ford's travails with Congress over energy policy were no less difficult. In his January 1975 proposal, Ford asked for a tariff on imported oil, the end of price controls on domestic oil, and a new tax on domestic oil producers. His goal was to stimulate domestic oil production, which he believed would cause prices to drop in the long term as supply increased. The tax on American oil companies was a political necessity, a sop to a public that viewed oil companies as greedy profit-mongers. The political reaction was predictable: conservative Republicans were not happy with the tax on American oil companies, while Democrats believed that the tariff, the tax, and the end of price controls would only increase prices.Ford and the Democrats argued about his energy proposal throughout 1975 before reaching a deal in December. In an Omnibus Energy bill, Ford accepted a 12-percent reduction in domestic oil prices in return for authority to end price controls on oil over a forty-month period. Ford and his advisers knew they had compromised but feared that Congress would not only override a veto, but that the political damage to the President would be too great if he did not go before the electorate in 1976 with some success in energy policy. Just as important, Ford believed that ending price controls was a worthwhile victory, one that harmonized with his small-government, free-market philosophy. Unfortunately for the President, the Democrats could also claim victory, at least in the short term, for they had secured an immediate reduction in the cost of domestic oil. The Democrats, it should be noted, worried that in the long term the end of price controls would raise the cost of oil. Conservative Republicans, on the other hand, had little to celebrate they fumed at Ford's acquiescence to lower oil prices and his inability to win the immediate end to price controls.By 1976, the economy had begun to recover. The consumer price index—one measure of the rate of inflation—dipped from 9.1 percent in 1975 to 5.8 percent in late 1976. Unemployment also receded by January 1977 it was at 7.4 percent, a significant drop from the previous year, when it nearly hit 9 percent. Nevertheless, the American economy remained sluggish.

Busing and the New York City "Bailout"

The most divisive issue in American race relations in the early and mid-1970s was busing. No city dramatized the tensions and problems inherent in the busing issue more than Boston, Massachusetts. In the summer of 1974, a Boston judge ordered the city school system to integrate immediately schools that were segregated and in close proximity by busing black students to predominantly white schools, and vice versa. In the parochial neighborhood communities of Boston, this was a recipe for disaster and violence. Mobs of whites greeted black children with taunts and obscenities, and fights broke out between black and white students inside the schools. The violence only worsened throughout the fall, culminating in the stabbing of a white student and a subsequent riot. At the same time, U.S. District Court Judge Arthur Garrity, Jr., ruled that the school system was implementing his initial desegregation order too slowly.

Many Democrats—as well as the only black member of Ford's cabinet, Secretary of Transportation William Coleman—called on Ford to intervene. The President, instead, chose to stay on the sidelines and out of the political fire. Ford was in favor of integrated schools he had attended an integrated high school in Michigan and had thoroughly enjoyed it. But Ford opposed busing, largely because he believed the federal government had an obligation only to end "de jure" (by law) segregation rather than "de facto" (by circumstance) segregation.

In Boston, Ford reasoned, schools were not segregated because of legal mandate, so the federal government had no role to play. Ford, it must be said, was ready and willing to intervene with federal troops if the Boston situation deteriorated so egregiously that it endangered public safety. The President never reached this conclusion. He did, however, direct the Justice Department to press for a more conservative approach to integration. On this score, Ford and the Justice Department had little success. But Ford's actions on the busing issue reflected his preference for a less activist federal government that let state and local governments decide local issues.

Ford faced another potentially explosive issue—and another opportunity to demonstrate his desire to rein in the power and responsibilities of the federal government—when New York City nearly went bankrupt in the spring of 1975. Quite simply, the city's budget, which provided social services for a population the size of Sweden's, was greater than its income. Throughout the spring and summer, New York City officials tried to get financial aid from the federal government, which already supplied one-quarter of the city's budget. Ford never seriously considered intervening, despite the advice of his vice president, New York's own Nelson Rockefeller.

In October 1975, Ford publicly stated his opposition to a "federal bailout" of the city. The following day, the New York Daily News offered its own summation of Ford's position: "Ford to City—Drop Dead." After the state government of New York announced in late 1975 that it had a plan to put the city on long-term stable financial ground, Ford reversed course. He offered his support for a $2.3 billion loan to the state to assist in the bailout. Ford told his advisers, "I hope they understand this is it. Come hell or high water, this is it." Ford defended his change of heart by saying it was appropriate for the federal government to lend a hand after the city and state had taken appropriate steps to put their fiscal house in order. The historian John Robert Greene suggests that Ford acquiesced on the bailout to satisfy Senator James Buckley of New York, whose support the President desperately needed in the upcoming election year. Ford's reversal, however, did not help his political standing with conservative Republicans, who saw his actions as another example of Ford's lack of fealty to conservative principles.

Ford's Address at the Helsinki Conference - HISTORY

&ldquoHe [Gerald R. Ford, Sr.] and Mother had three rules: tell the truth, work hard, and come to dinner on time&mdashand woe unto any of us who violated those rules.&rdquo
From President Ford's memoir, A Time to Heal

&ldquoI am not a saint, and I am sure I have done things I might have done better or differently, or not at all. I have also left undone things that I should have done. But I believe and hope that I have been honest with myself and with others, that I have been faithful to my friends and fair to my opponents, and that I have tried my very best to make this great Government work for the good of all Americans.&rdquo
Statement before the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration [Vice Presidential Confirmation Hearings]
November 1, 1973

&ldquoI am a Ford, not a Lincoln.&rdquo
Remarks after being sworn in as Vice President of the United States
December 6, 1973

&ldquoI promise my fellow citizens only this: To uphold the Constitution, to do what is right as God gives me to see the right, and&hellipto do the very best that I can for America.&rdquo
Remarks after being sworn in as Vice President of the United States
December 6, 1973

"I have not sought this enormous responsibility, but I will not shirk it . . . I believe that truth is the glue that holds government together, not only our Government, but civilization itself. That bond, though strained, is unbroken at home and abroad. In all my public and private acts as your President, I expect to follow my instincts of openness and candor with full confidence that honesty is always the best policy in the end. My fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over. Our Constitution works our great Republic is a Government of laws and not of men. Here the people rule.&rdquo
Remarks upon being sworn in as President of the United States
August 9, 1974

&ldquoA government big enough to give you everything you want is a government big enough to take from you everything you have.&rdquo
Address to a Joint Session of Congress
August 12, 1974

&ldquoThis Congress, unless it has changed, I am confident, will be my working partner as well as my most constructive critic. I am not asking for conformity. I am dedicated to the two-party system, and you know which party I belong to. I do not want a honeymoon with you. I want a good marriage.&rdquo
Address to a Joint Session of Congress
August 12, 1974

&ldquoAs we are a nation under God, so I am sworn to uphold our laws with the help of God. And I have sought such guidance and searched my own conscience with special diligence to determine the right thing for me to do with respect to my predecessor in this place, Richard Nixon, and his loyal wife and family. Theirs is an American tragedy in which we all have played a part. It could go on and on and on, or someone must write the end to it. I have concluded that only I can do that, and if I can, I must.&rdquo
Remarks upon granting a pardon to former President Richard Nixon
September 8, 1974

&ldquoDesertion in time of war is a major, serious offense failure to respond to the country&rsquos call for duty is also a serious offense. Reconciliation among our people does not require that these acts be condoned. Yet, reconciliation calls for an act of mercy to bind the Nation&rsquos wounds and to heal the scars of divisiveness.&rdquo
Remarks upon announcing a clemency program for Vietnam era draft evaders
September 16, 1974

&ldquoWe are bound together by the most powerful of all ties, our fervent love for freedom and independence, which knows no homeland but the human heart.&rdquo
Address before the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
August 1, 1975

&ldquoHistory will judge this Conference not by what we say here today, but by what we do tomorrow - not by the promises we make, but by the promises we keep.&rdquo
Address before the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
August 1, 1975

&ldquoAs we continue our American adventure&hellipall our heroes and heroines of war and peace send us this single, urgent message: though prosperity is a good thing, though compassionate charity is a good thing, though institutional reform is a good thing, a nation survives only so long as the spirit of sacrifice and self-discipline is strong within its people. Independence has to be defended as well as declared freedom is always worth fighting for and liberty ultimately belongs only to those willing to suffer for it.&rdquo
Bicentennial Remarks at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
July 4, 1976

&ldquoThe world is ever conscious of what Americans are doing, for better or for worse, because the United States today remains that most successful realization of humanity&rsquos universal hope. The world may or may not follow, but we lead because our whole history says we must. Liberty is for all men and women as a matter of equal and unalienable right. The establishment of justice and peace abroad will in large measure depend upon the peace and justice we create here in our own country, for we still show the way.&rdquo
Bicentennial Remarks at Independence Hall Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
July 4, 1976

&ldquoRemember that none of us are more than caretakers of this great country. Remember that the more freedom you give to others, the more you will have for yourself. Remember that without law there can be no liberty. And remember, as well, the rich treasures you brought from whence you came, and let us share your pride in them.&rdquo
Remarks during Naturalization Ceremonies at Monticello, Virginia
July 5, 1976

&ldquoTo me, the Presidency and the Vice-Presidency were not prizes to be won, but a duty to be done.&rdquo
Remarks upon accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination, Kansas City, Missouri
August 19, 1976

I am a loyal Wolverine. When they lose in football, basketball, or anything I still get darn disappointed."
Remarks from a phone interview to the Ann Arbor News before the University of Michigan retired his football number
October 8, 1994.

"Some people equate civility with weakness and compromise with surrender. I strongly disagree. I come by my political pragmatism the hard way, for my generation paid a very heavy price in resistance to the century we had of some extremists -- to the dictators, the utopians, the social engineers who are forever condemning the human race for being all too human."
Remarks upon receiving the Congressional Gold Medal
October 27, 1999.

&ldquoI have always believed that most people are mostly good, most of the time. I have never mistaken moderation for weakness, nor civility for surrender. As far as I'm concerned, there are no enemies in politics--just temporary opponents who might vote with you on the next Roll Call.&rdquo
Remarks upon receiving the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award
May 21, 2001

&ldquo. . . The ultimate test of leadership is not the polls you take, but the risks you take. In the short run, some risks prove overwhelming. Political courage can be self-defeating. But the greatest defeat of all would be to live without courage, for that would hardly be living at all.&rdquo
Remarks upon receiving the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award
May 21, 2001

Who Attends

HIMSS21 draws a huge variety of attendees across the health information and technology ecosystem—including CIOs and senior executives, providers, IT professionals, government officials, innovators, consultants, market suppliers and more. Here are just a few of the many programs specialized for roles in health information and technology:

Accelerate Health at HIMSS21

A healthcare innovation forum that examines unconventional ideas, technologies and investments that are transforming care delivery and driving what’s next for healthcare innovation.

CIO Experience

Monday, August 9 – Friday, August 13

Rethink your conference week with exciting VIP events, curated programming and exclusive services—all complimentary for qualified CIOs and senior executives.

AMDIS HIMSS Physicians’ Executive Symposium

The HIMSS21 AMDIS HIMSS Physicians’ Executive Symposium will uncover how disruptive solutions can improve healthcare delivery and reduce administrative burden. Attend with other physician leaders to navigate through these complex issues.

Ford Rouge Factory Tour

Pop open the hood on game-changing technology, sustainable design and sheer American grit at America’s greatest manufacturing experience. Get an inside look at the making of America’s most iconic truck, the Ford F-150, and immerse yourself in modern manufacturing’s most progressive concepts. Experience the awe-inspiring scale of a real factory floor as you rev up your inner engineer. This is where big ideas gain momentum.

Ford Rouge Factory Tour View Map

Legacy Theater

Learn about the history of Ford Motor Company and the success of vertical integration at the Rouge. Details

Observation Deck

At 80 feet up, the Observation Deck is the best seat in the house. Details

Manufacturing Innovation Theater

A multisensory exploration of the manufacturing experience, from concept to highway. Filled with jaw-dropping special effects. Details

Assembly Plant Walking Tour

Walk the elevated walkway above the Dearborn Truck Plant’s lean and flexible final assembly line, where the aluminum body F-150 is made. Details

Legacy Gallery

View historic vehicles made at the Rouge, including the groundbreaking V-8, the classic Thunderbird and the Mustang. Hop in a new F-150 and visit our Factory Store. Details

Living Laboratory Walking Tour

See sustainable design in action discover how natural processes deal with water, soil and air challenges at the Rouge. Details

The Living Roof

Planted with a drought-resistant groundcover called sedum, the roof spans 454,000 square feet (or 10.4 acres). The “Living Roof” is one of the largest in the world. Details

Looking for inspiring things to do? Completely reimagined, the factory has undergone a sweeping transformation to become a model of 21st-century sustainable design and showcases how community, business and the environment can thrive together in a single environment. Start to finish, the Ford Rouge Factory Tour offers awe-inspiring encounters with America’s celebrated manufacturing past, present, and future.

Inside the Manufacturing Innovation Theater

Celebrating the engineering ingenuity behind the production of the all new aluminum body Ford F-150 truck, the multisensory Manufacturing Innovation film experience comes complete with vibrating seats, gusts of wind, 3D projection mapping, and winking robots.

Discover ways to save when you purchase tickets online.

Vacation packages start under $139. Learn more about vacationing for less.

Watch the video: Ford F-150 Assembly Line